The Babylonian and Assyrian Sabbath.
Hezekiah improved the defences and arranged for a good water supply, preparatory to the siege by Sennacherib, the Assyrian general.
Moreover, it is doubtful from extant remains of Assyrian calendars whether the astrological week prevailed in civil life even among the Babylonians and Assyrians.
Johns, Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts and Letters (Edinburgh, 1904).
Iap,apeta from the Hebrew "an outlook hill," or rather from the Aramaic form 7734, whence also comes the Assyrian form Samirina.
The discovery of the now celebrated Code of Khammurabi (Hammurabi)' (hereinafter simply termed 1 For the transliteration of Babylonian and Assyrian names generally, see Babylonia And Assyria, section ix., Proper Names.
Johns, Assyrian Deeds and Documents relating to the Transfer of Property (3 vols., Cambridge, 1898); H.
But he was a profoundly interested observer of affairs at home and among 1 The Assyrian term abubu is used of the great primeval deluge (in the Gilgamesh epic), and also of the local floods common in the country.
His strongest denunciation is directed against the religious practices of the time in Judea - the worship of the Canaanite local deities (the Baals), the Phoenician Tammuz, and the sun and other Babylonian and Assyrian gods (vi., viii., xvi., xxiii.); he maintained vigorously the prophetic struggle for the sole worship of Yahweh.
So it seems that the dynasty, which more than half a century later succeeded in throwing off the Assyrian yoke and founded the Median empire, was derived from this Dayukku, and that his name was thus introduced into the Median traditions, which contrary to history considered him as founder of the kingdom.
In 750 B.C. Umbadara was king of Elam; Khumbanigas was his successor in 742 B.C. In 720 B.C. the latter prince met the Assyrians under Sargon at Dur-ili in Yamutbal, and though Sargon claims a victory the result was that Babylonia recovered its independence under Merodach-baladan and the Assyrian forces were driven north.
The new king endeavoured to gain Assyrian favour by putting to death the son of Merodach-baladan, but was himself murdered by his brothers Urtaki and Teumman (681 B.C.), the first of whom seized the crown.
On his death Teumman succeeded and almost immediately provoked a quarrel with Assur-bani-pal by demanding the surrender of his nephews who had taken refuge at the Assyrian court.
Inda-bigas was himself overthrown and slain by a new pretender, Khumba-Khaldas III., who was opposed, however, by three other rivals, two of whom maintained themselves in the mountains until the Assyrian conquest of the country, when Tammaritu was first restored and then imprisoned, Elam being utterly devastated.
The return of Khumba-Khaldas led to a fresh Assyrian invasion; the Elamite king fled from Madaktu to Dur-undasi; Susa and other cities were taken, and the Elamite army almost exterminated on the banks of the Itite.
All this must have happened about 640 B.C. After the fall of the Assyrian empire Elam was occupied by the Persian Teispes, the forefather of Cyrus, who, accordingly, like his immediate successors, is called in the inscriptions "king of Anzan."
Samsat itself represents the ancient Samosata, the capital of the Seleucid kings of Commagene (Kuinukh of the Assyrian inscriptions), and here the Persian Royal Road from Sardis to Susa is supposed to have crossed the river.
Europus, Carchemish, the ancient Hittite capital), near which the Sajur (Sagura; Sangar of the Assyrian inscriptions) enters from the west, to Meskene, 2 m.
of which, inland, lie the well-preserved ruins of Reseph (Assyrian, Resafa or Rosafa).
Hirmas) flows south through the land of Gozan in which Sargon settled the deported Israelites in 721 B.C. At the mouth of the Khabur stood the Roman frontier fortress of Circesium (Assyrian, Sirki; Arab.
Chemosh (Moab) and Milk (Milcom), the god of Ammon, and in the case of Edom a deity known from the inscriptions as KOs (in Assyrian Kaus).
Indeed, Hebrew, unlike Assyrian or Phoenician, has no distinctive form for " goddess."
to Assyria, while the reformation in the reign of Josiah (621 B.C.) is conversely associated with the decay of Assyrian power after the death of Assur-bani-pal.
suggests that Citium was the administrative centre of Cyprus during the Assyrian protectorate (709-668 B.C.).5 During the Greek revolts of 500, 386 foll.
The political changes involved in the Babylonian, Assyrian, Egyptian or Persian conquests surely affected it as little as the subsequent waves of Greek, Roman and other European invasions.
Assyrian) script and language were now used, not merely in the diplomatic correspondence between Egypt and Asia, but also for matters of private and everyday life among the Palestinian princes themselves.
The value of this external evidence for the history of Israel is enhanced by the fact that biblical tradition associates the changes in the thrones of Israel and Damascus with the work of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, but handles the period without a single reference to the Assyrian Empire.
Assyrian officers were placed in the land and Judah thus gained its deliverance at the expense of Israel.
Both Esar-haddon (681-668) and Assur-bani-pal (668 - c. 626) number among their tributaries Tyre, Ammon, Moab, Edom, Ascalon, Gaza and Manasseh himself,' and cuneiform dockets unearthed at Gezer suggest the presence of Assyrian garrisons there (and no doubt also elsewhere) to ensure allegiance.
If Judah was compelled to take part in the Assyrian campaigns against Egypt, Arabia (the Syrian desert) and Tyre, this would only be in accordance with a vassal's duty.
Psammetichus (Psamtek) I., one of the ablest of Egyptian rulers for many centuries, threw off the Assyrian yoke 1 See G.
Bethshean in Samaria has perhaps preserved in its later (though temporary) name Scythopolis an echo of the invasion.(Later, Necho, son of Psammetichus, proposed to add to Egypt some of the Assyrian provinces, and marched through Palestine.
3 From Tema in north Arabia, also, there is monumental evidence of the 5th century B.C. for Babylonian and Assyrian influence upon the language, cult and art.
Thus, in any estimate of the influence of Babylonia upon the Old Testament, it is obviously necessary to ask whether certain features (a) are of true Babylonian origin, or (b) merely find parallels or analogies in its stores of literature; whether the indebtedness goes back to very early times or to the age of the Assyrian domination or to the exiles who now returned.
They treat with almost unique fullness a few years in the middle of the 9th century B.C., but ignore Assyria; yet only the Assyrian inscriptions explain the political situation (§ 10 seq.), and were it not for them the true significance of the 8th-7th centuries could scarcely be realized (§ 15 seq.).
As regards this crossing of s and sh, Arabic has with it the other south Semitic language, Ethiopic: the evidence as to the other north Semitic language, Assyrian, is conflicting.
It would appear probable, however, that the former of these words was derived from an Assyrian or Hebrew root, which signifies the west or setting sun, and the latter from a corresponding root meaning the east or rising sun, and that they were used at one time to imply the west and the east.
The races speaking the languages akin to the ancient Assyrian, which are now mainly represented by Arabic, have been called Semitic, and occupy the countries south-west of Aryans.
For works of reference see BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN RELIGION.
Of his numerous publications the following are of special importance: - Assyrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes (1872); Principles of Comparative Philology (1874); Babylonian Literature (1877); Introduction to the Science of Language (1879); Monuments of the Hittites (1881); Herodotus i.-iii.
In later ages the representations of birds of one sort or another in Egyptian paintings and sculptures become countless, and the bassi-rilievi of Assyrian monuments, though mostly belonging of course to a subsequent period, are not without them.
Schultens (Vita Sal., Index geogr.) cites Tatmur as a variant of the Arabic name; this might mean " abounding in palms " (from the root tamar); otherwise Tadmor may have been originally an Assyrian name.
NISIBIS (Nasibina in the Assyrian inscriptions), an ancient city and fortress in the north of Mesopotamia, near the point where the Mygdonius (mod.
The site of Nisibis, on the great road between the Tigris and the Mediterranean, and commanding alike the mountain country to the north and the then fertile plain to the south, gave it an importance which began during the Assyrian period and continued under the Seleucid empire.
As the eastern frontier of Palestine, Gilead bore the first brunt of Syrian and Assyrian attacks.
those descending from Geuksun (Cocysus), Albistan-Yarpuz (Arabissus), and Malatia (Melitene)---is shown to have had early importance, not only by the occurrence of Marasi in Assyrian inscriptions, but by the discovery of several "Hittite" monuments on the spot.
Thus Diodorus Siculus, using Ctesias, tells how she fell in love with a youth who was 823 worshipping at the shrine of Aphrodite, and by him became the mother of Semiramis, the Assyrian queen, and how in shame she flung herself into a pool at Ascalon or Hierapolis and was changed into a fish (W.
31 Continued work at Samaria should reveal some trace of the civilization of Israel, which we know was considerable, unless the devastation of the Assyrian sieges has destroyed it all.
The maps referred to may have been Assyrian.
the god In-Aristi), the name of several Assyrian kings.
The testimony of Assyrian inscriptions relegates him to a far more ancient period.
The storm which shook the external states was favourable to the peace of Judah; the Assyrian power was practically broken, and that of the Chaldeans had scarcely developed into an aggressive form.
Otherwise, it is not clear why we find him opposing himself to the Egyptian king Necho, since the assumption that he fought as an Assyrian vassal scarcely agrees with the profound reforming policy ascribed to him.
These boats have been employed from the remotest antiquity through all this region, and are often depicted on the old Assyrian monuments.
According to the Old Testament account the Assyrian king even advanced against Israel, and only withdrew in consideration of a tribute amounting to about f400,000.
It has also been connected more plausibly with an Assyrian plant name, hambakulzu (Delitzsch, Assyrisches Handworterbuch, p. 281).
It is not likely, as many scholars have thought, that Akkad was ever used geographically as a distinctive appellation for northern Babylonia, or that the name Sumer denoted the southern part of the land, because kings who ruled only over Southern Babylonia used the double title "king of Sumer and Akkad," which was also employed by northern rulers who never established their sway farther south than Nippur, notably the great Assyrian conqueror Tiglath pileser III.
For the Assyrian names see CONSTELLATION.
There are cogent reasons for placing Joel either earlier or later than the great series of prophets extending from the time when Amos first proclaimed the approach of the Assyrian down to the Babylonian exile.
(1) A Compendium of Universal History in six books, from Belus, the reputed founder of the Assyrian empire, to Anastasius I.
He is frequently invoked in hymns and in votive and other inscriptions of Babylonian and Assyrian rulers, but we do not learn of many temples to him outside of Kutha.
But it is rather a revived than a new capital; Khalep was a very ancient Syrian and probably "Hittite" city of importance, known from Babylonian, Assyrian and Egyptian records.
Another tomb in this region, Melgunov's barrow, found as long ago as 1760, contained a dagger-sheath and pommel of Assyrian work and Greek things of the 6th century.
East of the Maeotis on the Kuban we have many barrows; the most interesting are the groups called the Seven Brothers, and those of Karagodeuashkh, Kostromskaya, Ul and Kelermes, the latter remarkable for objects of Assyrian style, the others for the enormous slaughter of horses; on the Ul were four hundred in one grave.
Assyrian and afterwards Greek craftsmen working for Scythic employers were compelled to decorate these outlandish forms, which they did according to their own fashion: but there was also a native style with conventionalized beast decoration, which was almost always employed for the adornment of bits and horses' gear, and very often for weapons.
southern extremity of Assyria proper, whose territory, soon after the first Assyrian settlement, was bounded on the N.
The problem as to the meaning of the name Assur is rendered all the more confusing by the fact that the city and land are also called Assur (as well as A-usar),both by the Khammurabi records' and generally in the later Assyrian literature.
Smith, Assyrian Discoveries (1875); R.
Thus there were two great political events (the Syro-Israelitish invasion under Ahaz, and the great Assyrian invasion of Sennacherib) which called forth the spiritual and oratorical faculties of our prophet, and quickened his faculty of insight into the future.
B c.) and Harmhab (14th cent.) in Egypt, the " Black Obelisk " of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser II.;91h cent.) or his famous gates at Balawat (ed.
- Assyrian Officers.
- Israelite Tribute-bearers introduced by two Assyrian Officers.
5) can be illustrated from the Assyrian sculptures (Ency.
Assyrian Warriors with women and children captured Idols.
Narrower at the top and surmounted by a spike it distinguishes the Assyrian kings.
façade, Louvre; groups for pediments of façade now placed over entrance to Egyptian and Assyrian collections, Louvre.
His chief temple at Nippur was known as E-Kur, signifying "mountain house," and such was the sanctity acquired by this edifice that Babylonian and Assyrian rulers, down to the latest days, vied with one another in embellishing and restoring Bel's seat of worship, and the name itself became the designation of a temple in general.
It was no doubt owing to his position as the second figure of the triad that enabled him to survive the political eclipse of Nippur and made his sanctuary a place of pilgrimage to which Assyrian kings down to the days of Assur-bani-pal paid their homage equally with Babylonian rulers.
Early Assyrian glass is represented in the British Museum by a vase of transparent greenish glass found in the north-west palace of Nineveh.
The Cilicians appear as Khilikku in Assyrian inscriptions, and in the early part of the first millennium B.C. were one of the four chief powers of western Asia.
In the earliest times of which we have any record, the northern portion was included in Mesopotamia; it was definitely marked off as Assyria only after the rise of the Assyrian monarchy.
The only ancient authority of value on Babylonian and Assyrian history is the Old Testament.
Assyrian chronology is, therefore, certain from 911 B.C. to 666, and an eclipse of the sun which is stated to have been visible in the month Sivan, 763 B.C., is one that has been calculated to have taken place on the 15th of June of that year.
The system of reckoning time by limmi was of Assyrian origin, and recent discoveries have made it clear that it went back to the first days of the monarchy.
Even in the distant colony at Kara Euyuk near Kaisariyeh (Caesarea) in Cappadocia cuneiform tablets show that the Assyrian settlers used it in the 5th century B.C. In Babylonia a different system was adopted.
One of these is the so-called " Synchronous History of Assyria and Babylonia," consisting of brief notices, written by an Assyrian, of the occasions on which the kings of the two countries had entered into relation, hostile or otherwise, with one another; a second is the Babylonian Chronicle discovered by Dr Th.
It is interesting to note that its author says of the battle of Khalule, which we know from the Assyrian inscriptions to have taken place in 691 or 690 B.C., that he does " not know the year " when it was fought: the records of Assyria had been already lost, even in Babylonia.
At all events he gives 30 years of reign to Sinmuballidh instead of the 20 assigned to him in a list of dates drawn up at the time of Ammi-zadok's accession, 55 years to Khammurabi instead of 43, and 35 years to Samsu-iluna instead of 38, while he omits altogether the seven years' reign of the Assyrian king TukultiIn-aristi at Babylon.
Here in Akkad the first Semitic empire was founded, Semitic conquerors or settlers spread from Sippara to Susa, Khana to the east of the Tigris was occupied by " West Semitic " tribes, and " out of " Babylonia " went forth the Assyrian."
It must be remembered that the reading of most of the early Sumerian proper names is merely provisional, as we do not know how the ideographs of which they are composed were pronounced in either Sumerian or Assyrian.
Shalmaneser was the founder of Calah, and his annals, which have recently been discovered at Assur, show how widely extended the Assyrian empire already was.
Campaign after campaign was carried on against the Hittites and the wild tribes of the north-west, and Assyrian colonists were settled in Cappadocia.
The Assyrian king was murdered by his be fairly full.
Calah became the favourite residence of a monarch who was distinguished even among Assyrian conquerors for his revolting cruelties.
had a long reign of 35 years, Shalma- during which the Assyrian capital was converted into neser II a sort of armed camp. Each year the Assyrian armies marched out of it to plunder and destroy.
Second Assyrian Empire.
arose the second Assyrian empire, which differed from the first in its greater consolidation.
The Assyrian forces became a standing army, which, by successive improvements and careful discipline, was moulded into an irresistible fighting machine, and Assyrian policy was directed towards the definite object of reducing the whole civilized world into a single empire and thereby throwing its trade and wealth into Assyrian hands.
(883-858 B.C.) that our knowledge of Assyrian history begins once more to son, Assur-nazir-pal I., and Hadad-nadin-akhi made king of Babylonia.
But it was not until several years later, in the reign of the Assyrian king Tukulti-Assur, that a reconciliation was effected between the two rival kingdoms. The next Assyrian monarch, Bel-kudur-uzur, was the last of the old royal line.
Specimens Of Babylonian And Assyrian Writing.
Samas-sum-yukin became more Babylonian than his subjects; the viceroy claimed to be the successor of the monarchs whose empire had once stretched to the Mediterranean; even the Sumerian language was revived as the official tongue, and a revolt broke out which shook the Assyrian empire to its foundations.
Calah was burned thou h the stron walls g YP, g g of Nineveh protected the relics of the Assyrian army which had taken refuge behind them; and when the raiders had passed on to other fields of booty, a new palace was erected among the ruins of the neighbouring city.
Nineveh was captured and destroyed by the Scythian army, along with those cities of northern Babylonia which had sided with Babylonia, and the Assyrian empire was at an end.
Babylonia was a land of merchants and agriculturists; Assyria was an organized camp. The Assyrian dynasties were founded Dynasty of Isin of I i kings for 1324 years.
The Babylonian king remained a priest to the last, under the control of a powerful hierarchy; the Assyrian king was the autocratic general of an army, at whose side stood in early days a feudal nobility, and from the reign of Tiglath-pileser III.
- Assyrian culture came from Babylonia, but even here there was a difference between the two countries.
There was little in Assyrian literature that was .original, and education, which was general in Babylonia, was in the northern kingdom confined for the most part to a single class.
Under the second Assyrian empire, when Nineveh had become a great centre of trade, Aramaic - the language of commerce and diplomacy - was added to the number of subjects which the educated class was required to learn.
A crystal lens, turned on the lathe, was discovered by Layard at Nimrud along with glass vases bearing the name of Sargon; this will explain the excessive minuteness of some of the writing on the Assyrian tablets, and a lens may also have been used in the observation of the heavens.
As time went on, however, the later Assyrian architect began to shake himself free from Babylonian influences and to employ stone as well as brick.
The walls of the Assyrian palaces were lined with sculptured and coloured slabs of stone, instead of being painted as in Chaldaea.
The forms of Assyrian pottery, however, are graceful; the porcelain, like the glass discovered in the palaces of Nineveh, was derived from Egyptian originals.
Successive improvements were introduced into it by the kings of the second Assyrian empire; chariots were superseded by cavalry; Tiglath-pileser III.
II.) gives a list of the Babylonian, Assyrian and Persian kings who ruled in Babylon, together with the number of years each of them reigned, from the accession of Nabonassar in 747 B.C. to the conquest of Babylon by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. The accuracy of this list is confirmed by the larger List of Kings and by the principal Babylonian Chronicle; the latter, like the Canon, begins with the reign of Nabonassar, who, it has been suggested, may have revised the calendar and have inaugurated a new epoch for the later chronology.
II.), by means of which Assyrian chronology is fixed from 911 B.C. to 666 B.C., the solar eclipse of June 15th, 763 B.C., which is recorded in the eponymy of Pur-Sagale, placing the dead reckoning for these later periods upon an absolutely certain basis.
The same chronicle informs us that Ilu-shuma, an early Assyrian patesi, was the contemporary of Su-abu, the founder of Dynasty I.
Some time must elapse before absolute uniformity in the transliteration of these proper names is to be expected; and since different scholars still adopt varying spellings of Babylonian and Assyrian proper names, it has been considered undesirable in this work to ignore the fact in individual articles contributed by them.
The main difficulty in the reading of Babylonian and Assyrian proper names arises from the preference given to the " ideographic " method of writing them.
So, for -example, the word for " name " may be written by a sign MU, or it may be written out by two signs shu-mu, the one sign MU representing the " Sumerian " word for " name," which, however, in the case of a Babylonian or Assyrian text must be read as shumu - the Semitic equivalent of the Sumerian MU.
Until, therefore, through parallel passages or through explanatory lists prepared by the Babylonian and Assyrian scribes in large numbers as an aid for the study of the language, 5 the exact phonetic reading of these divine names was determined, scholars remained in doubt or had recourse to conjectural or provisional readings.
In many cases they will probably turn out to be descriptive epithets of gods 3 The Assyrian language is practically identical with the Babylonian, just as the Assyrians are the same people as the Babylonians with some foreign admixtures.
It is therefore not surprising that scholars should differ considerably in the reading of Sumerian names, where we have not helps at our command as for Babylonian and Assyrian names.
Babylonian and Assyrian religion >>
HITTITES, an ancient people, alluded to frequently in the earlier records of Israel, and also, under slightly variant names, in Egyptian records of the XVIIIth, XIXth and XXth Dynasties, and in Assyrian from about 1100 to 700 B.C. They appear also in the Vannic cuneiform texts, and are believed to be the authors of a class of monuments bearing inscriptions in a peculiar pictographic character, and widely distributed over Asia Minor and N.
During the later part of their history they were in continual contact with Assyria, and, as a Syrian power, and perhaps also as a Cappadocian one, they finally succumbed to Assyrian pressure.
differences in execution and details, all these sculptures show one general type of art, a type which recalls now Babylonian, now Assyrian, now Egyptian, now archaic Ionian, style, but is always individual and easily distinguishable from the actual products of those peoples.
Ball (based on Hittite names recorded on Egyptian and Assyrian monuments, and applied to word-groups on the Hittite monuments).
Syrian monuments, holding these of too late a date (judged by their Assyrian analogies) for the flourishing period of the Kheta-Khatti, as known from Egyptian and Assyrian records.
Syria and Asia Minor known to us from Egyptian and Assyrian records, the Kheta-Khatti alone appear frequently as leading to war peoples from far beyond Taurus.
Since all the Syrian monuments of the Hittite class, so far known, seem comparatively late (most show such strong Assyrian influence that they must fall after 110o B.C. and probably even considerably later), while the North Cappadocian monuments (as Sayce, Ramsay, Perrot and others saw long ago) are the earlier in style, we are bound to ascribe the origin of the civilization which they represent to the Cappadocian Hatti.
Owing perhaps to Assyrian aggression, this power seems to have begun to suffer decay about 1000 B.C. and thereafter to have shrunk inwards, leaving the coasts open.
The Boghaz Keui correspondence ceases to be important with the generation following Hattusil II., and in the Assyrian records, which begin about a couple of centuries later, we find Carchemish the chief Hatti city and N.
One of his successors, Arnaunta (late 13th century?), was already feeling the effect of Assyrian pressure, and with the accession of Tiglath Pileser I., about a century later, a long but often interrupted series of Assyrian efforts to break up the Hatti power began.
They remained the strongest power in Syria and eastern Asia Minor till well into the first millennium B.C., and their Syrian seat was not lost finally till after the great extension of Assyrian power which took place in the latter part of the 9th century.
See also authorities for Egyptian and Assyrian history.
With the growth of scientific geography they came to be located somewhat less vaguely, and indeed their name was employed as the equivalent of the Assyrian and Hebrew Cush, the Kesh or Ekosh of the Hieroglyphics (first found in Stele of Senwosri I.), i.e.
During these expeditions, often in circumstances of great difficulty, Layard despatched to England the splendid specimens which now form the greater part of the collection of Assyrian antiquities in the British Museum.
section Antiquities above), which have done service both by their own indication of a great civilization in Arabia for nearly (or more than) a thousand years before the Christian era, and by the new stimulus which they gave to the study and appreciation of the materials in the Assyrian inscriptions, the Old Testament, and the Greek and Roman writers.
An Assyrian inscription mentions Ith`amara the Sabaean who paid tribute to Sargon in 715 B.C. At this time the Sabaeans must have been in north Arabia unless the inscription refers to a northern colony of the southern Sabaeans.
i.); Quarterly Papers and Annual Reports of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Assyrian Mission.
" Four-god-city"), an ancient town in Adiabene, the capital in Assyrian and pre-Assyrian times of the country between the greater and lesser Zab, and seat of an important cult of Ishtar.
The Glyptothek, a building by Klenze in the Ionic style, and adorned with several groups and single statues, contains a valuable series of sculptures, extending from Assyrian and Egyptian monuments down to works by Thorwaldsen and other modern masters.
On the other hand the democratic tone which distinguishes Micah from Isaiah, and his announcement of the impending fall of the capital (the deliverance of which from the Assyrian appears to Isaiah as the necessary condition for the preservation of the seed of a new and better kingdom), are explained by the fact that, while Isaiah lived in the centre of affairs, Micah, a provincial prophet, sees the capital and the aristocracy entirely from the side of a man of the oppressed people, and foretells the utter ruin of both.
The remnant of Jacob springs up in fresh vigour, inspiring terror among the surrounding peoples, and there is no lack of chosen captains to lead them to victory against the Assyrian foe.
For details as to the former, see Babylonian And Assyrian Religion.
also the article on BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN RELIGION; and Cheyne, Traditions and Beliefs of Ancient Israel (1907).
The spade of the discoverer soon showed that all the fabled glories of the ancient Assyrian capital were founded on realities, and evidence was afforded of a state of civilization and culture such as few men supposed to have existed on the earth before the Golden Age of Greece.
It appears at a glance that the Assyrian written character consists of groups of horizontal, vertical or oblique strokes.
Halting just short of this analysis, the Assyrian ascribed syllabic values to the characters of his script, and hence, instead of finding twenty odd characters sufficient, he required about five hundred.
Fortunately it chanced that another people, the Persians, had adopted the Assyrian wedge-shaped stroke as the foundation of a written character, but making that analysis of which the Assyrians had fallen short, had borrowed only so many characters as were necessary to represent the alphabetical sounds.
Working with some inscriptions from Persepolis which were found to contain references to Darius and Xerxes, Grotefend had established the phonetic values of certain of the Persian characters, and his successors were perfecting the discovery just about the time when the new Assyrian finds were made.
One of the languages of this inscription was Persian; another, as it now appeared, was Assyrian, the language of the newly discovered books from the libraries of Nineveh.
Assuming, then, that the proper names found in the Persian portion of the Behistun inscription occurred also in the Assyrian portion, retaining virtually the same sound in each, a clue to the phonetic values of a large number of the Assyrian characters was obviously at hand.
Phonetic values known, Assyrian was found to be a Semitic language cognate to Hebrew.
Thanks to their efforts, the new science of Assyriology came into being, and before long the message of the Assyrian books had ceased to be an enigma.
The sceptics had declared that the new science of Assyriology was itself a myth: that the investigators, self-deceived, had in reality only invented a language and read into the Assyrian inscriptions something utterly alien to the minds of the Assyrians themselves.
But when a committee of the Royal Asiatic Society, with George Grote at its head, decided that the translations of an Assyrian text made independently by the scholars just named were at once perfectly intelligible and closely in accord with one another, scepticism was silenced, and the new science was admitted to have made good its claims. Naturally the early investigators did not fathom all the niceties of the language, and the work of grammatical investigation has gone on continuously under the auspices of a constantly growing band of workers.
Doubtless much still remains to be done; but the essential thing, from the present standpoint, is that a sufficient knowledge of the Assyrian language has been acquired to ensure trustworthy translations of the cuneiform texts.
Meanwhile, the material found by Botta and Layard, and other successors, in the ruins of Nineveh, has been constantly augmented through the efforts of companies of other investigators, and not merely Assyrian, but much earlier Babylonian and Chaldaean texts in the greatest profusion have been brought to the various museums of Europe and America.
ologyand A fair proportion of the workers who have delved so enthusiastically in the fields of Egyptian and Assyrian exploration would never have taken up the work at all but for the hope that their investigations might substantiate the Hebrew records.
When we turn to the field of Babylonian and Assyrian archaeology, however, the case is very different.
From the standpoint of the historian even greater interest attaches to the records of the Assyrian and Babylonian kings when compared with the historical books of the Old Testament.
When it became known that the accounts of these invasions formed a part of the records preserved in the Assyrian libraries, historian and theologian alike waited with breathless interest for the exact revelations in store; and this time expectation was not disappointed.
It is the basis of the famous Canon of kings, also called Mathematical Canon, preserved to us in the works of Ptolemy, which, before the astonishing discoveries at Nineveh, was the sole authentic monument of Assyrian and Babylonian history known to us.
TIGLATH-PILESER the son of Assur-ris-isi, ascended the throne c. 1120 B.C., and was one of the greatest of Assyrian conquerors.
His first campaign was against the Moschi who had occupied certain Assyrian districts on the Upper Euphrates; then he overran Commagene and eastern Cappadocia, and drove the Hittites from the Assyrian province of Subarti north-east of Malatia.
In a subsequent campaign the Assyrian forces penetrated into the Kurdish mountains south of Lake Van and then turned westward, Malatia submitting to the invader.
It means "gate of the god," not"gate of the gods," corresponding to the Assyrian Bab-ili.
Fragments of his universal history (`Iaropia KaBoXLKi 7), from the time of the Assyrian empire to his own days, his autobiography, and his life of Augustus (Bios Kacaapos) have been preserved, chiefly in the extracts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
r7 seq.).4 These notices at least represent natural conditions, and the Assyrian inscriptions now are our authority.
In the 7th century Gaza, Ascalon, Ashdod and Ekron were Assyrian vassals, together with Judah, Moab and Edom - in all, twenty-two kings of the " Hittites " - and the discovery of Assyrian contract-tablets at Gezer (c. 650) may indicate the presence of Assyrian garrisons.
But as the Assyrian power declined Egyptian monarchs formed plans of aggrandizement.
Somewhat later, the Assyrian king Adad-nirari IV.
Their religion has points of connexion with old Iranian and Assyrian beliefs and traces of Manichaeism and Nestorianism.
4, where the Chaldaeans are said to have spoken to the king in Aramaic. But the cuneiform inscriptions show that the language of the Chaldaeans was Assyrian; and an examination of the very large part of the Hebrew Old Testament written later than the exile proves conclusively that the substitution of Aramaic for Hebrew as the vernacular of Palestine took place very gradually.
The earliest metallic money did not consist of coins, but of unminted metal in the form of rings and other ornaments or of weapons, which were used for thousands of years by the Egyptian, Chaldean and Assyrian Empires.
The biblical picture of the Sabaean kingdom is confirmed and supplemented by the Assyrian inscriptions.
It may be noticed that a Thamudaean legend has been found on a Babylonian cylinder of about woo B.C., and it is remarkable that the Sabaean satara, " write," seems to be borrowed from Assyrian shataru.
72, as well as a work on the Pauline epistles, Zur Kritik Paulinischer Briefe (1870), on the Moabite Stone, Die Inschrift des Mescha (1870), and on Assyrian, Sprache u.
TIGLATH-PILESER or IV., was a successful general who usurped the Assyrian throne on the 13th of Iyyar 745 B.C., after the fall of the older dynasty, and changed his name of Pulu (Pul) to that of the famous conqueror of earlier times.
Next came the defeat of a northern coalition headed by Sar-duris of Ararat, no fewer than 72,950 of the enemy being captured along with the city of Arpad, where the Assyrian king received the homage of various Syrian princes.
Ammon, Moab, Edom and the queen of Sheba sent tribute, and Teima in northern Arabia was captured by the Assyrian troops.
In 732 B.C. Damascus fell; Rezon was put to death, and an Assyrian satrap appointed in his stead.
History (" Second Assyrian Empire"); and authorities quoted in § viii.
Even the Hebrew historian ascribes to this act the effect of rousing divine indignation against the invading host of Israel; it would not, therefore, be surprising if under the miseries brought on Palestine by the westward march of the Assyrian power, the idea of the sacrifice of one's own son, as the most powerful of atoning rites, should have taken hold of those kings of Judah (Ahaz and Manasseh, 2 Kings xvi.
We owe to its realization by them the constitution and nomenclature of the twelve signs of the zodiac. Assyrian cylinders and inscriptions indicate for the familiar series of our text-books an antiquity of some four thousand years.
The zodiacal Virgo is held to represent the Assyrian Venus, Ishtar, the ruling divinity of the sixth month, and Sagittarius the archer-god Nergal, to whom the ninth month was dedicated.
3 No representation of the seventh sign has yet been discovered on any Euphratean monument; but it is noticeable that the eighth is frequently doubled,4 and it is difficult to avoid seeing in the pair of zodiacal scorpions carved on Assyrian cylinders the prototype of the Greek scorpion and claws.
sign, with the life after death is evident in a monu ment of Assyrian origin described by Clermont-Ganneau, showing a corpse guarded by a pair of fish-gods. ?
See generally Franz Boll, Sphaera (Leipzig, 1903); also the bibliographies to ASTROLOGY and BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN RELIGION.
Goussen (though members of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Mission to the Assyrian Christians had previously been acquainted with the book).
CALAH (so in the Bible; Kalah in the Assyrian inscriptions), an ancient city situated in the angle formed by the Tigris and the upper Zab, 19 m.
After that it seems to have fallen into decay or been destroyed, but was restored by Assur-nasir-pal, about 880 B.C., and from that time to the overthrow of the Assyrian power it remained a residence city of the Assyrian kings.
The principal buildings discovered at Calah are: - (a) the North-West palace, south of the ziggurat, one of the most complete and perfect Assyrian buildings known, about 350 ft.
Layard, Nineveh and its Remains (London, 1849) George Smith, Assyrian Discoveries (London, 1883); Hormuzd Rassam, Ashur and the Land of Nimrod (London and New York, 18 97).
In the earlier period of the Assyrian monarchy we find the king holding the office of pa-te-si or isakku or (more definitely) the sangu, i.e.
And this work must have been well done, for, though the general corruption of society at the beginning of the Assyrian period was nowhere more conspicuous than at the sanctuaries and among the priesthood, the invective of Hos.
From the name Assaracus, from the intercourse between the Phoenicians and the early inhabitants of the Troad, and from the connexion of Aphrodite, the protecting goddess of the Phoenicians, with Anchises, it has been inferred that his family was originally of Assyrian origin.
The "Seth" of Numbers is sometimes identified with the Bedouin, who appear as Sutu in Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions.
There was a mythic bird-cherub, and then perhaps a winged animal-form, analogous to the winged figures of bulls and lions with human faces which guarded Babylonian and Assyrian temples and palaces.
At first, and indeed down to the middle of the 17th century, Jewish traditions and methods in the study of Hebrew dominated Christian scholars; but in the 17th and 18th centuries the study of other Semitic languages opened up that comparative linguistic study which was systematized and brought nearer to perfection in the 19th century (which also witnessed the opening up of the new study of Assyrian) by scholars such as Gesenius, Ewald, Olshausen, Renan, Noldeke, 'Stade and Driver.
More especially since the middle of the 19th century the decipherment of Egyptian and Assyrian inscriptions and systematic excavation in Palestine and other parts of the East have supplied a multitude of new facts bearing more or less directly on the Old Testament.
the Assyrian inscriptions have furnished independent evidence of the relations of certain Hebrew kings (Ahab, Jehu, Ahaz) with the Assyrians, and thus supported more or less completely the evidence of the Old Testament on these points: they have also served to clear up in part the confused chronology of the Hebrews as given in the books of Kings.
The existence of these errors can be demonstrated in two ways: (1) The chronology of the two kingdoms is not consistent with itself; (2) the dates of various events in the history, which are mentioned also in the Assyrian inscriptions, are in serious disagreement with the dates as fixed by the contemporary Assyrian chronology.
Thus from 893 B.C. the Assyrian chronology is certain and precise.
It may be explained here that the dates of the Assyrian and Babylonian kings can be reduced to years B.C. by means of the socalled " Canon of Ptolemy," which is a list of the Babylonian and Persian kings, with the lengths of their reigns, extending from Nabonassar, 747 B.C., to Alexander the Great, drawn up in the 2nd century A.D.
Much has been written on the chronology of the kings and many endeavours have been made to readjust the Biblical figures so as to bring them into consistency with themselves and at the same time into conformity with the Assyrian dates.
They too were, at the beginning of the Assyrian period, not much more different from prophets of Baal than the priests were from priests of Baal.
To the mass these signs are unintelligible, because they deem it impossible that Yahweh should utterly cast off His chosen nation; but to those who know His absolute righteousness, and confront it with the people's sin, the impending approach of the Assyrian can have only one meaning and can point to only one issue, viz.
must remain inviolable; it can never be delivered into the hands of the Assyrian.
He sees with absolute clearness the powerlessness of the little realm against that great empire: the Assyrian must fall, and fall before Jerusalem, that Yahweh alone may appear to all the earth as the one true God, while all the idols appear as vain to help their worshippers.
If Israel alone among nations can meet the Assyrian with the boast "with us is God," the reason is that in Zion the true God is known' - not indeed to the mass, but to the prophet, and that the "holy seed" 2 or "remnant" (contained in the name Shear yashubh) which forms the salt of the nation.
(See BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN RELIGION.) (M.
Brandis, to the basis of Assyrian standards; Mommsen, to coin weights; and P. Bortolotti to Egyptian units; but F.
The great spread of the Phoenician weight on the Mediterranean, of the Persian in Asia Minor and of the Assyrian in Egypt are evident cases; and that the decimal weights of the laws of Manu (43) are decidedly not Assyrian or Persian, but on exactly the Phoenician standard, is a curious evidence of trade by water and not overland.
That this mode of originating standards was greatly promoted, if not started, by the use of coinage we may see by the rarity of the Persian silver weight (derived from the Assyrian standard), soon after the introduction of coinage, as shown in the weights of Defenneh (29).
From Assyria also it passed into Asia Minor, being found on the city standard of Ushak in Phrygia (33), engraved as 21.8, divided into the Assyrian foot of 10.8, and half and quarter, 5.4 and 2.7.
One close datum, if trustworthy, would be log of water = Assyrian mina implying a bath of about 2200 cub.
By the theory of maris 1/5 of 20.6 cubed is 1755; by maris = Assyrian talent, 1850, in place of 1850 or 1980 stated above; hence the more likely theory of weight, rather than cubit, connexion is nearer to the facts.
These two systems are distinctly named on the weights, and are known now as the light and heavy Assyrian systems (19, 24).
(It is better to avoid the name Babylonian, as it has other meanings also.) There are no weights dated before the Assyrian bronze lion weights (9, 17, 19, 38) of the 11th to 8th centuries B.C. Thirteen of this class average 127.2 for the shekel; 9 haematite barrel-shaped weights (38) give 128.2; 16 stone duck-weights (38), 126.5.
Eight hundred talents on the Assyrian silver standard would be 267 -- or roundly 300 -- talents on the heavy trade or gold system, which is therefore probably the Hebrew.
At Corinth the unit was evidently the Assyrian and not the Attic, being 129.6 at the earliest (17) (though modified to double Attic, or 133, later) and being divided by 3, and not into 2 drachms. And this agrees with the mina being repeatedly found at Corcyra, and with the same standard passing to the Italian coinage (17) similar in weight, and in division into 1/3 -- the heaviest coinages (17) down to 400 B.C. (Terina, Velia, Sybaris, Posidonia, Metapontum, Tarentum, &c.) being none over 126, while later on many were adjusted to the Attic, and rose to 134.
The Attic and Assyrian standards were used indifferently for either gold or silver.
In the Libra, as in most other standards, the value which happened to be first at hand for the coinage was not the mean of the whole of the weights in the country; the Phoenician coin weight is below the trade average, the Assyrian is above, the Aeginetan is below, but the Roman coinage is above the average of trade weights, or the mean standard.
Hultsch reckons on a ratio of 24:25 between them, and this is very near the true values; the full Attic being 67.3, the Assyrian should be 129.2, and this is just the full gold coinage weight.
Next it is found at Troy (44) in three cases, all high examples of 68.2 to 68.7; and these are very important, since they cannot be dissociated from the Greek Attic unit, and yet they are of a variety as far removed as may be from the half of the Assyrian, which ranges there from 123.5 to 131; thus the difference of unit between Assyrian and Attic in these earliest of all Greek weights is very strongly marked.
The greater part of those weights which bear names indicate a mina of double the usual reckoning, so that there was a light and a heavy system, a mina of the drachma and a mina of the stater, as in the Phoenician and Assyrian weights.
Brandis, Manz-, Mass-, and Gewicht-Wesen (1866) (specially Assyrian);
(10) Id., Ninth Rep. of Warden of Standards (1875) (Assyrian);
(1881), p. 1 73 (Assyrian);
NcvEUrt, Nrl y €rn : Assyrian Nina or Ninua), the best known and highly renowned capital of the Assyrian empire.
There was a quarter or suburb of the old Babylonian city of Lagash whose name was written in the same way; this may possibly have been the home of those settlers from Babylonia who gave its name to the Assyrian city.
The name was carried elsewhere, probably by Assyrian settlers, and we meet with Ninoe in Asia Minor (Th.
Later Assyrian writers professed to carry back its foundation to the creation of the world, but we lack :any historical evidence of its age or early history.
He certainly shows that the old Assyrian mythology influenced Mani, but not that this element did not reach him through Persian channels.
4.49 Chaldaean, , 458 „ 5.9 Arabian, , 2 45 6.45 Assyrian „ 526 „ After these, according to Eusebius, came the reign of Pul.
From other sources we obtain no information whatever about Phraortes; but the data of the Assyrian inscriptions prove that Assur-banipal (see Babylonia And Assyria), at least during the greater part of his reign, maintained the Assyrian supremacy in Western Asia, and that in 645 he conquered Susa.
As a rule the prophets directly connect the final restoration with the removal of the sins of their own age; to Isaiah the last troubles are those of Assyrian invasion, to Jeremiah the restoration follows on the exile to Babylon, to Daniel on the overthrow of the Greek monarchy.
The name has been identified with the Assyrian ablu, " son," but this is far from certain.
The absence of any equivalent names in Babylonian or Assyrian documents is noteworthy, 3 especially as the Babylonians spoke of the "Sea-Country" (mat Tamtim).
The Tharthar (Assyrian Tartar, in Tukulti-Ninib II.'s inscription) begins in the Sinjar range and runs southwards, to lose itself in the desert a little above the latitude of Hit.
The lines of the rivers are marked at frequent intervals by the ruins of flourishing towns of Assyrian, Roman and Caliphate times.
296), an immigration of new elements into Suri - in that case perhaps one of the early representatives of the "Hittite" group. According to the Omens text Sargon seems to have settled colonies in Suri, and suggestions of an anticipation of the later Assyrian policy of transportation have been found by King (op. cit.) under the rulers of this time, and there are evidences of lively intercommunication.
It was from the special type of cuneiform developed there, apparently, that the later Assyrian forms were derived (Winckler, Altorient.
Knowing what we know of the colonizing power of the Assyrians, we may assume that among the "Mitanni" and other elements in the Mesopotamian population there would now be an increase of people of "Assyrian" origin.
Meanwhile Mesopotamia continued to be crossed and recrossed by the endless marches of the Assyrian kings (such as Adad-nirari, Shalmaneser I.
Harran was clearly closely associated with Asshur in the rights and institutions that were the subject of so much party struggle in the new Assyrian empire that began with Tiglath-pileser IV.
4 These new elements may have been more organically attached to the Assyrian state as such than the older inhabitants, to whom the affairs of state at Nineveh would be of little interest.
These settlers doubtless influenced the "Assyrian" language; but gradually, especially in the west, their own language more 4 S.
Johns, An Assyrian Doomsday Book (1901).
Although Aramaic inscriptions of the Assyrian period, like those of Zanjirli or that of King ZKR of Hamath, have not been found in Mesopotamia, already in the time of Shalmaneser II.
The chief towns of ancient Phoenicia, as we know of them from the Amarna tablets (15th century B.C.) and from Egyptian, Assyrian and the Old Testament documents, were the following: Acco (now Acre or Akka, Judg.
31), Achzib (now ez-Zib, ibid.), Ahiab (in Assyrian Mahalliba, ibid.) - three towns on the coast south of Tyre, Kanah (Josh.
But " Sidonians " is the usual designation both in the Old Testament and in the Assyrian monuments (Sidunnu); and even at the time of Tyre's greatest ascendancy we read of Sidonians and not Tyrians in the Old Testament and in Homer; thus Ethbaal king of Tyre (Jos.
During the period which elapsed before the rise of the Assyrian power in Syria the Phoenicians were left to themselves.
was not only king of Tyre, as the Assyrian inscription calls him, but of Sidon too; and further, that by this time Tyre had established a colony in Cyprus (q.v.).
In Tiglath-pileser's Philistine campaign of 734 Byblus and Aradus paid tribute, and an Assyrian chief officer (the Rab-shakeh) was sent to Tyre and extorted from the king, now Metten or Mattun, the large sum of 150 talents of gold (KB.
Elulaeus IX., in Assyrian Lull, who ruled under the name of Pylas, was king of Tyre, Sidon, and other cities at this time (c. 725-690), and at the beginning of his reign suffered from an invasion by Shalmaneser IV.
In Phoenicia, as elsewhere, Assyrian rule created nothing and left nothing behind it but a record of barbarous conquest and extortion.
If this dating is correct, and the Phoenician sea-power was at its height during these years, we can understand why Tyre gave so much trouble to the Assyrian kings.'
In 588 Apries (Pharaoh Hophra) made an attempt 1 The above interpretation of Menander and the Assyrian evidence is based upon Ed.
At an early period Greeks from the south coast of Asia Minor had settled in Cyprus before the Phoenicians founded any colonies there; and it is noticeable that in the Assyrian tribute-lists of the latter half of the 7th century (KB.
14, 2) that the kings of Tyre ruled over Cyprus at the close of the 8th century; but a clear proof that the Phoenician rule was neither ancient nor uninterrupted is given by the fact that the Cyprian Greeks took the trouble to invent a Greek cuneiform character (Cypriote) modelled on the Assyrian.
The Phoenician settlers at the Peiraeus worshipped the Assyrian Nergal, and their proper names are compounded with the names of Babylonian and Arabian deities (NSI.
is a definite attack upon the heathen Sibyl - the Jews and Christians did not attempt to pass off their "forgeries" as genuine - as the mouthpiece of Apollo by a Jew who speaks for the Great God and yet uses a Greek review (49114) of ancient history from the Assyrian empire.
According to Jewish tradition Ezra introduced the Assyrian character (' I '" a much-debated statement which no doubt means that the Aramaic hand in use in Babylonia was adopted by the Jews about the 5th century B.C. Another form of the same hand, allowing for differences of material, is found in Egyptian Aramaic papyri of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. From this were developed (a) the square character used in MSS.
The Assyrian king's sculpture, depicting the embassy and its gifts, is the so-called "black obelisk" now in the British Museum (Nimroud Central Gallery, No.
The most plausible etymology connects the name with the Assyrian guru, either in the sense of "turn" of office at the beginning of the New Year or in that of "pebble" used for votes or lots.
With the same object, though on different lines, the archbishop of Canterbury's Assyrian Mission seeks to influence the Nestorians.
Proclus, too, in his summary of the history of geometry before Euclid, which he probably derived from Eudemus of Rhodes, says that Thales, having visited Egypt, first brought the knowledge of geometry into Greece, Assyrian Discoveries, p. 409.
During the Assyrian supremacy, its king Salamannu (probably not the Shalman of Hos.
The Assyrian king claimed a victory, but his immediate return and subsequent expeditions in 849 and 846 against a similar but unspecified coalition seem to show that he met with no lasting success.
How the hostile kings of Israel and Syria came to fight a common enemy, and how to correlate the Assyrian and Biblical records, are questions which have perplexed all recent writers.
An account of his work is given in Assyrian Discoveries, published early in 1875.
From Assyrian inscriptions it has been gathered that Padi, king of Ekron, was for a time the vassal of Hezekiah of Judah, but regained his independence when the latter was hard pressed by Sennacherib.
The other group comprises the annals and in~ scriptions of the Assyrian kings Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal, recording their invasions of Egypt under the XXVth Dynasty.
In Assyrian the name was Mu~ri, Mien: in Arabic it is Milr, y~.a, pronounced Ma~r in the vulg~mr dialect of Egypt.
These names are certainly of Semitic origin and perhaps derive from the Assyrian with the meaning frontier-land (see MIzRAIM).
Ferrules first appear in the Assyrian iron of the 7th century B.C. The rise of stone work led to great importance of heavy chisels (36) for trimming limestone and Nubian sandstone; such chisels ate usually round rods about 3/4 in.
In the Assyrian iron tools of the 7th century B.C. the long straight rasp (46) is exactly of the modern type.
There are no dated specimens till the Assyrian iron saws (48) of the 7th century B.C. Drills were of flint (49) for hard material and bead-making, of bronze for woodwork.
In the Assyrian tools iron drifis are of slightly twisted scoop form (so), and of centre-bit type with two scraping edges (51).
(3) Synchronisms in the histories of other countries furnish reliable datesGreek, Persian, Babylonian and Biblical dates for the XXVIth Dynasty, Assyrian for the XXVth; less precise are the Biblical date of Rehoboam, contemporary with the invasion of Shishak (Sheshonk) in the XXIInd Dynasty, and the date of the Babylonian.
and Assyrian kings contemporary with Amenhotp IV.
The Ethiopian rule of the XXVth Dynasty was now firmly established, and the resources of the two countries together might have been employed in conquest in Syria and Phoenicia; but at this very time the Assyrian empire, risen to the highest pitch of military greatness, began to menace Egypt.
Tirhaka was energetic in opposing the Assyrian advance, but in 670 B.C. Esarhaddon defeated his army on the border of Egypt, captured Memphis with the royar harem and took great spoil.
Notwithstanding, the Assyrian king entrusted the government and collection of tribute to the native chiefs; twenty princes in all are enumerated in the records, including one Assyrian to hold the key of Egypt at Pelusium.
Scarcely had Esarhaddon withdrawn before Tirhaka returned from his refuge in the south and the Assyrian garrisons were massacred.
We next hear that correspondence with Tirhaka was intercepted, and that Necho, together with Pekrflr of Psapt (at the entrance to the Wadi Tumilat) and the Assyrian governor of Pelusium, was taken to Nineveh in chains to answer the charge of treason.
Whatever may have occurr-ed, it was deemed politic to send Necho back loaded with honors and surrounded by a retinue of Assyrian officials.
This was the last and most tremendous visitation of the Assyrian scourge.
The Assyrian arms again triumphed everywhere, but at the cost of complete exhaustion.
Under the firm and wise rule of Psammetichus, Egypt recovered its prosperity after the terrible losses inflicted by internal wars and the decade of Assyrian invasions.
In the remains of Egyptian and Assyrian art there are numerous representations of chariots, from which it may be seen with what richness they were sometimes ornamented.
None of them, indeed, can be ascribed to a very early period, and hardly any trace can be found of the influence of Assyrian or other Oriental art.
A king Kisu of Silna (Salamis) is mentioned in a list of tributaries of Assur-bani-pal of Assyria in 668 B.C., and Assyrian influence is marked in the fine terra-cotta figures from a shrine at Toumba excavated in 1890-1891.
Ctesias in his history of the Assyrian empire (Diodor.
But the whole Assyrian history of Ctesias is nothing but a fantastic fiction; from the Assyrian inscriptions we know that the Assyrians never entered the eastern parts of Iran.
The Assyrian kings also maintained magnificent parks, or "paradises," in which game of every kind was enclosed; and perhaps it was from them that the Persian sovereigns borrowed the practice mentioned both by Xenophon in the Cyropaedia and by Curtius.
The date of the Cimmerian invasion is fixed by the concurrent testimony of the contemporary poets Archilochus and Callinus, of the late chronologists Eusebius, &c., and of the inscriptions of the Assyrian king Esar-haddon.
In a fragmentary letter from an Assyrian governor to King Sargon (about 715 B.C.) about rebellions of Median chieftains, a dynast Uvakshatar (i.e.
Cyaxares) is mentioned as attacking an Assyrian fortress (Kharkhar, in the chains of the Zagros).
His son, Paul Emile Botta (1802-1870), was a distinguished traveller and Assyrian archaeologist, whose excavations at Khorsabad (1843) were among the first efforts in the line of investigation afterwards pursued by Layard.
Indeed, the other gods, Sin, Shamash (Samas), Adad, Ninib and Nergal, and even Ea, take on the warlike traits of Assur in the epithets and descriptions given of them in the annals and votive inscriptions of Assyrian rulers to such an extent as to make them appear like little Assurs by the side of the great one.
Even during the period that the Assyrian monarchs exercised complete sway over the south, they rested their claims to the control of Babylonia on the approval of Marduk, and they or their representatives never failed to perform the ceremony of "taking the hand" of Marduk, which was the formal method of assuming the throne in Babylonia.
In his name, and with his approval as indicated by favourable omens, the Assyrian armies march to battle.
On the removal of the seat of residence of the Assyrian kings to Calah (c. 1300 B.C.), and then in the 8th century to Nineveh, the centre of the Assur cult was likewise transferred, though the sanctity of the old seat at Assur continued to be recognized.
At Nineveh, which remained the capital till the fall of the Assyrian empire in 606 B.C., Assur had as his rival Ishtar, who was the real patron deity of the place, but a reconciliation was brought about by making Ishtar the consort of the chief god.
She too, like Assur, was viewed as a war deity, and to such an extent was this the case that at times it would appear that she, rather than Assur, presided over the fortunes of the Assyrian armies.
Hezekiah's time may have been selected by the author of the title (or by the tradition which he represents) as being the next great literary period in Judah after Solomon, the time of Micah and Isaiah, or the selection may have been suggested by the military glory of the period (the repulse of the Assyrian army) and by the fame of Hezekiah as a pious monarch and a vigorous reformer of the national religion.
xiii.; Assyrian: Halevy, Melanges (1883); Jager, in Beitr.
New elements no doubt came in under the Assyrian, Persian and Roman dominations, and in more recent times there has been much contamination.
Somewhat later Tiglath-Pileser (c. 1 loo) pushed the limits of Assyrian suzerainty westwards over the lands formerly held by the great Hittite Empire.
Meanwhile Assyria was gradually establishing itself westwards, and a remarkable confederation of the heirs of the old Hittite kingdom, Approach " kings of the land of Hatti " (the Assyrian term o f Assyria.
In 722 Samaria, though under an Assyrian vassal (Hoshea the last king), joined with Philistia in revolt; in 720 it was allied with Gaza and Damascus, and the persistence of unrest is evident when Sargon in 715 found it necessary to transport into Samaria various peoples of the desert.
The cuneiform script, which continued in Egypt during the XIXth and XXth Dynasties, was perhaps still used in Palestine; it was doubtless familiar at least during the Assyrian supremacy.
Thus, in north Syria the art has Assyrian and Hittite affinities, but is provincial and sometimes rough.
Assyrian conquest and domination influenced the cults at all events outside Judah and Israel, and when Sargon sent skilled men to teach " the fear of God and the king " (cyl.
72-74) the spread of Assyrian religious ideas among the Hebrews themselves is to be expected.
Certainly about 600 the Queen of Heaven, who has Assyrian traits, was a favourite object of veneration (Jer.
Down to and at the time of the Assyrian supremacy, Palestine in religion and history was merely part of the greater area of mingled peoples sharing the same characteristics of custom and belief.
This does not mean of course that the religion had no ethical traits - ethical motives are frequently found in the old Oriental religions - but they were bound up with certain naturalistic conceptions of the relation between deities and men, and herein lay their weakness.4 In the age of the Assyrian supremacy Palestine entered upon a series of changes, lasting for about three centuries (from about 740), which were of the greatest significance for its internal development.
From the description of Sennacherib's invasion it is clear that social and economic conditions must have been seriously, perhaps radically disturbed,' and the quiescence of Judah during the next few decades implies an internal weakness and a submission to Assyrian supremacy.
Biblical history itself recognizes in the times of Artaxerxes, Nehemiah and Ezra the commencement of a new era, and although only too much remains obscure we have in these centuries a series of vicissitudes which separate the old Palestine of Egyptian, Hittite, Babylonian and Assyrian supremacy from the land which was about to enter the circle of Greek and Roman civilization.
On the other hand, it is known that it was being diligently, copied by Assur-bani-pal's scribes (7th century B.C.), and in view of the circumstances of the Assyrian domination, it is probable that, so far as Palestinian economic conditions permitted, a legislation more progressive than the Pentateuch Paltistinas Erdgeruch in der Israel.
The discovery at Gezer of Assyrian contracttablets (651 and 648 B.C.) - one relating to the sale of land by a certain Nethaniah - at least suggests the prevalence of Assyrian custom, and this is confirmed by the technical business methods illustrated in Jer.
The simplicity of the legislation (traditionally associated with Moab and Sinai and with Kadesh in South Palestine), the humanitarian and reforming spirit, the condemnation of abuses and customs are features which, in view of the background and scope of Deuteronomy, can hardly be severed from the internal events which connect Palestine of the Assyrian supremacy with the time of Nehemiah.'
This has been the origin of the long succession of Semitic waves - Babylonian, Assyrian, Canaanite, Hebrew, Nabataean, Moslem - that have flowed over Mesopotamia and Palestine; there is every reason to suppose that they will be followed by others, and that the Arab will remain master at the end, as he was in the beginning.
The further enrichment of the object by enamels and inlay of other metals was practised at a very early period by Assyrian, Egyptian and Greek metal-workers, as well as by the artists of Persia and medieval Europe.
The Assyrian king held him as his vassal (and indeed claims to have set him on the throne), and exacted from him a yearly tribute.
1-11), who also gives a vivid description of the impression left by the Assyrian army (v.
The Assyrian records name a certain Sibi.
BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN RELIGION.
of divine government of the universe, the recognition of a large number of gods and their consorts by the side of Marduk remained a firmly embedded doctrine in the Babylonian religion as it did in the Assyrian religion, with the important variation, however,.
predominance of the city of Babylon served to maintain for Marduk recognition even on the part of the Assyrian rulers, who,.
"To take the hand of Bel-Marduk" was the ceremony of installation which Assyrian rulers recognized equally with Babylonians as an essential preliminary to exercising authority in the Euphrates.
But for the substitution of Assur for Marduk, the Assyrian pantheon was the same as that set up in the south, though some of the gods were endowed with attributes which differ slightly from those which mark the same gods in the south.
We thus obtain four periods in the development of the Babylonian-Assyrian religion: (i) the oldest period from_ C. 3500 B.C. to the time of Khammurabi (c. 2250 B.C.); (2) the post-Khammurabic period in Babylonia; (3) the Assyrian period (c. 2000 B.C.) to the destruction of Nineveh in 606 B.C.; (4) the neo-Babylonian period beginning with Nabopolassar (625-604 B.C.), the first independent ruler under whom Babylonia inaugurates a new though short-lived era of power and prosperity, which ends with Cyrus's conquest of Babylon and Babylonia in 539 B.C., though since the religion proceeds on its undisturbed course for several centuries after the end of the political independence, we might legitimately carry this period to the Greek conquest of the Euphrates valley (331 B.C.), when new influences began to make themselves felt which gradually led to the extinction of the old cults.
The persistent prominence which astrology continued to enjoy down to the border-line of the scientific movement of our own days, and which is directly traceable to the divination methods perfected in the Euphrates valley, is a tribute to the scope and influence attained by the astral theology of the Babylonian and Assyrian priests.
In such a movement as early Christian gnosticism, Babylonian elements - modified, to be sure, and transformed - are largely present, while the growth of an apocalyptic literature is ascribed with apparent justice by many scholars to the recrudescence of views the ultimate source of which is to be found in the astral-theology of the Babylonian and Assyrian priests.
Craig, Assyrian and Babylonian Religious Texts (Leipzig, 1895-1897); L.
After the middle of the 12th century follows another long period of comparative neglect, but with the conquest of Babylonia by the Assyrian Sargon, at the close of the 8th century B.C., we meet again with building inscriptions, and under Assur-bani-pal, about the middle of the 7th century, we find E-kur restored with a splendour greater than ever before, the ziggurat of that period being 190 ft.
The text bears a general resemblance to the two well-known Assyrian versions on tablets in the British Museum, but it has been claimed that its phraseology presents a closer parallel to the biblical version of the Deluge story in the "Priestly Code."
The name of Ararat also applies to the Assyrian Urardhu, the country in which the Ark rested after the Deluge (Gen.
The name Urardhu, originally that of a principality which included Mount Ararat and the plain of the Araxes, is given in Assyrian inscriptions from the 9th century B.
His inscriptions are written in cuneiform, in Assyrian, whilst those of his successors are in cuneiform, in their own language, which is neither Aryan nor Semitic. The kings of Biainas extended their kingdom eastward and westward, and defeated the Assyrians and Hittites.
SHALMANESER I., son of Hadad-nirari I., succeeded his father as king of Assyria about 1310 B.C. He carried on a series of campaigns against the Aramaeans in northern Mesopotamia, annexed a portion of Cilicia to the Assyrian empire, and established Assyrian colonies on the borders of Cappadocia.
To these local examples may be added the lord (or lady) of life, a serpent-deity of the Assyrian city Der (Winckler and Zimmern, Keilinschrift.
pounded by Deecke 7 in 1877, that the Phoenician alphabet had developed out of the late Assyrian cuneiform, never met with much acceptance and has really no evidence in its favour.
Either two sounds are confused under one symbol, or these records represent a dialect which, like Hebrew and Assyrian, shows sh, z, and c, where the ordinary Aramaic representation is t, d, and t, the Arabic tic, dh, and th.
In the case of Tearchus, the miscellaneous levies which he employed himself and those which composed the Egyptian and Assyrian armies opposed to him, and the lands that Egypt and Ethiopia traded with, must all have been counted, partly through misunderstanding, partly through wilful perversion, to his empire.
The cuneiform inscriptions of Van are very numerous, the town having been the capital of the Vannic kingdom of the Assyrian period.
Van occupies the site of Dhuspas, of which the native name was Biainas (Assyrian, Urardhu), the Byana of Ptolemy and the Ivan of Cedrenus, whence the modern Van.
Whether he came to the throne before or after the fall of Samaria (722721 B.C.) is disputed,' nor is it clear what share Judah took in the Assyrian conflicts down to 701.2 Shortly before this date the whole of western Asia was in a ferment; Sargon had died and Sennacherib had come to the throne (in 705); vassal kings plotted to recover their independence and Assyrian puppets were removed by their opponents.
3 Sennacherib completely routed them at Eltekeh (a Danite city), and thence turned against Hezekiah, who had been in league with Ekron and had imprisoned its king Padi, an Assyrian vassal.
In this invasion of Judah the Assyrian claims entire success; 46 towns of Judah were captured, 200,150 men and many herds of cattle were carried off among the spoil, and Jerusalem itself was closely invested.
Here the Assyrian record ends somewhat abruptly, for, in the meanwhile, Babylonia had again revolted (700 B.C.) and Sennacherib's presence was urgently needed nearer home.
youthful Hezekiah at his succession or is to be associated with the later widespread attempt to remove the Assyrian yoke.'
The brief account of the Assyrian invasion, Hezekiah's submission, and the payment of tribute in 2 Kings xviii.
14-16, supplements the Assyrian record by the statement that Sennacherib besieged Lachish, a fact which is confirmed by a basrelief (now in the British Museum) depicting the king in the act of besieging that town.
On the whole, the question must be left open, and with it both the problem of the extension of the name Musri and Mizraim outside Egypt in the Assyrian and Hebrew records of this period and the true historical background of a number of the Isaianic prophecies.
Allusions to the Assyrian oppression are found in Isa.
Sargon's campaigns in north Syria, Cilicia and south-east Asia Minor (721-711) provoked first attacks, then an embassy and submission in 709, from seven kings of Yatnana (the Assyrian name for Cyprus); and an inscription of Sargon himself, found.
at Citium, proves an Assyrian protectorate, and records tribute of gold, silver and various timbers.
(all the Assyrian and biblical evidence).
Among a great series of engraved silver bowls,' found mostly in Cyprus, but also as far off as Nineveh, Olympia, Caere and Praeneste, some examples show almost unmixed imitation of Egyptian scenes and devices; in others, Assyrian types are introduced among the Egyptian in senseless confusion; in others, both traditions are merged in a mixed art, which betrays a return to naturalism and a new sense of style, like that of the Idaean bronzes in Crete.° From its intermediate position between the art of Phoenicia and its western colonies (so far as this is known) and the earliest Hellenic art in the Aegean, this style has been called Graeco-Phoenician.
Ashur rises into majestic sovereignty as the " Ruler of all the gods," the supreme religious form of Assyrian sway: when the empire falls beneath the revived power of Babylon, he fades away and disappears.
Consequently it is uncertain whether Edom was the vassal of the next great Israelite king Jeroboam II., or whether the Assyrian evidence for its independent position belongs to this later time.
The Assyrian inscriptions name as tributary kings of Edom, Kausmelek (time of Tiglath-Pileser IV.), Malik (?)-ram (701 B.C.), and Kaus-gabri (7th century).
In the chains of Zagros we find, in Babylonian and Assyrian times, no trace of Iranians; but partly Semitic peoplesthe Gutaeans, Lulubaeans, &c.partly tribes that we can refer to no known ethnological group, e.g.
Later still, in the Assyrian inscriptions we occasionally meet with Iranian names borne by North-Syrian princese.g.
Of the Assyrian kings, Shalmaneser (Salmanassar) II.
was the first to take the field against the Medes in 836 B.C., and from that period onwards they are frequently mentioned in the Assyrian annals.
None the less, the Assyrian statements with regard to the Medes demonstrate that the Iranians must have reached the west of Iran before 900 B.C. It is probable that at this period the Persians also were domiciled in their later home, even though we have no direct evidence to adduce.
The Assyrian inscriptions demonstrate, however, that Zoroasters teaching was dominant in Media two centuries before Cyrus.
Not till the last years of Assur-bani-pal, on which the extant Assyrian annals are silent, can an independent Median Empire have arisen.
The Scythian invasion evidently contributed largely to the enfeeblement of the Assyrian Empire: for in the same year the Chaldaen Nabopolassar founded the New-Babylonian empire; and in 606 B.C. Cyaxares captured and destroyed Nifieveh and the other Assyrian cities.
Of the states which arose out of the shattered Assyrian Empire (Media, Babylon, Egypt, Cilicia and Lydia), Media was by far the strongest.
One of these is the Assyrian; the real nature of second is still a mystery.
Kummukh, however, the district to which it belonged, was overrun by early Assyrian kings.
In consequence of revolt it was made an Assyrian province in 708 B.C. When the Assyrian empire passed through the hands of Babylon and Persia into those of the successors of Alexander, Samosata was the capital of Kummukh, called in Greek Commagene.
Bola was an Assyrian term for Bael or Bel, the god of the Phoenicians and Druids.
the Treres, settling in Thrace, and crossing into Asia; others settled in southern Russia, leaving their name in the Crimea; then when hard pressed by the Scythians most of them passed round the east end of the Euxine into Asia Minor, probably being the people known as Gimirri on Assyrian monuments, and ravaged that region, the relics of the race finally settling at Sinope.
BORSIPPA (Barsip in the Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions; Borsif in the Talmud; mod.
Tirhakah, who had reoccupied Egypt, fled to Ethiopia, and the Assyrian army spent forty days in ascending the Nile from Memphis to Thebes.
Memphis was taken by assault and the Assyrian troops driven out of the country.
The resources of the Assyrian empire were strained to their utmost.
Northern Arabia was traversed by the Assyrian forces, the Nabataeans were almost exterminated, and the desert tribes terrorized into order.
Elam was alone left to be dealt with, and the last resources of the empire were therefore expended in preventing it from ever being again a thorn in the Assyrian side.
The library was contained in the palace that he built on the northern side of the mound of Kuyunjik and lined with sculptured slabs which display Assyrian art at its best.
Botta, then French consul at Mosul, discovered the remains of an Assyrian palace and town, at which excavations were conducted by him and Flandin in 1843-1844, and again by Victor Place in 1851-1855.
Up to 1909 this was the only Assyrian palace which had ever been explored systematically, in its entirety, and fortunately it was found on the whole in an admirable state of preservation.
An immense number of statues and bas-reliefs, excavated by Botta, were transported to Paris, and formed the first Assyrian museum opened to the world.
As already stated, the matrices of ancient Babylonian and Assyrian seals, usually cut on precious stones, are in cylinder form.
The fine collection in the British Museum presents us with Babylonian specimens of even archaic times, Assyrian followed by an historical series, the earliest of which is of nearly 4500 years B.C. The Assyrian series is not so full.
It was first applied to the extreme southern district, whose ancient capital was the city of Bit Yakin, the chief seat of the renowned Chaldaean rebel Merodach-baladan, who harassed the Assyrian kings Sargon and Sennacherib.
In the days of the Assyrian king Rammannirari III.
32), one of the generals of Sardanapalus, king of Assyria and founder of the Median empire about 830 B.C. But Ctesias's whole history of the Assyrian and Median empires is absolutely fabulous; his Arbaces and his successors are not historical personages.
Again, many devices of civilization bear unmistakable marks of derivation from a lower source; thus the ancient Egyptian and Assyrian harps, which differ from ours in having no front pillar, appear certainly to owe this remarkable defect to having grown up through intermediate forms from the simple strung bow, the still used type of the most primitive stringed instrument.
Among the Semitic peoples (with the notable exception of the Hebrews) a supreme female deity was worshipped under different names - the Assyrian Ishtar, the Phoenician Ashtoreth (Astarte), the Syrian Atargatis (Derketo), the Babylonian Belit (Mylitta), the Arabian Ilat (Al-ilat).
There is not only no room in history for this Median king of the Book of Daniel, but it is also highly likely that the interpolation of "Darius the Mede" was caused by a confusion of history, due both to the destruction of the Assyrian capital Nineveh by the Medes, sixty-eight years before the capture of Babylon by Cyrus, and also to the fame of the later king, Darius Hystaspis, a view which was advanced as early in the history of biblical criticism as the days of the Benedictine monk, Marianus Scotus.
In 1857 he was appointed professor of Sanscrit in the school of languages connected with the National Library in Paris, and in this capacity he produced a Sanscrit grammar; but his attention was chiefly given to Assyrian and cognate subjects, and he was especially prominent in establishing the Turanian character of the language originally spoken in Assyria.
In 1869 Oppert was appointed professor of Assyrian philology and archaeology at the College de France.
Oppert was a voluminous writer upon Assyrian mythology and jurisprudence, and other subjects connected with the ancient civilizations of the East.
The employment of liquid fire is represented on Assyrian bas-reliefs.
In Assyrian mounds limestone and alabaster are the chief material.
It was as a vassal that Ahaz presented himself to the Assyrian king at Damascus, and he brought back religious innovations (2 Kings xvi.
3 Johns, Assyrian Deeds, iii.
A name of a deity on an Assyrian inscription of the 12th century B.C. has been read as Baal-zabubi, but this reading has now been abandoned in favour of Baal-sapunu (Baal-Zephon).5 Cheyne considers that Baalzebub is a " contemptuous uneuphonic Jewish modification of the true name Baalzebul."
21 sqq.), Shem numbers among his descendants Assyrian, Arabian, Aramaean and Hebrew populations, whence the ethnic Semitic (strictly speaking, Shemitic) has been coined as a convenient term for these peoples.
It is not altogether scientific, since the Lydians (Lud) and Elamites are included among Shem's "sons," apparently on account of their geographical position or because of their indebtedness to Assyrian culture.
As seven is the perfect number and as Balaam had ordered seven altars to be built, the Redactor thought it would be well to have seven M6shalim or metrical oracles; and so he added other three which are certainly not pertinent to the situation, as they allude not merely to the Assyrian empire but to the Macedonian, and even, as some maintain, to the Roman empire, cf.
and other Assyrian kings so anxious to possess themselves of Babylon and so to legitimize their power.
In the subsequent overthrow of the Assyrian empire the Babylonians saw another example of divine vengeance.
They are copies of the Egyptian, both in form and posture, wearing the pshent and the uraeus, but distinguished by having the Assyrian wings.
On a Persian intaglio are two sphinxes face to face, each wearing a tiara and guarding a sacred plant which is seen between them; but the sphinx, whether of the Egyptian or the Assyrian type, is not found in Persian sculptures (Perrot and Chipiez, History of Art in Persia, Eng.
They are Egyptian sphinxes treated in the Assyrian style.
It must have been composed in a time of natural gloom and depression, after Yahweh's anger had been provoked by "a very froward generation," certainly not before the Assyrian Empire had loomed up against the political horizon, aggressive and menacing.
is scarcely pre-exilic, yet naturally there had always been a close relation between Judah and the south, as the Assyrian inscriptions of the latter part of the 8th century B.C. indicate.
The name Dagon seems to come from ddg " fish," and that his idol was half-man half-fish is possible from the ichthyomorphic representations found upon coins of Ascalon and Arvad, and from the fact that Berossus speaks of an Assyrian merman-god.
The name is derived from that of Assur-danin-pal, the rebel son of Shalmaneser II., whose reign ended with the fall of Nineveh in 823 B.C. (or perhaps from that of Assur-dan III., the last king but one of the older Assyrian dynasty); his character is that ascribed to Assur-bani-pal.
The name is first found under the form of Luddi in the inscriptions of the Assyrian king Assurbani-pal, who received tribute from Gyges about 660 B.C. In Homer we read only of Maeonians (Il.
The Assyrian inscriptions have shown that the Assyrians had never crossed the Halys, much less known the name of Lydia, before the age of Assur-bani-pal, and consequently the theory which brought the Heraclids from Nineveh must be given up. But the Hittites, another Oriental people, deeply imbued with the elements of Babylonian culture, had overrun Asia Minor and established themselves on the shores of the Aegean before the reign of the Egyptian king Rameses II.
Zahn (Forschungen zur Geschichte des Kanons, i.) and most writers 1 Tatian describes himself as an " Assyrian," and though the terms " Assyrian " and " Syrian " are used very loosely by ancient writers, it is probable that he was born E.
Epiphanius, in another passage, calls him an Assyrian.