- Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morality and Legislation; Henry Maine, Ancient Law; C. B.
Even at this stage the vindictive or retributive character of punishment remains, but gradually, and specially after the humanist movement under thinkers like Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, new theories begin to emerge.
For Flora: Maiden, Useful Native Plants of Australia (Sydney, 1889); Bentham and Mueller, Flora Australiensis (London, 1863-1878); Fitzgerald, Australian Orchids (Sydney, 1870-1890); Mueller, Census of Australian Plants (Melbourne, 1889).
Bentham remark, (Journ.
JEREMY BENTHAM (1748-1832), English philosopher and jurist, was born on the 15th of February 17 4 8 in Red Lion Street, Houndsditch, London, in which neighbourhood his grandfather and father successively carried on business as attorneys.
Bentham's family connexions would naturally have given him a fair start at the bar, but this was not the career for which he was preparing himself.
The first fruits of Bentham's studies, the Fragment on Government, appeared in 1776.
Henceforth Bentham was a frequent guest at Bowood, where he saw the best society and where he met Miss Caroline Fox (daughter of the second Lord Holland), to whom he afterwards made a proposal of marriage.
In 1785 Bentham started, by way of Italy and Constantinople, on a visit to his brother, Samuel Bentham, a naval engineer, holding the rank of colonel in the Russian service; and it was in Russia that he wrote his Defence of Usury.
This scheme, which it was alleged would render transportation unnecessary, was eventually abandoned, and Bentham received in 1813, in pursuance of an act of parliament, 2 3, 000 by way of compensation.
Emboldened perhaps by the windfall of 1813, Bentham in the following year took a lease of Ford Abbey, a fine mansion with a deer-park, in Dorsetshire; but in 1818 returned to the house in Queen's Square Place which he had occupied since the death of his father in 1792.
Bentham's life was a happy one of its kind.
The services which Dumont rendered in recasting as well as translating the works of Bentham were still more important.
The popular notion that Bentham was a morose visionary is far removed from fact.
These features of Bentham's character are illustrated in the graphic account given by the American minister, Richard Rush, of an evening spent at his London house in the summer of the year 1818.
"If Mr Bentham's character is peculiar," he says, "so is his place of residence.
There by itself stands Mr Bentham's house.
Mr Bentham received me with the simplicity of a philosopher.
Mr Bentham did not talk much.
- (Residence at the Court of London, p. 286.) Bentham's love of flowers and music, of green foliage and shaded walks, comes clearly out in this pleasant picture of his home life and social surroundings.
Whether or no he can be said to have founded a school, his doctrines have become so far part of the common thought of the time, that there is hardly an educated man who does not accept as too clear for argument truths which were invisible till Bentham pointed them out.
The pursuit of such happiness is taught by the "utilitarian" philosophy, an expression used by Bentham himself in 1802, and therefore not invented by J.
In order to 'ascertain what modes of action are most conducive to the end in view, and what motives are best fitted to produce them, Bentham was led to construct marvellously exhaustive, though somewhat mechanical, tables of motives.
But most of Bentham's conclusions may be accepted without any formal profession of the utilitarian theory of morals.
To be judged fairly, Bentham must be judged as a teacher of the principles of legislation.
This task Bentham undertook, and he brought to it a mind absolutely free from professional or class feeling, or any other species of prejudice.
Many of Bentham's phrases, such as "international," "utilitarian," "codification," are valuable additions to our language; but the majority of them, especially those of Greek derivation, have taken no root in it.
For the history of institutions which, thanks largely to the writings of Sir Henry Maine, has become a new and interesting branch of science, Bentham cared nothing.
The logical and historical methods can, however, seldom be combined without confusion; and it is perhaps fortunate that Bentham devoted his long life to showing how much may be done by pursuing the former method exclusively.
Those of Bentham's suggestions which have hitherto been carried out have affected the matter or contents of the law.
The services rendered by Bentham to the world would not, however, be exhausted even by the practical adoption of every one of his recommendations.
Bentham's Works, together with an Introduction by J.
See farther on the life and writings of Bentham: J.
C. Montague (1891); The Law Quarterly Review (1895), two articles on Bentham's influence in Spain; A.
Atkinson, Jeremy Bentham (1905).
From May 1820 till July 1821 Mill was in France in the family of Sir Samuel Bentham, brother of Jeremy Bentham.
About the time of his entering the India House Mill read Dumont's exposition of Bentham's doctrines in the Traite de Legislation, which made a lasting impression upon him.
Two newspapers were open to him - the Traveller, edited by a friend of Bentham's, and the Morning Chronicle, edited by his father's friend Black.
This year also he found a congenial occupation in editing Bentham's Rationale of Judicial Evidence.
He had become convinced that his comrades in the Utilitarian Society, never more than ten, had not the stuff in them for a world-shaking propaganda; the society itself was dissolved; the Parliamentary Review was a failure; the Westminster did not pay its expenses; Bentham's Judicial Evidence produced little effect on the reviewers.
The essays on Bentham and Coleridge constituted the first manifesto of the new spirit which Mill sought to breathe into English Radicalism.
Though he believed that the lower classes were not yet ripe for socialism, with the principles of which he (unlike James Mill and Bentham) was in general agreement, his whole life was devoted to the amelioration of the conditions of the working classes.
the great British herbaria the orders and genera of flowering plants are usually arranged according to Bentham and Hooker's Genera plantarum; the species generally follow the arrangement.
His Manual of the Law of Scotland (1839) brought him into notice; he joined Sir John Bowring in editing the works of Jeremy Bentham, and for a short time was editor of the Scotsman, which he committed to the cause of free trade.
PEACH, the name of a fruit tree which is included by Bentham and Hooker (Genera plantarum, i.
Six years elapsed before he again entered the House, and during that interval he had made the acquaintance and imbibed the doctrines of James Mill and the philosophical reformers of the school of Bentham.
This tribunal realized an idea put forward by Jeremy Bentham towards the close of the 18th century, advocated by James Mill in the middle of the 19th century, and worked out later by Mr Dudley Field in America, by Dr Goldschmidt in Germany, and by Sir Edmund Hornby and Mr Leone Levi in England.
21; Bentham, Principles of Penal Law, bk.
The Westminster Review (1824), established by the followers of Jeremy Bentham, advocated radical reforms in church, state and legislation.
In ethics Gioja follows Bentham generally, and his large treatise Del merito e delle recompense (1818) is a clear and systematic view of social ethics from the utilitarian principle.
This idea, which occupies a prominent position in systems like those of Bentham, Volney, and even Paley, was evidently of prime importance at all events to the later Cyrenaics.
Practically speaking ancient hedonism advocated the happiness of the individual: the modern hedonism of Hume, Bentham and Mill is based on a wider conception of life.
Bentham and the associationist school generally.
In politics the revulsion from his particuar conclusions did not prevent the more clear-sighted of his opponents from recognizing the force of his supreme demonstration of the practical irresponsibility of the sovereign power, wherever seated, in the state; and, when in a later age the foundations of a positive theory of legislation were laid in England, the school of Bentham - James Mill, Grote, Molesworth - brought again into general notice the writings of the great publicist of the 17th century, who, however he might, by the force of temperament, himself prefer the rule of one, based his whole political system upon a rational regard to the common weal.
In 1808 he became acquainted with Jeremy Bentham, and was for many years his chief companion and ally.
He adopted Bentham's principles in their entirety, and determined to devote all his energies to bringing them before the world.
In the Annual Review for 1808 two articles of his are traced - a "Review of Fox's History," and an article on "Bentham's Law Reforms," probably his first published notice of Bentham.
He contributed largely to every number - his principal topics being Education, Freedom of the Press, and Prison Discipline (under which he expounded Bentham's "Panopticon").
All his work is marked by original constructive thought, except in a few subjects, in which he confessedly expounded Bentham's views.
This, which we may distinguish as the French system, finds its most perfect expression in the classic Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) of Bentham and Hooker, a work containing a description, based on careful examination of specimens, of all known genera of flowering plants.
- The reader will find in the following works details of the subject and references to the literature: Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum (London, 1862-1883); Eichler, Bluthendiagramme (Leipzig, 1875-1878); Engler and Prantl, Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1887-1899) Engler, Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, 3rd ed.
It was revised and kept alive by Jeremy Bentham in his fanatical scheme for a "panopticon or inspection house," described as "a circular building, an iron cage glazed, a glass lantern as large as Ranelagh, with the cells on the outer circumference."
to Bentham as an advanced radical.
In 1817 he came under the influence of David Ricardo, and through him of James Mill and Jeremy Bentham.
In 1822 he published in the Morning Chronicle (April) a letter against Canning's attack on Lord John Russell, and edited, or rather re-wrote, some discursive papers of Bentham, which he published under the title Analysis of the Influence of Natural Religion on the Temporal Happiness of Mankind by Philip Beauchamp (1822).
Mill and Bentham, whose chief principles were representative government, vote by ballot, the abolition of a state church, frequent elections.
In Philosophy Grote was a follower of the Mills and Bentham.
Men thought they were witnessing the dawn of a new era in the East; Mehemet Ali was hailed as the most beneficent and enlightened of princes; and political philosophers like Jeremy Bentham, who sent him elaborate letters of good advice, thought to find in him the means for developing their theories in virgin soil.
Mill, who noticed it in a novel of Galt; but it was first suggested by Bentham.
Abstractly considered, Bentham's interpretation of human nature was not more exalted than Paley's.
Sir John Bowring tells us that when Bentham was casting about for such a criterion " he met with Hume's Essays and found in them what he sought.
Philosophically Bentham makes but little advance upon the theological utilitarians.
These principles of Bentham were the inspiration of that most important school of practical English thinkers, the Philosophic Radicals of the early 19th century; these were the principles on which they relied in those attacks upon legal and political abuses.
From Bentham the leadership in utilitarianism passed to James Mill, who made no characteristic addition to its doctrine, and from him to John Stuart Mill.
He puts far greater stress than his predecessors upon the sympathetic pleasures, and thus quite avoids that appearance of mean prudential selfishness that is such a depressing feature in Paley and Bentham.
in 1900) deals elaborately with Bentham and the Mills, but more as social and political reformers than as theoretic moralists.
(1) The opinion of Bentham that the attempt directly to suppress usury (in the modern sense) will only increase the evil is abundantly verified.
He was particularly fond of the English, and one of his early idols was Jeremy Bentham.
Neither of these great divisions will well accommodate certain genera allied to Phalaris, for which Brown proposed tentatively a third group (since named Phalarideae); this, or at least the greater part of it, is placed by Bentham under the Poaceae.
The revision of the Australian species by Bentham well exhibits the wide range of the genera of the order in a flora generally so peculiar and restricted as that of Australia.
119 (Leipzig, 1875); Bentham and Hooker, Genera plantarum, iii.
General: Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum (London, 1862-1883); Engler and Prantl, Die natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1889 and 1897); Strasburger, Die Coniferen and Gnetaceen (Jena, 1872); Die Angiospermen and die Gymnospermen (Jena, 1879); Histologische Beitrdge, iv.
They received the special condemnation of Jeremy Bentham.
While in prison he translated Bentham's Utilitarianism.
As regards "material" goodness of actions, 'he adopts explicitly and unreservedly the formula afterwards taken as fundamental by Bentham; holding that " that action is best which procures the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers, and the worst which in a like manner occasions misery."
Accordingly his treatment of external rights and duties, though decidedly inferior in methodical clearness and precision, does not differ in principle from that of Paley or Bentham, except that he lays greater stress on the immediate conduciveness of actions to the happiness of individuals, and more often refers in a merely supplementary or restrictive way to their tendencies in respect of general happiness.
school; the latter method, with considerably more divergence of view and treatment, was employed independently and almost simultaneously by Paley and Bentham in both ethics and politics, and is at the present time widely maintained under the name of Utilitarianism.
This Paley and Bentham (after Locke) interpreted as merely the effect on the will of the pleasures or pains attached to the observance or violation of moral rules, combining with this the doctrine of Hutcheson that " general good " or " happiness " is the final end and standard of these rules; while they eliminated all vagueness from the notion of general happiness by defining it to consist in " excess of pleasure over pain " - pleasures and pains being regarded as " differing in nothing but continuance or intensity."
Private property is in this sense " natural " from its obvious advantages in encouraging ' The originality - such as it is - of Paley's system (as of Bentham's) lies in its method of working out details rather than in its principles of construction.
In unity, consistency and thoroughness of method, Bentham's utilitarianism has a decided superiority over Paley's.
Bentham, no doubt, seems to go beyond the limits of experience proper in recognizing "religious " pains and pleasures in his fourfold division.
And, in fact, "private ethics, " as conceived by Bentham, does not exactly expound such a system; but rather exhibits the coincidence, so far as it extends, between private and general happiness, in that part of each man's conduct that lies beyond the range of useful legislation.
It was not his place, as a practical philanthropist, to dwell on the defects in this coincidence; 2 and since what men generally expect from a moralist is a completely 1 This list gives twelve out of the fourteen classes in which Bentham arranges the springs of action, omitting the religious sanction (mentioned afterwards), and the pleasures and pains of self-interest, which include all the other classes except sympathy and antipathy.
left after Bentham's death, the coincidence is asserted to be complete.
reasoned account of what they ought to do, it is not surprising that some of Bentham's disciples should have either ignored or endeavoured to supply the gap in his system.
Not less important is the interval that separates Bentham's polemical attitude towards the moral sense from Mill's conciliatory position, that " the mind is not in a state conformable to utility unless it loves virtue as a thing desirable in itself."
Indeed, the acquired tendency to virtuous conduct may become so strong that the habit of willing it may continue, " even when the reward which 3 I should be observed that Austin, after Bentham, more frequently uses the term " moral " to connote what he more distinctly calls " positive morality," the code of rules supported by common opinion in any society.
This substitution of hypothetical history for direct analysis of the moral sense is really older than the utilitarianism of Paley and Bentham, which it has so profoundly modified.
In the derivation of Benthamism alone - which, it may be observed, first becomes widely known in the French paraphrase of Dumont - an important element is supplied by the works of a French writer, Helvetius; as Bentham himself was fully conscious.
These few simple doctrines give the ground plan of Bentham's indefatigable and lifelong labours.
Such a view is almost diametrically opposed to Bentham's conception of normal human existence; the newer utilitarianism of Mill represents an endeavour to find the right middle path between the two extremes.
In the utilitarianism of Paley and Bentham the proper rules of conduct, moral and legal, are determined by comparing the imaginary consequences of different modes of regulation on men and women, conceived as specimens of a substantially uniform and unchanging type.
It is true that Bentham expressly recognizes the varying influences of climate, race, religion, government, as considerations which it is important for the legislator to take into account; but his own work of social construction was almost entirely independent of such considerations, and his school generally appear to have been convinced of their competence to solve all important ethical and political questions for human beings of all ages and countries, without regard to their specific differences.
But certainly few modern moral philosophers would be found in the present day ready to defend the crudities of hedonistic psychology as they appear in Bentham and Mill.
In political economy he was a Utilitarian on the lines of Mill and Bentham; his work was the careful investigation of first principles and the investigation of ambiguities rather than constructive.
1897), an attempt to supply an adequate treatise on the subject starting from the old lines of Bentham and Mill.
The self-love theory of Hobbes, with its subtle perversions of the motives of ordinary humanity, led to a reaction which culminated in the utilitarianism of Bentham and the two Mills; but their theory, though superior to the extravagant egoism of Hobbes, had this main defect, according to Herbert Spencer, that it conceived the world as an aggregate of units, and was so far individualistic. Sir Leslie Stephen in his Science of Ethics insisted that the unit is the social organism, and therefore that the aim of moralists is not the "greatest happiness of the greatest number," but rather the "health of the organism."
Bentham, Catalogue des plantes indigenes des Pyrenees et de Bas Languedoc (1826).
Robertson (Short History of Free Thought) points out, he had great influence upon Bentham, and C. Beccaria states that he himself was largely inspired by Helvetius in his attempt to modify penal laws.
High Bentham is exceptionally fortunate in the diversity of it's scenery.
panoptic vision imagined by Bentham (1843 ).
transcribes the manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham and gave private English and French classes.
Act and rule utilitarianism Bentham tended to deal with the consequences of acts.
Even Jeremy Bentham, restive under appeals to vague and intangible standards, breaks out in despairing indignation against the word " ought " as " the talisman of arrogance, indolence point of the particular theist who speaks to the ques tion.
That the proximate ends at which Bentham aimed are desirable hardly any one would deny, though the feasibility of the means by which he proposes to attain them may often be questioned, and much of the new nomenclature in which he thought fit to clothe his doctrines may be rejected as unnecessary.
Large masses of Bentham's MSS., mostly unpublished, are preserved at University College, London (see T.
He attributed to his early discipline in this logic an impatience of vague language which in all likelihood was really fostered in him by his study of the Platonic dialogues and of Bentham, for he always had in himself more 6f Plato's fertile ingenuity in canvassing the meaning of vague terms than the schoolman's rigid consistency in the use of them.
In philosophy his chief work was to systematize and expound the utilitarianism of his father and Bentham (see Utilitarianism).
A system of classification for the Phanerogams, or, as they are frequently now called, Spermatophyta (seed-plants), which has been much used in Great Britain and in America, is that of Bentham and Hooker, whose Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) is a descriptive account of all the genera of flowering plants, based on their careful examination.
In Alsace-Lorraine German-speaking immigrants are gradually displacing, under 1 Schemes of thinkers, like William Penn's European Parliament (1693); the Abbe St Pierre's elaboration (c. 1700) of Henry IV.'s " grand design " (see supra); Jeremy Bentham's International Tribunal (1786-1789); Kant's Permanent Congress of Nations and Perpetual Peace (1796); John Stuart Mill's Federal Supreme Court; Seeley's, Bluntschli's, David Dudley Field's, Professor Leone Levi's, Sir Edmund Hornby's co-operative schemes for promoting law and order among nations, have all contributed to popularizing in different countries the idea of a federation of mankind for the preservation of peace.
Some of the species of the genus Aegilops (now generally referred to Triticum by Bentham and Hooker and by Haeckel) Origin and may possibly have been the sources of our cultivated Y P Y forms, as they cross freely with wheats.
Thus, for example, the moral standard for which a utilitarian will reasonably endeavour to gain the support of public opinion must be essentially different in quality, according as he holds with Bentham that nothing but self-regard will "serve for diet," though "for a dessert benevolence is a very valuable addition "; or with J.
Between 1812 and 1822 Bello transcribes the manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham and gave private English and French classes.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.