When ordered abroad they could nominate a son, if capable, to hold the benefice and carry on the duty.
The Florentine mosaics are perhaps better known abroad; they are composed of larger pieces than the Roman.
So, as you are now too old to wander abroad and work in a circus, I offer you a home here as long as you live.
Cole, Light Railways at Home and Abroad; Lieut.-Col.
Champignons are highly esteemed (and especially is this the case abroad) for adding a most delicious flavour to stews, soups and gravies.
Abroad no one will know anything about it.
One of my two brothers is already abroad, the other is with the Guards, who are starting on their march to the frontier.
The consuming power of the population was greatly diminished, and in the year following the crisis the imports into Australia from abroad diminished by four and three-quarter millions.
We are for the most part more lonely when we go abroad among men than when we stay in our chambers.
Eardwulf dux, who had apparently fled abroad to escape the wrath of !Ethelred, was now recalled and held the crown until 807 or 808.
A son of William Thistlewood, and born at Tupholme in Lincolnshire, young Thistlewood passed his early years in a desultory fashion; he became a soldier and visited France and America, imbibing republican opinions abroad and running into debt at home.
Slaves were recruited by purchase abroad, from captives taken in war and by freemen degraded for debt or crime.
The result of deliberation, aided by the advice and experience of Lord Eliot, was that it was almost immediately decided to fix Gibbon for some years abroad under the roof of M.
Proposing to seek his fortune abroad, he went on foot to Nantes, but was there prostrated by an illness so severe that all thoughts of emigration were perforce abandoned.
At Saragossa Peter Arbue, a canon and an ardent inquisitor, was slain in 1485 whilst praying in a church; and the threats against the hated Torquemada made him go in fear of his life, and he never went abroad without an escort of forty familiars of the Holy Office on horseback and two hundred more on foot.
And so toward the end of the year he went abroad to be initiated into the higher secrets of the order.
During the summer his fortunes ebbed, and he was soon superseded by his kinsman Owen Roe O'Neill, who returned from military service abroad at the end of July.
They adopted the French tongue, and were presently among the first to practise and spread abroad its literature.
On the 26th of August 1716 he wrote to Alexius from abroad urging him, if he desired to remain tsarevich, to join him and the army without delay.
He decided that he must attend to his son's education by finding a tutor and putting the boy in his charge, then he ought to retire from the service and go abroad, and see England, Switzerland and Italy.
Partly owing to its being written in French, partly to its character, the Essai excited more attention abroad than at home.
Zherkov had met Dolokhov abroad as a private and had not seen fit to recognize him.
Instead, the poorest nations should simply resign themselves to importing their food from abroad and instead get jobs working in cities in factories.
He did not, however, as has been supposed, spend the best years of his manhood abroad, for he was certainly at home in 1571, when the preliminaries of his marriage were arranged at Merchiston; and in 1572 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Stirling of Keir.
She told her how he had complimented her, how he told her he was going abroad, asked her where they were going to spend the summer, and then how he had asked her about Boris.
Although there is no direct evidence of the fact, there can be no doubt that he left St Andrews to complete his education abroad, and that he probably studied at the university of Paris, and visited Italy and Germany.
These emigrants remain abroad for several years, even when they do not definitively establish themselves there.
Nothing, however, was done during the remainder of the year, and John, feeling his position had grown stronger, went abroad early in 1214, and remained for some months in France.
The last eighteen months of this residence abroad saw the infusion of two new elements - one of them at least of considerable importance - into his life.
The Sacred College having decided to hold the conclave abroad, Crispi assured them of absolute freedom if they remained in Rome, or of protection to the frontier should they migrate, but warned them that, once evacuated, the Vatican would be occupied in the name of the Italian government and be lost to the Church as headquarters of the papacy.
He studied law for three years in South Carolina, and then spent two years abroad, studying French and Italian in Paris and jurisprudence at Edinburgh.
Abroad unsuccessful attempts were made by local councils to enact that officials and vicars-general should be in holy orders (Hefele on Councils of Tortosa in 1429 and Sixth of Milan in 1582).
was ill and childless; his sister-in-law, the prospective queen, Anne, had just lost her only surviving child, William, duke of Gloucester; and abroad the supporters of the exiled king, James II., were numerous and active.
At Kamenka a relay of horses was to wait which would take them to the Warsaw highroad, and from there they would hasten abroad with post horses.
They therefore requested him to call a "national synod of the bishopsof the Anglican Church at home and abroad," to meet under his leadership. After consulting both houses of the Convocation of Canterbury, Archbishop Longley assented, and convened all the bishops of the Anglican Communion (then 144 in number) to meet at Lambeth in 1867.
The price of Italian consolidated 5% (gross, 4% net, allowing for the 20% income tax) stock, which is the security most largely negotiated abroad, and used in settling differences between large financial institutions, has steadily risen during recent years.
His enemies at home were crushed, and their leader, Berthold, elector of Mainz, was dead; while the outlook abroad was more favourable than it had been since his accession.
The plaintiff could swear to his loss by brigands, as to goods claimed, the price paid for a slave purchased abroad or the sum due to him.
Fleeming Jenkin was educated at first in Scotland, but in 1846 the family went to live abroad, owing to financial straits, and he studied at Genoa University, where he took a first-class degree in physical science.
Under the provisions of this law the provinces were authorized to borrow specie abroad and deposit the same with the national government as security for their issues.
In recent years attempts have been made by Albanians resident abroad to propagate the national idea among their compatriots at home; committees have been formed at Brussels, Bucharest, Athens and elsewhere, and books, pamphlets and newspapers are surreptitiously sent into the country.
He lectured in the schools on natural philosophy, and on Greek in his own rooms. In 1540 Smith went abroad, and, after studying in France and Italy and taking a degree of law at Padua, returned to Cambridge in 1542.
The public credit was pledged at home and abroad to fill the pockets of the adventurers, and the wildest excesses were committed under the guise of administrative acts.
I am anxious about him and glad he is taking this trip abroad which the doctors recommended long ago.
A man who bought a slave abroad, might find that he had been stolen or captured from Babylonia, and he had to restore him to his former owner without profit.
In 1529 he produced a free version (Klagbrief der armen Diirftigen in England) of the famous Supplycacyon of the Beggers, written abroad (1528 ?) by Simon Fish.
Dangers from abroad would destroy the centrifugal forces at home, and the Union would be saved.
"And so you've had him educated abroad, Prince Vasili, haven't you?" said the old prince to Prince Vasili.
than in Italy; both at home and abroad she is hemmed in ~ / by political and economic conditions which leave un/s a.
I said so even at the time when everybody was in raptures about him, when he had just returned from abroad, and when, if you remember, he posed as a sort of Marat at one of my soirees.
Bernardone's commercial enterprises made him travel abroad, and it was from the fact that the father was in France at the time of his son's birth that the latter was called Francesco.
Abroad, Catholic countries Italian at first received the tidings with resignation, and occupa.
Although both abroad and at home his policy had generally embodied the wishes of the ascendant party in the state, Danby had never obtained the confidence of the nation.
You could sit up as late as you pleased, and, whenever you got up, go abroad without any landlord or house-lord dogging you for rent.
After being depressed between 5885 and 1894, the prices in Italy and abroad reached, in 1899, on the Rome Stock Exchange, the average 01 100.83 and of 94.8 on the Paris Bourse.
The scandals of the bowling alleys grew rampant in Elizabethan London, and Stephen Gosson in his School of Abuse (1579) says, "Common bowling alleys are privy moths that eat up the credit of many idle citizens; whose gains at home are not able to weigh down their losses abroad; whose shops are so far from maintaining their play, that their wives and children cry out for bread, and go to bed supperless often in the year."
Uriburu was neither a politician nor a statesman, but had spent the greater portion of his life abroad in the diplomatic service.
The parcel post and money order services have largely increased since 1887--1888, the number of parcels having almost doubled (those for abroad are more than trebled), while the number of money orders issued is trebled and their value doubled (about 40,000,000).
Another son, Charles King (1789-1867), was also educated abroad, was captain of a volunteer regiment in the early part of the war of 1812, and served in 1814 in the New York Assembly, and after working for some years as a journalist was president of Columbia College in 1849-1864.
Not long after his accession to office Gorchakov issued a circular to the foreign powers, in which he announced that Russia proposed, for internal reasons, to keep herself as free as possible from complications abroad, and he added the now historic phrase, "La Russie ne boude pas; die se recueille."
After the congress he continued to hold the post of minister for foreign affairs, but lived chiefly abroad, and resigned formally in 1882, when he was succeeded by M.
It can sell produce abroad for better rates, give farmers predictability in pricing and flexibility on when to sell, and act as a storehouse against lean times in the future.
All these forces were equally necessarythe revolutionists to keep up agitation and make government by bayonets impossible; the moderates to curb the impetuosity of the revolutionists and to present a scheme of society that was neither reactionary nor anarchical; the volunteers abroad to gain military experience; and the more peaceful exiles to spread the name of Italy among foreign peoples.
He escaped from Brecknock Castle to Flanders, avoided Buckingham's fate, and devoted his energies during the next two years to creating a party in England and abroad in the interests of the earl of Richmond.
I had this advantage, at least, in my mode of life, over those who were obliged to look abroad for amusement, to society and the theatre, that my life itself was become my amusement and never ceased to be novel.
Abroad its navigators monopolized the commerce of the world, and explored unknown seas; at home the Dutch school of painting reached its acme in Rembrandt (1607-1669); and the philological reputation of the country was sustained by Grotius, Vossius and the elder Heinsius.
A vast amount of material on the Risorgimenti has been published both in Italy and abroad as well as numeron works of a literary and critical nature.
The national government has founded several scholarships (some in art) for study abroad.
He then travelled abroad.
Both shook the proffered hand, surprised to be greeted by a man once charged with overseeing the wars abroad.
He joined O'Donnell and Espartero in 1854 against a revolutionary cabinet, and shortly afterwards turned against O'Donnell to assist the Democrats and Progressists under Prim, Rivero, Castelar, and Sagasta in the unsuccessful movements of 1866, and was obliged to go abroad.
The national government has since assumed responsibility for all these provincial loans abroad.
This proof of the desire of the Argentine government to meet honestly all its obligations did much to restore its credit abroad.
28 a descends entire in order of primogeniture, and by preference to the male heir; the emperor and his consort must belong to the Eastern Orthodox Church; the emperor can wear no crown that entails residence abroad.
That conviction he put into practice with extreme rigour during the thirty years of his reign (1825-55), endeavouring by every means at his disposal to prevent revolutionary ideas from germinating spontaneously among his subjects and from being imported from abroad.
From the numerous incidental references in his works, and from his knowledge of European literature, it may be inferred that he spent some time abroad.
His father's library, though large in comparison with that he commanded at Lausanne, contained, he says, " much trash "; but a gradual process of reconstruction transformed it at length into that " numerous and select " library which was " the foundation of his works, and the best comfort of his life both at home and abroad."
But its circulation was limited, and only the second volume had appeared (1768) when Deyverdun went abroad.
This theory Gibbon completely exploded in his Critical Observations (1770) - no very difficult task, indeed, but achieved in a style, and with a profusion of learning, which called forth the warmest commendations both at home and abroad.
He commanded a troop of horse in Scotland in 1639; was involved in army plots in 1641, for which he was committed to the Tower, but escaped abroad; and on the outbreak of the Civil War returned to England and served with Prince Rupert, being present at Marston Moor, the second battle of Newbury and Naseby.
After studying law and philosophy at the high schools of his native town and Miskolcz, he travelled abroad.
After his return to America he had other offers from abroad, and thereafter was engaged in mining development throughout the world.
Meantime he saw much service in the army abroad, where he served with conspicuous bravery and not without distinction.
This scheme got noised abroad, and was ruined by a decree of the Assembly of the 7th of November 1789, that no member of the Assembly could become a minister; this decree destroyed any chance of that necessary harmony between the ministry and the majority of the representatives of the nation which existed in England, and so at once overthrew Mirabeau's hopes.
During the first half of his government he materially strengthened the Tudor monarchy by the vigorous administration of justice at home and by the brilliance of his foreign policy abroad.
A religious order, largely composed of immigrants from abroad, could not permanently rule a state which had developed a national feeling of its own; and the native aristocracy, both of the towns and the country, revolted against its dominion.
Pasteur was now the acknowledged head of the greatest chemical movement of the time, the recipient of honours both from his own country and abroad, and installed at the E.
The old infirmary building is now occupied by St Joseph's College, a commercial academy of the Marist Brotherhood, in connexion with which there is a novitiate for the training of members of the order for missionary service at home or abroad.
It is the fashion of them to wear cloaks when they go abroad, but especially on Sundays.
On the other hand, he had enjoyed the advantage of an extended supply of feeding-stuffs - such as maize, linseedcake and cotton-cake - and of artificial manures imported from abroad.
The offal, which is quite as valuable as the flour itself, was thus retained abroad instead of being utilized for stock-feeding purposes in the United Kingdom.
The Hampshire Down Sheep Breeders' Association may be taken as a type of the latter, its principal object being to encourage the breeding of Hampshire Down sheep at home and abroad, and to maintain the purity of the breed.
JOHAN FRIIS (1494-1570), Danish statesman, was born in 1 494, and was educated at Odense and at Copenhagen, completing his studies abroad.
Shortly before his starting, an open rupture was scarcely averted; and he and his brothers allowed the idea to get abroad that he was being virtually banished from France.
In the popular imagination he seemed to be the only possible guarantor of victory abroad and order at home.
The executive powers were placed almost entirely in his hands, as will be seen by the terms of article 41 which defined his functions: "The First Consul promulgates the laws; he appoints and dismisses at will the members of the Council of State, the ministers, the ambassadors and other leading agents serving abroad, the officers of the army and navy, the members of local administrative bodies and the commissioners of government attached to the tribunals.
They were weary of a means of pacification which produced endless wars abroad and misery at home.
In June 1338 he was once more sent abroad to secure peace, but within a month of his appointment 1 De Ill.
The revival of learning was at hand, and William Turner, a Northumbrian, while residing abroad to avoid persecution at home, printed at Cologne in 1544 the first commentary on the birds mentioned by Aristotle and Pliny conceived in anything like the spirit that moves modern naturalists.'
8vo, 1802; supplement 1813), the merits of British which have been so long and so fully acknowledged both abroad and at home that no further comment is here wanted.
In addition to the books mentioned above he published a number of books which had a remarkable circulation in England and America, such as Speaking to the Heart (1862); The Way to Life (1862); Man and the Gospel (1865); The Angel's Song (1865); The Parables (1866); Our Father's Business (1867); Out of Harness (1867); Early Piety (1868); Studies of Character from the Old Testament (1868-1870); Sundays Abroad (1871).
In the region of foreign affairs it was in communication with envoys abroad, and its orders would override those of the senate.
It is due to the memory of the judges of Lord Coke's time to say that, at any rate as regards contracts made in partibus transmarinis, the same rule appears to have been applied at least as early as 1544, the judges then holding that "for actions transitory abroad action may lie at common law."
The principal tools of the Malays are the parang or golok, a heavy knife used in the jungle, without which no peasant ever stirs abroad from his house, the beliong or native axe, and the pisau Taut, which is used for scraping rattan.
The year 461 marks the reversal of Athenian policy at home and abroad.
He was one of the first Muscovites who diligently collected foreign books, and we hear of as many as sixty-nine Latin works being sent to him at one time from abroad.
In addition, we learn that he went abroad, probably to France, in his thirty-fourth year, where, after 10 years of hesitation and preparation, he composed, about 560, the work bearing his name.
Some improvement was now effected in the financial administration, but the genera] state of the country continued to grow worse; large funds were collected abroad by the committees at Athens, which despatched numerous bands largely composed of Cretans into the southern districts, the Servians displayed renewed activity in the north, while the Bulgarians offered a dogged resistance to all their foes.
To the troops drawn from their own dominions the mercenaries which the kings procured from abroad were an important supplement.
There he became fellow in 1818, and after some time spent abroad he began to read law in London in the following year.
Before taking up residence in his parish he once more went abroad, and made in Rome the acquaintance of the Chevalier Bunsen, who afterwards dedicated to him part of his work, Hippolytus and his Age.
Her blunt manners, her unconcealed scorn of the male favourites that disgraced the court, and perhaps also her sense of unrequited merit, produced an estrangement between her and the empress, which ended in her asking permission to travel abroad.
I-11) that it was the custom for scholars to travel abroad and, like the scholars of medieval Europe, to increase their knowledge by personal association with wise men throughout the world.
Owing to the inadequate supply of labour two important immigration leagues of business men were formed in 1904 and 1905, and in 1907 the state government began officially to attempt to secure desirable foreign immigration, sending agents abroad to foster it.
Under the conditions of free labour, the development of railways abroad, the improvement of machinery both in cane and beet producing countries, the general competition of the beet, and the fall of prices, it was impossible for the Cuban industry to survive without radical betterment of methods.
His pupil then went abroad, but Law was left at Putney, where he remained in Gibbon's house for more than ten years, acting as a religious guide not only to the family but to a number of earnest-minded folk who came to consult him.
Towards the end of the 'nineties he was arrested, escaped and went abroad.
During his second stay abroad (1906-17) Lenin published several pamphlets and books which attracted a good deal of attention.
Turkey had originally maintained, no representatives abroad, and appointed such only for special occasions as e.g.
Upon its approach the prince regent fled, and the country was occupied by Junot, most of the Portuguese troops being disbanded or sent abroad.
The confederates, thereupon, appealed for help abroad and contributed to bring about a war between Russia and Turkey.
The days on which the Pithoigia and Chas were celebrated were both regarded as Corotpbses (nefasti) and µcapai ("defiled"), necessitating expiatory libations; on them the souls of the dead came up from the underworld and walked abroad; people chewed leaves of whitethorn and besmeared their doors with tar to protect themselves from evil.
He carried on a successful warfare against the old combination laws that hampered workmen and favoured masters; he brought about the repeal of the laws prohibiting the export of machinery and of the act preventing workmen from going abroad.
Prolonged service abroad possessed little attraction for the pick of the Roman youth, and recruiting for the cavalry from the equestrian centuries was discontinued.
Ulmanis, with numerous Letts abroad and in Russia.
On leaving the university, the two brothers travelled abroad, visiting Lyons and Geneva, and residing for some while at Augsburg.
He was proclaimed on the 3rd of September 1658, and at first his accession was acclaimed with general favour both at home and abroad.
At the age of twelve he was sent abroad to complete his education, and resided at the principal universities of Germany, Holland, France, Italy and Switzerland for seventeen years.
The result was that the national treasury became burdened with a heavy annual interest charge, payable abroad in gold, which did not tend to diminish, and had a long period to run before the expiration of the contracts.
Galgano (infra), built in black and white marble, was begun in the early years of the 13th century, but interrupted by the plague of 1248 and wars at home and abroad, and in 1317 its walls were extended to the baptistery of San Giovanni; a further enlargement was begun in 1339 but never carried out, and a few ruined walls and arches alone remain to show the magnificence of the uncompleted design, which would have produced one of the largest churches in the-world.
It was the general opinion abroad that the Magyars would either relapse into heathendom, or become the vassals of the Holy Roman Empire, and this opinion was reflected in the increasingly hostile attitude of the popes towards the Arpad kings.
The immediate result of the papal alliance was to enable Hungary, under both Ladislaus and his capable successor Coloman [Kalman] (1095-1116), to hold her own against all her enemies, and extend her dominion abroad by conquering Croatia and a portion of the Dalmatian coast.
On the other hand, the principle of the exemption of all the nobles from taxation is confirmed, as well as their right to refuse military service abroad, the defence of the realm being their sole obligation.
Yet, despite this inward rottenness, Hungary, for nearly twenty years after the death of Matthias, enjoyed an undeserved prestige abroad, due entirely to the reputation which that great monarch had won for her.
At last the estates of even the most devoted adherents of the Habsburgs were not safe, and some of them, like the wealthy Istvan Illeshazy (1540-1609), had to fly abroad to save their heads.
who looked abroad for help to the enemies of the house of Habsburg.
Szechenyi, who had resided abroad and studied Western institutions, was the recognized leader of all those who wished to create a new Hungary out of the old.
The national credit was so seriously impaired abroad that foreign loans could only be obtained at ruinous rates of interest.
The adventuress, having taken refuge abroad, published Memoires in which she accused the queen.
After the turn of the century, however, a new generation arose both among Croats and Serbs, which had received its education abroad, and especially in Prague, where the ethical and political teachings of Prof. Masaryk exercised a remarkable influence over the progressive youth of all Slav countries.
Abroad the new King's position was prejudiced by the hideous crime which led to his accession, but among his own people this was from the first atoned for by the introduction of a real constitutional regime and increased political stability.
Yugoslav Propaganda Abroad.
It was left to the Yugoslav Committee abroad to claim independence as well as unity, to repudiate the Habsburgs (in a manifesto on the eve of the Budapest coronation) and to exalt the achievements of Serbia and the Karagjorgjevic dynasty.
Moreover the collapse of Tsarism had deprived Mr. Pasic of his strongest support abroad, and forced him to abandon his narrowly Orthodox basis and bring his policy more into line with modern democratic tendencies.
One of the first steps of the new Zagreb Government was to recognize Trumbic and his committee as its representatives abroad, and to send delegates to Switzerland to discuss the measures for consummating national unity.
In many quarters it was openly accepted on the ground that any constitution was better than none, and that further delays and discussions would arrest the new State's development and discredit it abroad: but the settlement could not be regarded as definitive.
In 1741 he signed the protest for Walpole's dismissal and went abroad on account of his health.
In the troublous state of European politics the earl's conduct and experience were more useful abroad than at home, and he was sent to the Hague as ambassador a second time.
His last play was exhibited in 160 B.C., and shortly after its production he went abroad, "when he had not yet completed his twenty-fifth year."
Her great deliverance and victory naturally stirred up the energies of Syracuse at home and abroad.
He spent a few years in Picardy, and was still abroad when, in 1491, Bothwell's mission to secure a bride for the young James IV.
Of these two physicians the first probably, the latter certainly, was educated and practised abroad, but John Gaddesden (1280?-1361), the author of Rosa anglica seu Practica medicinae (between 1305 and 1317), was a graduate in medicine of Merton College, Oxford, and court physician.
Laennec and Claude Bernard in France, was accepted in England, as that of Matthew Baillie, Charles Bell, Bright, Graves and others of the British school, quickly made itself felt abroad.
Those physicians who had occupied themselves in the study of the exacter sciences, or more closely or more exclusively of the wreckage of the post mortem room, were the strongest men of this school, whether in England or abroad.
Both combatants had, according to the absurd habit of the time, to disown their works, Desfontaines's disavowal being formal and procured by the exertion of all Voltaire's own influence both at home and abroad.
Voltaire had sent copies away; others had been printed abroad; and the thing was irrecoverable.
The marquis fled abroad with his second son Louis at the time of the emigration of the nobles.
A comparison of the death-rate of London and those of other great towns in England and abroad is given here: - In 1905 the lowest death-rates among the metropolitan boroughs were returned by Hampstead (9.3), Lewisham (11.7), Wandsworth (12.6), Woolwich (12.8), Stoke Newington (12.9), and the highest by Shoreditch (19.7), Finsbury (19.0), Bermondsey (18.7), Bethnal Green (18.6) and Southwark (18.5).
Londoners were well informed as to what was going on abroad, and although the rulers were always willing to wait for an opportunity of enlarging their liberties, they remained ready to take advantage of such circumstances as might occur.
was engaged abroad as a crusader.
This activity gained him recognition abroad and gifts of money from the British and Austrian governments; but it made his position as an official in Berlin impossible, for the Prussian government had no mind to abandon its attitude of cautious neutrality.
His tyrannical and barbarous conduct had made him obnoxious at home as well as abroad, and indeed many of his actions recall the worst passages of the history of the later Roman emperors.
Simultaneously with the issue of this patent the use of wood for melting glass was prohibited, and it was made illegal to import glass from abroad.
But it remains to be proved whether these tablets were written there, and not rather, being in a foreign script, abroad, like most of the Tell el-Amarna archives.
After about five years' residence he left without taking a degree, travelled abroad, and in Switzerland imbibed or strengthened those religious principles and that hostility to the Laudian church which were to be the chief motive in his future political career.
He went abroad, and it was some time before he reappeared on the political scene.
The question aroused many polemics the time both in Italy and abroad.
Educated abroad, with his elder brother Mikhail, at Copenhagen and Berlin, he especially distinguished himself in languages and the applied sciences.
He prevented Gustavus from invading Prussia in revenge for the refusal of the king of Prussia to declare war against France, and during the rest of the reign was in semidisgrace, though generally a member of the government when the king was abroad.
In his short reign peace was established both at home and abroad, the finances were well regulated, and the various administrative services were placed on a basis that afterwards enabled Spain to pass through the disastrous war with the United States without even the threat of a revolution.
He set himself to work to establish law and order throughout the state, to arrange its finances, and to encourage the settlement in Hail of artificers and merchants from abroad; the building of the citadel and palace commenced by Mehemet Ali, and continued by Abdallah Ibn Rashid, was completed by Taal.
In the century of energetic commercial development before 1350 the German merchants abroad led the way.
There also came into existence at Wisby the first association of German traders abroad, which united the merchants of over thirty towns, from Cologne and Utrecht in the West to Reval in the East.
The union of merchants abroad was beginning to come under the control of the partial union of towns at home.
The importance and independence of the German trading settlements abroad was exemplified in the statutes of the "Company of German merchants at Bruges," drawn up in 1347, where for the first time appears the grouping of towns in three sections (the "Drittel"), the Wendish-Saxon, the Prussian-Westphalian, and those of Gothland and Livland.
Under the pressure of commercial and political necessity, authority was definitely transferred from the Hansas of merchants abroad to the Hansa of towns at home, and the sense of unity had become such that in 1380 a Lubeck official could declare that "whatever touches one town touches all."
In the East, the German Order, while enjoying Hanseatic privileges, frequently opposed the policy of the League abroad, and was only prevented by domestic troubles and its Hinterland enemies from playing its own hand in the Baltic. After the fall of the order in 1467, the towns of Prussia and Livland, especially Dantzig and Riga, pursued an exclusive trade policy even against their Hanseatic confederates.
Lubeck, with the counters abroad, watched over the execution of the measures voted by the assembly, but there was no regular administrative mi.
The decisive factor in determining membership in the League was the historical right of the citizens of a town to participate in Hanseatic privileges abroad.
At first the merchant Hansas had shared these privileges with almost any German merchant, and thus many little villages, notably those in Westphalia, ultimately claimed membership. Later, under the Hansa of the towns, the struggle for the maintenance of a coveted position abroad led to a more exclusive policy.
Among the factors, economic, geographic, political and social, which combined to bring about the decline of the Hanseatic League, none was probably more influential than the absence of a German political power comparable in unity and energy with those of France and England, which could quell particularism at home, and abroad maintain in its vigour the trade which these towns had developed and defended with their imperfect union.
But before Hermas announces it to the Roman Church, and through " Clement " 1 to the churches abroad, there are added two Visions (iii.
While he was abroad, failing health compelled him (1800) to resign the chief-justiceship, and after some months in England he returned to America in 1801.
A friend had said to him, " You talk too freely, your ideas are getting abroad, and other people use them without giving you the credit; put your ownership on record."
He had gone abroad after the session, and was now in Rome.
The publication of this letter caused a wide sensation in England and abroad, and profoundly agitated the court of Naples.
Abroad, the struggle was continued against Charles V.
Japan had not yet any political parties, but the ferment that preceded their birth was abroad.
Frederick Leighton was taken abroad at a very early age.
As president he was punctilious in the discharge of his duties, ready to give help and encouragement to artists young and old, and his tenure of the office was marked by some wise and liberal reforms. He frequently went abroad, generally to Italy, where he was well known and appreciated.
For a long time he struggled bravely with this cruel disease, never omitting except from absolute necessity any of his official duties except during a brief period of rest abroad, which failed to produce the desired effect.
He travelled abroad during 1698 and 1699 and acquired an exceptional knowledge of French.
It was a period of constant war, and finally of disaster abroad and of rebellion at home.
Since then, both in Great Britain and abroad, the scheme has been actively carried on.
While the organization has succeeded in securing recognition and favour in high places both in England and abroad, it has been seriously criticized at times, notably by Huxley and others in 1890-1891, and more recently by J.
The secretary for foreign affairs is the official agent of the crown in all communications between Great Britain and foreign powers; his intercourse is carried on either through the representatives of foreign states in Great Britain or through representatives of Great Britain abroad.
He negotiates all treaties or alliances with foreign states, protects British subjects residing abroad, and demands satisfaction for any injuries they may sustain at the hands of foreigners.
and the following winter he spent abroad, chiefly in Rome, where he saw Newman "wearing the Oratorian habit and dead to the world."
Thomas's other sons received fiefs and bishoprics abroad, and one of them, Boniface, was made archbishop of Canterbury.
But, though he had received immediate benefit from his stay abroad, symptoms of consumption were constantly alarming him, and he gradually became a confirmed invalid.
The influence of Shaftesbury's writings was considerable both at home and abroad.
But although Lincoln is said to have conversed with Warwick on this occasion, he fled abroad immediately after the council at Sheen, where he was present.
More than two-thirds of the wheat comes from abroad; fish, vegetables and fruit are also imported from Sicily in considerable quantities.
The Maltese have to pay for food imports by imperial wages, earned' in connexion with naval and military services, by commercial services to passing steamers and visitors, by earnings which emigrants send home from northern Africa and elsewhere, and by interest on investments of Maltese capital abroad.
Immediately after his appointment to Aquitaine, he was sent to France to do homage to his uncle Charles IV., and remained abroad until he accompanied his mother and Mortimer in their expedition to England.
Thus a Phoenician colonist might desire to carry abroad the cult of a certain Baal or Astarte who lived in a conical stone or pillar.
Petersburg and abroad.
Meanwhile the king of Portugal went on consolidating the power of the crown at home and the influence of the nation abroad.
He was implicated in the revolutionary movements of 1831 and 1832, after which he was obliged to take refuge abroad.
The king being sunk in apathy, the task of negotiation devolved upon the queen; but in her inexperience and ignorance of affairs, and the uncertainty of information from abroad, it was hard for her to follow any clear policy.
Though his recovery was rapid and complete, he did not choose to prolong his stay abroad.
Of the increase in total population from1856-1895only a third could be attributed to the excess of births over deaths; two-thirds being due to immigration from other states or from abroad.
In February 1856, while he was travelling abroad, he was nominated for the presidency by the American or Know Nothing party, and later this nomination was also accepted by the Whigs; but in the ensuing presidential election, the last in which the Know Nothings and the Whigs as such took any part, he received the electoral votes of only one state, Maryland.
For the rest of Henry's reign his career is obscure; perhaps he fled abroad on the enactment of the Six Articles.
He went to France in February 1789 on private business, and remained abroad for nine years, passing most of the time in Paris, London, and the German capitals.
He was for two periods president of the Directory, but on the coup d'etat of the 18th Fructidor (1797) was forced to take refuge abroad.
On his return to Paris he addressed a political memoir to the restored king of France, which aroused much attention both in France and abroad.
The nationality of those born abroad, which used to be returned only for British subjects, was called for from all not born within the kingdom.
After deducting debts owing abroad the public and private wealth of the colony is calculated to be about £270,000,000.
pereger, from which peregrinus is formed, meant " from abroad," " travelled through many lands " (per, through, and ager, country).
After this period of formation his fame began to spread abroad, and the monks of a neighbouring monastery induced him to become their abbot; but their lives were irregular and dissolute, and on his trying to put down abuses they attempted to poison him.
The letters which he wrote during this voyage were gathered in 1869 into a volume, The Innocents Abroad, and the book immediately won a wide and enduring popularity.
The result of a second visit to Europe was humorously recorded in A Tramp Abroad (1880), followed in 1882 by a more or less historical romance, The Prince and the Pauper; and a year later came Life on the Mississippi.
He went on a tour round the world, partly to make money by lecturing and partly to get material for another book of travels, published in 1897, and called in America Following the Equator, and in England More Tramps Abroad.
It may be said without exaggeration that no American public man in the history of the country has achieved such extraordinary popularity during his lifetime as Mr Roosevelt had attained at fifty years of age, both at home and abroad.
Saxony owes its unusual wealth in fruit partly to the care of the elector Augustus I., who is said never to have stirred abroad without fruit seeds for distribution among the peasants and farmers.
He visited all parts of the country himself, and personally encouraged agriculture; he introduced a more economical mode of mining and smelting silver; he favoured the importation of finer breeds of sheep and cattle; and he brought foreign weavers from abroad to teach the Saxons.
But the real meaning is not slight; the sexual distinction has been discovered, and a new sense of shame sends the human pair into the thickest shades, when Yahweh-Elohim walks abroad.
In 1654 young Schumacher went abroad for eight years, to complete his education.
It also deals with the accounts of harbours, lighthouses and mercantile marine offices, and of the merchant seamen's fund, and with the consuls' accounts for disabled seamen abroad.
No one probably expected from Nerva a vigorous administration either at home or abroad, although during his reign a successful campaign was carried on in Pannonia against the Germans (Suebi), for which he assumed the name Germanicus.
only to reckon with the opposition of Hungary but also to pay particular attention to the peasant voters, in the question of buying meat abroad and importing frozen meat from the Argentine.
This factor was the rupture of communications with foreign countries, due in the earlier stages of the war to the limitation, and at one time the prohibition, of exports by neutral countries, the passing over of some of these countries to the enemy, and lastly the blockade by the enemy Powers, which increased in efficiency and made it more and more difficult to import the most essential commodities, until in the end it was almost impossible to obtain from abroad anything, needed either for the soldiers or the civilians.
The quantity of raw materials which Austria had been in the habit of importing from abroad, and the quantity stored in the country at the outbreak of the war, were comparatively very small.
The virtual stoppage of all supplies of raw materials from abroad necessitated the strictest economy in the use of those available at home, and this led to an elaborate system of Government control.
31 1918 the amounts of outstanding debts incurred abroad during the war were as follows: 2,696 millions of German Reichsmarks 42.9.
As his fame spread abroad, people came to hear his wisdom, and costly presents were showered upon him.
At this time there was much political unrest at home, and serious difficulties abroad.
Further, personal and domestic relations with the ruling families abroad give openings in delicate cases for saying more, and saying it at once more gently and more efficaciously, than could be ventured in the formal correspondence and rude contacts of government.
The queen and Prince Albert were affected in many private ways by the events abroad.
In foreign imperial affairs, and in the adjustment of serious parliamentary difficulties, the queen's dynastic influence abroad and her position as above party at home, together with the respect due to her character, good sense and experience, still remained a powerful element in the British polity, as was shown Austro- on more than one occasion.
From that time he was practically minister of foreign affairs, for Prince Gorchakov was no longer capable of continued intellectual exertion, and lived mostly abroad.
Most of the special schools also give scholarships to enable the best of their pupils to complete their studies abroad.
From 1886 he was forced by ill-health to spend much of his time abroad, and he died of smallpox Alicante on the 16th of March 1892, while on a tour in Spain.
The female always hibernates, but the male may be seen abroad at all seasons.
After a careful education at home by eminent specialists, mostly Frenchmen,' he first went abroad in 1786.
By many churchmen, too, the name of "Protestant" is accepted in what they take to be the old sense as implying repudiation of the claims of Rome, but as not necessarily involving a denial of "Catholic" doctrine or any confusion of the Church of England with non-episcopal churches at home or abroad.
Provincial Boundaries Railways ful campaign abroad for the destruction of the Austrian Monarchy and the attainment of Czechoslovak independence.
The activities of Prof. Masaryk in Russia, England and America, enthusiastically supported by his compatriots living abroad, and especially by the Czechs and Slovaks who had emigrated to the United States, the self-sacrificing valour of the Czechoslovak legions on the French, Italian and Russian fronts, and the work of the Czechoslovak Council with its headquarters at Paris, moved the Allies to acknowledge the last-named body as the de facto Provisional Government of the Czechoslovak State.
The unanimous decision of the Assembly was in favour of a republic, and Prof. Masaryk, at that time still absent abroad, was unanimously chosen as first president.
It is less favourably placed in respect of the iron and textile industries, having to rely to a large extent upon the import of raw materials from abroad.
Mucha has won a name abroad for decorative work and historical canvases.
In any case the interesting point is that these returned Jews, instead of being liberalized by their residence abroad, were more tenacious of Judaism and more bitter against Stephen than those who had never left Judaea.
After Cromwell's great victory at Worcester, Earle went abroad, and was named clerk of the closet and chaplain to Charles II.
His prominent use of Roman law and the wide range of his observation have made his works as intelligible abroad as at home, and thereby much valuable information - for example, concerning the nature of British supremacy in India, and the position of native institutions there - has been made the property of the world of letters instead of the peculiar and obscure possession of a limited class of British public servants.
If the king led the ruszenie pospolite abroad he was obliged to pay so much per pike out of his own pocket, notwithstanding the fact that the heavily mortgaged crown lands were practically valueless.
Her magnates, having already got all they could out of their own country, looked eagerly abroad for fresh El Dorados.
At least 40,000 men were necessary for the purpose, and these could have been obtained for 200,000 ducats; but a congress of magnates, whose collective fortunes amounted to hundreds of millions, having decided that it was impossible to raise this sum, there was nothing for it but to fight a few skirmishes and then take refuge abroad.
The Polish exiles who filled Europe after 1830 intrigued from abroad, and maintained a constant agitation.
After spending over three years at the college, he went to travel abroad with a French tutor.
Naturally a fine orator, his new-born zeal gave an edge to his eloquence, and his fame spread abroad.
He lived abroad from 1808 to 1812, passing most of his time in England, Scotland, Denmark, Sweden and France; trying to secure aid in the prosecution of his filibustering schemes but meeting with numerous rebuffs, being ordered out of England and Napoleon refusing to receive him.
In less than two years he was again overthrown and had to go abroad in August 1855.
Unable to build at home, the Confederates sought warships abroad, evading the obligations of neutrality by various ingenious expedients.
None of the various "rams" built abroad for the "rebel" government ever came into action.
After being educated at the Wilna academy he went abroad to learn the science of war, fighting in the Spanish service under Alva, and also under Maurice of Nassau.
But he found it difficult to avoid taking a side; he was importuned to sign the Covenant, and "finding it impossible to evade doing very unhandsome things," he obtained leave in October 1643 from the king to travel abroad.
In 1904 the number of bunches sent abroad exceeded 6,000,000.
It was no time for brilliant initiative or adventurous politics; the need was to avoid Scylla and Charybdis, and a via media had to be found in church and state, at home and abroad.
There was nothing heroic about Cecil or his policy; it involved a callous attitude towards struggling Protestants abroad.
He was the first tsar to import foreign teachers on a great scale, the first to send young Russians abroad to be educated, the first to allow Lutheran churches to be built in Russia.
Thus Layamon's table can seat an indefinite number, and yet it can be carried by Arthur when he rides abroad.
He then travelled abroad during 1833-1834, and after a year's work as tutor at Christ Church (1834-1835) was appointed second master at Winchester.
In 1905-1906 the society had about 5800 auxiliaries, branches and associations in England and Wales, and more than 2000 auxiliaries abroad, mainly in the British Colonies, many of which undertake vigorous local work, besides remitting contributions to London.
It employs 930 Christian colporteurs abroad, who sold in 1905-1906 over 2,250,000 volumes.
Representatives Abroad, Foreign Office, 1900-1901.)
He had, however, no great influence as a leader and soon went abroad, dying at Genoa in 1870.
He accepted, and resigned his professorship. He went abroad with his pupil in February 1764; they remained only a few days at Paris and then settled at Toulouse, at that time the seat of a parlement, where they spent eighteen months in the best society of the place, afterwards making a tour in the south of France and passing two months at Geneva.
The coastwise trade is principally under the Mexican flag, but the steamers are owned abroad.
At whatever date the Americans began to people America, they must have had time to import or develop the numerous families of languages actually found there, in none of which has community of origin been satisfactorily proved with any other language-group at home or abroad.
120) that Coverdale was with Tyndale at Hamburg in 1529, and it is probable that most of his time before 1535 was spent abroad, and that his translation, like that of Tyndale, was done out of England.
Francis matriculated as a fellow-commoner of King's College, Cambridge, of which Sir John Cheke was provost, in November 1548; and he continued studying there amid strongly Protestant influences until Michaelmas 1550, when he appears, after the fashion of the time, to have gone abroad to complete his education (Stahlin, p. 79).
He continued to urge the necessity of more vigorous intervention on behalf of the Protestants abroad, though now his clients were the Dutch rather than the Huguenots.
This was Goran Persson, born about 1530, who had been educated abroad in Lutheran principles, and after narrowly escaping hanging at the hands of Gustavus Vasa for some vile action entered the service of his son.
After retiring from the presidency Pierce returned to Concord, and soon afterwards went abroad for a three years' tour in Europe.
Both British breeds, as well as those from abroad, are frequently ornamented with two tassel-like appendages, hanging near together under the throat.
They are usually granted by the foreign office of a state, or by its diplomatic agents abroad.
In the decade1850-1860it was seen that almost a seventh of the population of the country consisted of persons born abroad.
The superintendent of the Ninth Census, 1870, presented a computation 01 the effects of this causefirst, through direct losses, by wounds or disease, either in actual service of the army or navy, or in a brief term following discharge; secondly, through the retardation of the rate of increase in the colored element, due to the privations, exposures and excesses attendant upon emancipation; thirdly, through the check given to immigration by the existence of war, the fear of conscription, and the apprehension abroad of results prejudicial to the national welfare.
The Civil War caused enormous losses to the merchant marine, and the worldwide substitution about this time of iron steamers for wooden steamers and sailing vessels contributed to prevent a recovery; because, although ship-building was one of the earliest arts developed in the colonies, and one that was prosecuted with the highest success so long as wooden ships were the dominant type, the United States has never achieved marked success with the iron steamer, and the law has precluded the registry as American of vessels built abroad.
William Duer (1747-1799) and others in 1787 and officially organized in 1789 as the Compagnie du Scioto in Paris by Joel Barlow, the agent of Duer and his associates abroad, William Playfair, an Englishman, and six Frenchmen.
and he thought it prudent to go abroad.
The Dodge Club (1869), A Humorous Book Of Travel, Appeared, Curiously Enough, A Few Months Before Innocents Abroad.
He calculated that the cost of carriage from abroad of wheat, or the equivalent of the product of an acre of good wheat land in Great Britain, would not be less than 30s.
Caird expressed the opinion that the cost of carriage from abroad would always protect the British grower, the average all-rail freight from Chicago to New York was 17.76 cents, while the summer rate (partly by water) was 13.17 cents.
farther from the eastern seaboard than was the case in 1870, and consequently, notwithstanding the fall in the mileage rate 'of 50 to 75%, it still costs the United Kingdom nearly as much to have its quota of foreign wheat fetched from abroad as it did then.
In 1787 he became pastor of a Baptist church in Leicester, and began those energetic movements among his fellow religionists which resulted in the formation of the Baptist Missionary Society, Carey himself being one of the first to go abroad.
One of them, Potier, bishop of Beauvais, already gave himself airs as prime minister, but Mazarin had had the address to touch both the queen's heart by his Spanish gallantry and her desire for her son's glory by his skilful policy abroad, and he found himself able easily to overthrow the clique of Importants, as they were called.
The Fronde over, Mazarin had to build up afresh the power of France at home and abroad.
But abroad his policy was everywhere successful, and opened the way for the policy of Louis XIV.
He went abroad every year and became thoroughly acquainted with Italy and Greece.
He published many textbooks of chemistry, organic and inorganic, which were republished in England and were translated abroad.
He did not travel much abroad, for his father, in his desire to exclude from Holy Russia the subversive ideas current in Western Europe, disapproved foreign tours, and could not consistently encourage in his own family what he tried to prevent among the rest of his subjects.
He accompanied the young tsar abroad on his first foreign tour, and worked by his side in the dockyards of Saardam.
As Prime Minister Poincare aimed at safeguarding the interests of France abroad, especially against the menace of the Triple Alliance, and at strengthening her at home by firm government and the restoration of social discipline.
Having remained abroad nearly a year, he returned to Cambridge, and was elected a fellow of Trinity College, then first erected by King Henry VIII.
In 1578 Dee was sent abroad to consult with German physicians and astrologers in regard to the illness of the queen.
Ruskin's Oxford career, broken by the two years passed abroad, was not very full of incident or of usefulness.
In 1845 he was again abroad in Italy, working on his Modern Painters, the second volume of which appeared in 1846.
His works were translated and read abroad, and had an enormous circulation in Great Britain and the United States.
Many volumes about his career and opinions were issued in his lifetime both at home and abroad.
Ultimate peace is uniformly proclaimed by every dictator at home, by every conqueror abroad, as the goal to which he is directing his efforts.
The years spent abroad extinguished his former wish to enter the Church, and at his father's desire he gave himself up to the study of law.
The story got abroad that he had perished by the hand of a woman in revenge for her relations slain by him; according to some (e.g.
It was, however, the disreputable Lefort who, for the sake of his own interests, diverted the young tsar from mere pleasure to serious enterprises, by persuading him first to undertake the Azov expedition, and then to go abroad to complete his education.
He then went abroad and after a second journey to Rome (he made five altogether) lived as a monk at Lerins (665-667).
During his prolonged residences abroad he acquired a thorough knowledge of the Arabic, Turkish and Persian languages and literatures, which, on his final return to France, enabled him to render valuable assistance to Thevenot, the keeper of the royal library, and to Barthelemy d'Herbelot.
During these early years Bedford ruled France wisely and at first with success, but he could not prevent the mischief which Humphrey of Gloucester caused both at home and abroad.
During the illness of Lord Salisbury in 1898, and again in Lord Salisbury's absence abroad, he was in charge of the foreign office, and it fell to his lot to conduct the very critical negotiations with Russia on the question of railways in North China.
He left his country indeed in a position of strength abroad, which it had not held since the Crimean War.
3 It has, however, been occasionally observed abroad by day; and, in captivity, one example at least is said to have been as active by day as by night.
The Missionary Jubilee in1863-1868yielded £179,000 for the work abroad.
The missionary revival which marked the Nottingham Conference of 1906 quickened the interest at home and abroad and the Foreign Field (monthly) is prominent among missionary periodicals.
Capitation grants have made it possible to organize the work at every station at home and abroad.
Dr Rigg, the president of that year, put all his strength into the movement, and every department of Methodist work at home and abroad shared in the benefits of the fund.
From the close of the Thirty Years' War to the outbreak of the French Revolution the papacy suffered abroad waning political prestige; at home, progressive financial embarrassment accompanied by a series of inadequate governmental reforms; and in the world at large, gradual diminution of reverence for spiritual authority.
But Alexander too was active; by means of a circular letter he published abroad the excommunication of his presbyter, and the controversy excited more and more general interest.
Professor Chapman writes in his Cotton Industry and Trade: "In 1820 Europe received about half the cotton fabrics which were sent abroad, while the United States received nearly one-tenth and eastern Asia little more than one-twentieth.
Bombay was the pioneer in the custom, followed now by Calcutta and Karachi, by which deliveries of goods from British merchants remained under the control of the banks until the native dealers took them up. Manchester business with India, China, &c., is done under various conditions, however, and a good many firms have branches abroad.
The regular "indent" by which most of the Manchester Eastern business is conducted now implies a definite offer for shipment from the dealer abroad, either direct or through the exporter's agents, and commonly includes freight and insurance.
Besides the indent business there is, of course, purely merchant business by Manchester exporters, who buy on their own initiative at what they consider to be opportune times or on recommendations from their houses or correspondents abroad.
On the whole, however, what may be called the speculative centre of gravity of Great Britain's export business in cotton goods is not in Manchester but abroad.
He retained Harrison's cabinet until his veto of the bill for a "fiscal corporation" led to the resignation of all the members except Daniel Webster, who was bringing to a close the negotiations with Lord Ashburton for the settlement of the north-eastern boundary dispute; and he not only opposed the recognition of the spoils system in appointments and removals, but kept at their posts some of the ablest of the ministers abroad.
His dreams of autocracy at home and farreaching dominion abroad were anachronisms in a century of constitutional ideas and national differentiation.
After his return from Russia, he won the highest respect at home and abroad, and Frederick the Great is recorded to have said of him, "He was a great man whom I shall ever remember with admiration."
Of later years British markets have been chiefly supplied from abroad, mostly from Holland.
For a time, however, he stayed his hand, but the urgent solicitations of the western powers, and, above all, his fear lest Gustavus Adolphus should supplant him as the champion of the Protestant cause, finally led him to plunge into war against the combined forces of the emperor and the League, without any adequate guarantees of co-operation from abroad.
Notwithstanding, however, that simple knighthood has gone out of use abroad, there are innumerable grand crosses, commanders and companions of a formidable assortment of orders in almost every part of the world."
At home and abroad Frederick continued the policy of the great elector.
The French government, anticlerical as it is at home, is the watchful and strenuous protector of the missions abroad; and it is evident that not a little political influence in foreign countries is gained thereby.
As weeks elapsed without action on the part of the royal widow, while the cry of blood was up throughout the country, raising echoes from England and abroad, the murmur of accusation began to rise against her also.
Already the report was abroad that the queen was bent on marriage with Bothwell, whose last year's marriage with the sister of Huntly would be dissolved, and the assent of his wife's brother purchased by the restitution of his forfeited estates.
Her correspondence in cipher from thence with her English agents abroad, intercepted by Walsingham and deciphered by his secretary, gave eager encouragement to the design for a Spanish invasion of England Under the prince of Parma, - an enterprise in which she would do her utmost to make her son take part, and in case of his refusal would induce the Catholic nobles of Scotland to betray him into the hands of Philip, from whose tutelage he should be released only on her demand, or if after her death he should wish to return, nor then unless he had become a Catholic. But even these patriotic and maternal schemes to consign her child and re-consign the kingdom to the keeping of the Inquisition, incarnate in the widower of Mary Tudor, were superseded by the attraction of a conspiracy against the throne and life of Elizabeth.
The Old Pretender himself calculated upon foreign aid in his attempts to restore the monarchy of the Stuarts; and the idea of rebellion unassisted by invasion or by support of any kind from abroad was one which it was left for Charles Edward to endeavour to realize.
He approved of the "Petition and Advice," only objecting to the conferring of the title of king on Cromwell; became a member of the new House of Lords; and supported ardently Cromwell's foreign policy in Europe, based on religious divisions, and his defence of the Protestants persecuted abroad.
In 1751 he published his Political Discourses, which had a great and well-deserved success both in England and abroad.
Of Belgians living abroad it is estimated that 400,000 reside in France, 15,000 in Holland, 12,000 in Germany and 4600 in Great Britain.
From 1638 to 1651 the Covenanters were the dominant party in Scotland, directing her policy both at home and abroad.
Although occasionally seen abroad during the day, especially in wild and desolate regions, where it is subject to little molestation, the night is, as in the case of so many other predaceous animals, the period of its greatest activity.
Later he went abroad and became associated at Paris with Mary's supporters who were planning her release with the help of Spain, and on his return he was entrusted with letters for her.
Babington then applied for a passport abroad, for the ostensible purpose of spying upon the refugees, but in reality to organize the foreign expedition and secure his own safety.
But his fame went abroad and a number of would-be disciples came and took up their abode in the caves and among the rocks that surrounded his retreat, and called on him to guide them in the path of life they had chosen.
The work excited a good deal of surprise as well as attention; and with characteristic thoroughness and love of truth the author went abroad to collect materials for the verification and more exhaustive treatment of his views.
With the exception of occasional changes of residence in England, generally for the sake of his wife's health, one or two short holiday trips abroad, a tour in the West Indies, and another in America to visit his eldest son settled there as an engineer, his life was spent in the peaceful, if active, occupations of a clergyman who did his duty earnestly, and of a vigorous and prolific writer.
But when once his position at home and abroad had been established, it became increasingly clear that he possessed all the Bourbon tenaciousness of personal power.
John on his part was glad to support the king's government; during four years he exercised his influence in favour of pacification at home, and abroad was chiefly responsible for the conclusion of a truce with France.
Hobbes was his companion rather than tutor (before becoming secretary); and, growing greatly attached to each other, they were sent abroad together on the grand tour in 1610.
This, his second, sojourn abroad appears to have been spent chiefly in Paris, and the one important fact recorded of it is that he then first began to look into Euclid.
In the course of the next seven years in Derbyshire and abroad, Hobbes took his pupil over rhetoric, 2 logic, astronomy, and the principles of law, with other subjects.
He was now for the fourth and last time abroad, and did not return for eleven years.
The bishop, it should be added, returned to the charge in 1658 with ponderous Castigations of Mr Hobbes's Animadversions, and also made good his previous threat in a bulky 4 During all the time he was abroad he had continued to receive from his patron a yearly pension of (80, and they remained in steady correspondence.
No Englishman of that day stood in the same repute abroad, and foreigners, noble or learned, who came to England, never forgot to pay their respects to the old man, whose vigour and freshness of intellect no progress of the years seemed able to quench.
Ricotti, "no citizens in the cities, neither man nor beast in the fields, all the land forest-clad and wild; one sees no houses, for most of them are burnt, and of nearly all the castles only the walls are visible; of the inhabitants, once so numerous, some have died of the plague or of hunger, some by the sword, and some have fled elsewhere preferring to beg their bread abroad rather than support misery at home which is worse than death."
Such stolen property as could not be returned to the owners with profit was taken abroad in a sloop purchased for this work.
To effect a remodelling when the ground is in stubble, let it be ploughed up, harrowed, and cleaned as in a summer fallow, the levelling-box employed when required, the stuff from the conductors and main drains spread abroad, and the beds ploughed into shape - all operations that can be performed at little expense.
But Richard had grown dissatisfied with him, for the carucage had not been a success, and Hubert had failed to overcome the resistance of the Great Council when its members refused to equip a force of knights to serve abroad.
There are still some manufactures of silk and muslin, but trade has deserted Behar in favour of Patna and other places more favourably situated on the river Ganges and the railway, while the indigo industry has been ruined by the synthetic products of the German chemist, and the English colony of indigo planters has been scattered abroad.
On the whole, despite the prosperous condition of the German live-stock farming, the consumption of meat exceeds the amount rendered available by home production, and prices can only be kept down by a steady increase in the imports from abroad.
It ma~ be remarked that the beer brewed in Bavaria is generally of darke color than that produced In other states, and extra strong brew are exported largely into the beer excise district and abroad.
In 1905 and subsequent years, however, the degree of employment in German yards increased to such an extent, principally owing to the placing of the Admiralty contracts with private builders, that the more urgent orders for mercantile vessels were placed abroad.
The separate states have the privilege of sending ambassadors to the other courts; but all consuls abroad are officials of the empire and are named by the emperor.
As for war, the total fighting strength of the German nation (including the navy) has been placed at as high a figure as 11000,000, Of these 7,000,000 have received little or no training, owing to medical unfitness, residence abroad, failure to appear, surplus of annual contingents, &c., as already explained, and not more than 3,000,000 of these would be available in war.
electoral Saxony re-established a rigid Lutheranism at home and pursued a policy of moderation and neutrality abroad.
The increase of manufactures and the rapid growth of the population made the introduction of cheap food from abroad a necessity.
With the year 1895 began a period of expansion abroad and great naval activity.
The full ritual is gone through by the Roman Catholic archbishop of Westminster, and abroad it survives in all Catholic countries, a notable example being that of the Austrian emperor.
These are: (1) foreign affairs, including diplomatic and consular representation abroad; (2) the army, including the navy, but excluding the annual voting of recruits, and the special army of each state; (3) finance in so far as it concerns joint expenditure.
The quantity consumed in Italy is far greater than that exported abroad.
"The angel of death has been abroad throughout the land.
When the vast field of the East was opened to Hellenic enterprise and the bullion of its treasuries flung abroad, fortunes were made on a scale before unparalleled.
The cotton exported, of which Great Britain takes more than half, is worth over three-fourths of the total value of goods sent abroad.
With regard to their complexions, the same remarks apply to them as to the men, with only this difference, that their faces, being generally veiled when they go abroad, are not quite so much tanned as those of the men.
In going abroad the ladies wear above their indoor dress a loose robe of colored silk without sleeves, and nearly open at the sides, and above it a large enveloping piece of black silk, which is brought over the head, and gathered round the person by the arms and hands on each side.
Ladies use slippers of yellow morocco, and abroad, inner boots of the same material, above which they wear, in either case, thick shoes, having only toes.
The narrative shows the feebleness of Egypt abroad.
The pan-Islamic press, allowed full licence by the Cairo authorities, spread abroad rumours that the Egyptian government intended to construct fortifications in the Sinai peninsula with the design of menacing the railway, under construction by Turkey, from Damascus to Mecca.
The fate of Parga created intense feeling at the time in England, and was cited by Liberals as a crowning instance of the perfidy of the government and of Castlereagh's subservience to reactionary tendencies abroad.
New blood of the best quality nourished and stimulated the whole body politic. Expansion and progress were the watchwords at home, and abroad it seemed as if Denmark were about to regain her former position as a great power.
Justinian's reign was filled with great events, both at home and abroad, both in peace and in war.
The department was divided into three branches - (r) the section which censored the correspondence of prisoners of war in the United Kingdom and British prisoners in enemy countries; (2) the private correspondence section which dealt with letters from members of the British Expeditionary Force, letters and parcels to and from certain foreign countries, press messages sent abroad by other means than cable, and newspapers.
But the dauphin succeeded in embarrassing his father's policy at home and abroad, and had his own party in the court itself.
The important part played by the mineral in the history of commerce and religion depends on this fact; at a very early stage of progress salt became a necessary of life to most nations, and in many cases they could procure it only from abroad, from the sea-coast, or from districts like that of Palmyra where salty incrustations are found on the surface of the soil.
Fortunately for his career he was abroad during the Kansas-Nebraska debates, and hence did not share in the unpopularity which attached to Stephen A.
The restoration of domestic peace was the king's first care, and until it was assured he could not embark on any wider enterprise abroad.
His acceptance was construed as a security against the suspicion of weakness abroad which the Liberal party had incurred by their foreign policy during the 'eighties.
When in 1817 he went abroad to further his education, Germany was about to celebrate the tercentenary of the Reformation; and thus early he conceived the ambition to write the history of that great epoch.
Nor did success abroad now blunt the edge of domestic discontent.
Her independence, her resistance, curbed the conquering ambitions of England abroad; and it went for something in securing the independence of France, and the success of Protestantism, where it succeeded.
Agitation at once broke out, and, when Edward went abroad in June 1297, he left orders for suppression of assemblies (conventiculae).
Gowrie went abroad and passed some time at the university of Padua; to him the eyes of the preachers were hopefully turned after 1596.
17) which pronounces the expatriation of citizens who cause themselves to be naturalized abroad.
The point is important with reference to the question whether the naturalization of the father in the United Kingdom confers the character of British subjects on his children afterwards born abroad.
The architectural details are in some cases unmistakably copied, without intentional modification, from the architecture of Greek temples; others point perhaps to Persian influence, while several - which are perhaps among the early works of this period - show the old freedom and power of employing in new and original ways details partly learned from abroad.
The hats are an article of export, and are known abroad as Panama hats.
He was indeed so much abroad that he had little influence upon the king's councils.
The part that he was allowed to take in the drawing up of doctrinal formularies in Henry VIII.'s time is not clear; but at a later date he was the author of various tracts in defence of the Real Presence against Cranmer, some of which, being written in prison, were published abroad under a feigned name.
The abolition of this system was announced in 1906, and, as a partial substitute, it was decided to hold an annual examination in Peking of Chinese graduates educated abroad (Times, 22nd of October 1906).
Oral examinations are much more used abroad than in England, where the pupils during their school years receive but little exercise in the art of consecutive speaking.
In 1865, while serving a further term of imprisonment under the Empire, he contrived to escape, and henceforth continued his propaganda against the government from abroad, until the general amnesty of 1869 enabled him to return to France.
He was, however, released on the 13th of September 1554, and granted permission to travel abroad.
The main feature in the pamphlet is the recognition that a spirit of reform is abroad.
His fame was carried abroad by eager or intelligent disciples.
There is much merit in his hymns and "canons" one of the latter is very familiar as the hymn "The Day of Resurrection, Earth tell it out abroad."
In spite of growing unpopularity he remained loyal to James, and when the king fled from England Walker left Oxford, doubtless intending to join his master abroad.
Until 1853 wine was the staple product, and although even the finest brand (known as Vidonia) never equalled the best Madeira vintages, it was largely consumed abroad, especially in England.
Clement looked abroad for help, but found none.
He wrote Personal Recollections (1896), Military Europe (1898) and Observations Abroad (1899).
For a time he served King John, but when the king made friends with the count of Boulogne, he fled abroad, and entered the service of the French prince Louis and his father Philip Augustus.
Having seen further service abroad, he was sent to Ireland at the end of 1598, and was appointed by the earl of Essex to the governorship of Carrickfergus.
After living in retirement for some years, Chichester was employed abroad in 1622; in the following year he became a member of the privy council.
He spent the last days of his life abroad and died at Geneva, after forty-eight years of active service.
When abroad he sought out varieties of grasses, trees, rice and olives for American experiment, and after his return from France received yearly for twenty-three years, from his old friend the superintendent of the Jardin des plantes, a box of seeds, which he distributed to public and private gardens throughout the United States.
He discontinued the practice of sending ministers abroad in public vessels.
He planned the buildings, gathered its faculty - mainly from abroad - and shaped its organization.
Indeed, the sophists generally had a special predisposition to error of this sort, not only because sophistry was from the beginning a substitute for the pursuit of truth, but also because the successful professor, travelling from city to city, or settling abroad, could take no part in public affairs, and thus was not at every step reminded of the importance of the " material " element of exposition and reasoning.
About half of this quantity comes from the forests of Burma, where large amounts of teak and other woods are annually extracted, chiefly through the agency of private firms. It is, however, only the more valuable of the woods, such as teak, sandal-wood, ebony and the like, which find a market abroad.
The numerous dethroned princes, their heirs and their widows, were the first to take advantage of the spirit of disaffection that was abroad.
Lowell accepted the appointment, with the proviso that he should have a year of study abroad.
His grandson, Prince Nikolai Vasilevich Repnin (1734-1801), Russian statesman and general, served under his father, Prince Vasily Anikitovich, during the Rhenish campaign of 1748 and subsequently resided for some time abroad, where he acquired "a thoroughly sound German education."
Owing to the destruction of the primeval forests for the formation of sugar plantations, the indigenous flora is only seen in parts of the interior plains, in the river valleys and on the hills; and it is not now easy to distinguish between what is native and what has come from abroad.
After his liberation Lockhart became a secret agent of the Pretender; but his correspondence with the prince fell into the hands of the government in 1727, compelling him to go into concealment at Durham until he was able to escape abroad.
The system now introduced consisted of three principal parts: (1) of a limited period of separate confinement in a home prison or penitentiary, accompanied by industrial employment and moral training; (2) of hard labour at some public works prison either at home or abroad; and (3) of exile to a colony with a conditional pardon or ticket-of-leave.
The internal consolidation of Islam in Arabia was, strange to say, brought about by its diffusion abroad.
In 1830 he went abroad, and, attracted by the political crisis, spent some months in Paris in the society of the Liberal leaders.
Instead of requiring from its population all kinds of work and reducing its ordinary occupations to a hard-and-fast routine meeting in a slow and unskilled manner all possible contingencies, the local group began to move, to call in workmen from abroad for tasks of a special nature, and to send its own workmen to look out for profitable employment in other places.
Persecuted from this time by the irreconcilable supporters of the papal claims, and even in danger of death, after Cromwell's conquest of Ireland he lived obscurely in London and abroad.
On the whole it must be said that in those towns where the democratic party gained the upper hand an unruly policy abroad and a narrowminded protection at home resulted.
And besides all these, there existed three competing chief justices and commanders of the forces called in from abroad and holding office for six months, viz.
Abroad, where the Bill made McKinley's name known everywhere, there was bitter opposition to it and reprisals were threatened by several European states.
The stubborn resistance of the garrison delayed Ibrahim's progress; and, meanwhile, wild rumours went abroad as to Mehemet Ali's intentions.
In 1678 she accompanied Mary of Modena to Holland, and in 1679 joined her parents abroad and afterwards in Scotland.
The founding and the growth of such communities furnish matter for an interesting chapter in the history as well of ancient as of modern civilization; and the regulation of the relations between the parent state and its dependencies abroad gives rise to important problems alike in national policy and in international economics.
Antonio Perez, who was legitimated by an imperial diploma issued at Valladolid in 1542, was, however, believed by many to be in reality the son of Philip's minister, Ruy Gomez de Silva, prince of Eboli, to whom, on the completion of a liberal education at home and abroad, he appears at least to have owed his first introduction to a diplomatic career.'
The peace of Vervins in 1598 greatly reduced his apparent importance abroad, and Perez now tried to obtain the pardon of Philip III., that he might return to his native country.
For in the whole course of the war no such candid announcement had ever been made by any commander on either side; it was assumed, especially abroad, that if Cadorna confessed this much there was far more that he did not tell.
Abroad Frederick decided a quarrel for the Danish throne in favour of Svend, or Peter as he is sometimes called, who did homage for his kingdom, and negotiations were begun with the East Roman emperor, Manuel Comnenus.
may be found either supported by the food directly produced by themselves, as in the great agricultural plains of the middle kingdom of China and the Ganges valley and delta; or else, as in western Europe, relying largely upon food from abroad, purchased by the products of manufacturing industry.
It is chiefly from the populations of the south-west of Europe that the New World is being colonized; but the territories over which the settlers and their recruits from abroad are able to scatter are so extensive that even the lower densities of the Old World have not yet been attained, except in a few tracts along the eastern coasts of Australia and North America.
In Canada, for instance, those born abroad numbered 17% of the population in 1871, and about 13% thirty years later.
He could dictate their policy at home and abroad, revise their statute-book, upset the decisions of their law-courts.
Already in 1884 he had warned the French clergy against meddling in royalist intrigues; in 1892 he issued a much more stringent exhortation to French Catholics to rally to the Republic. An idea got abroad that he was looking to the time when the old dream of Lamennais and Gioberti might become a reality, and Italy would split up into a number of republics, amongst which the temporal power of the pope might find a place.
Besides the sweet variety, a coarse dry wine is also made, but this is little known abroad.
In the midst of a burden of letterwriting, the minute details in his diaries of tree-planting and rotation of crops, and his increasing reading on the political side of history, he found time to entertain a stream of visitors from all parts of the United States and from abroad.
PORTAS, or Portuary, a breviary of such convenient size that it could be carried on the person, whence its Latin name portiforium (portare, to carry, foris, out of doors, abroad).
The Scottish Reformation came out of a covenant in which the barons, inspired by John Knox, then abroad, bound themselves in 1557 to oppose the Roman Catholic religion and to promote the cause of the Reformation.
Melville was brought to London, imprisoned and sent abroad; other ministers who had acted or spoken too freely were banished.
" I do think it necessary," he says, " that because we live in an age in which no counsel is kept, and that it is true there is some bruit abroad that the judges of the king's bench do doubt of the case that it should not be treason, that it be given out constantly, and yet as it were in secret, and so a fame to slide, that the doubt was only upon the publication, in that it was never published.
For these are the things that use to raise dislikes abroad.
Objects of Cypriote manufacture are found but rarely on sites abroad; in the later Bronze Age, however, they occur in Egypt and South Palestine, and as far afield as Thera (Santorin), Athens and Troy (Hissarlik).
At the tercentenary of " Bishop Morgan's Bible " in 1888 a national movement of appreciation was set on foot amongst Welshmen of all denominations both at home and abroad, with the result that XXVIII.
Encouragement was given to the building of ships in France by allowing a premium on those built at home, and imposing a duty on those brought from abroad; and as French workmen were forbidden to emigrate, so French seamen were forbidden to serve foreigners on pain of death.
This was done, and, recognizing the difficulties of the situation, the king gave him leave to travel abroad, and allowed him still to retain his revenues as dean of Exeter.
- If the Anabaptists of England were not the progenitors of the modern Baptist church, we must look abroad for the beginnings of that movement.
Indifferent to theological, or even to patriotic, considerations, his plans to protect the reformers rested upon two main principles - unity among the Protestants at home and military aid from abroad.
Dorguth had trumpeted abroad Schopenhauer's name.
The principles upon which the reorganization of1905-1908was based are: (a) that in peace the army at home must be maintained at such an effective standard that all necessary drafts for the army abroad shall be forthcoming, without undue depletion of the army at home; (b) the home army on mobilization for service should be brought up to war strength by the recall of reservists in sufficient, but not too great, numbers; (c) the wastage of a campaign shall be made good by drafts partly from the remaining army reserve, but above all from the militia, now converted into the special reserve; and (d) the volunteers and yeomanry, reorganized into the territorial force, shall be responsible, with little regular help, for the defence of the home country, thus freeing the regular army at home for general service.
In addition to the field army itself, various lines of communication troops are sent abroad on mobilization.
But the first condition of employing all the home regulars abroad is perfect security at home.
Establishment and Strength (April I, 1910) The Territorial Force is enlisted to serve at home, but individuals and whole corps may volunteer for service abroad in war if called upon.
Miss Nightingale followed with interest all the later improvements in sanitation, and was frequently consulted about hospital plans both at home and abroad.
But now Mary Tudor succeeded her brother, and Knox in March 1554 escaped into five years' exile abroad, leaving Mrs. Bowes a fine treatise on "Affliction," and sending back to England two editions of a more acrid "Faithful Admonition" on the crisis there.
In his first year abroad he consulted Calvin and Bullinger as to the right of the civil "authority" to prescribe religion to his subjects - in particular, whether the godly should obey "a magistrate who enforces idolatry and condemns true religion," and whom should they join "in the case of a religious nobility resisting an idolatrous sovereign."
Yet he was always a hard worker; as sole minister of Edinburgh studying for two sermons on Sunday and three during the week, besides having innumerable cares of churches at home and abroad.
The same period which saw the extension of the Swedish Empire abroad, saw also the peaceful development of the Swedish Rule of constitution at home.
He affected to believe that only by force of arms could Sweden retain the dominion which by force of arms she had won; but he also grasped the fact that there must be no disunion at home if she were to continue powerful abroad.
abroad, Horn reversed the traditional policy of Hats and Sweden by keeping France at a distance and draw- caps.
Abroad the Swedish revolution made a great sensation.
Abroad he maintained a policy of peace based mainly on a good understanding with Russia.
A greater dramatist was Johannes Messenius (1579-1636), who was the son of a miller near Vadstena and had been carefully educated abroad by the Jesuits.
Living mainly abroad during the concluding years of his life, he died unmarried at Cannes on the 23rd of April 1866 when his title became extinct.
The silver was conveyed abroad in a British manof-war, and disposed of partly for the purchase of a fast steamer to be fitted as an auxiliary cruiser and partly in payment for other kinds of war material.
1760), which showed a remarkable knowledge of the strata in various parts of England and abroad.
The tumbaku for export is chiefly produced in the central districts round about Isfahan and near Kashan, while the tumbaku of Shiraz, Fessa, and Darab in Fars, considered the best in Persia, is not much appreciated abroad.
Here all the prescriptions of puritypartly connected with national customs, and impossible of execution abroad were diligently observed; and even the injunction not to pollute earth with corpses, but to cast out the dead to vulture and dog, was obeyed in its full force.
The establishment of a systematic police force was of slow growth in England, and came into effect long after its creation abroad.
He wrote all the most important despatches to the Russian ministers abroad, concluded and subscribed all treaties, and performed all the functions of a secretary of state.
Paul, however, refused to accept his resignation and would have sent him abroad for the benefit of his health, had not a sudden stroke of paralysis prevented Bezborodko from taking advantage of his master's kindness.
When he was four-and-twenty he determined to seek his fortunes abroad, and made his way to Turkey, where, after practising medicine on his own account for a short time, he was appointed (in 1865) quarantine medical officer at Antivari.
A long residence till the age of thirty abroad, together with his French blood, had made him politically more of a foreigner than an Englishman, and he returned to England ignorant of the English constitution, a Roman Catholic and a secret adversary of the national religion, and untouched by the sentiment of England's greatness or of patriotism.
Abroad the great national interests were eagerly sacrificed for the sake of a pension, and at home his personal ease and pleasure alone decided every measure, and the fate of every minister and subject.
In February 1665 the ill-omened war with Holland was declared, during the progerss of which it became apparent how greatly the condition of the national services and the state of administration had deteriorated since the Commonwealth, and to what extent England was isolated and abandoned abroad, Michael de Ruyter, on the 13th of June 1667, carrying out his celebrated attack on Chatham and burning several warships.
In February 1679 the king had consented to order James to go abroad, and even approved of the attempt of the primate and the bishop of Winchester to convert him to Protestantism.
" A lazy Prince," writes Pepys, " no Council, no money, no reputation at home or abroad.
The Chouans then waged a guerrilla warfare against therepublicans and, sustained by the royalists and from abroad, carried on their assassinations and brigandage with success.
Portuguese cabinet-work deteriorated in the 19th century; the glassworks and potteries of the Aveiro and Leiria districts have lost much of their ancient reputation; and even the exquisite lace of Peniche and Vianna do Castello is strangely neglected abroad.
Abroad, he aimed at peace with Castile and close friendship with England.
They had many supporters at home and abroad.
Its geographical position and history have rendered Portugal very dependent for intellectual stimulus and literary culture on foreign countries, and writers on Portuguese literature are wont to divide their subjects into periods corresponding to the literary currents from abroad which have modified its evolution.
Many distinguished Portuguese teachers returned from abroad to assist the king at the same time, among them Ayres Barbosa from Salamanca, Andre de Gouveia of the Parisian college of St Barbe, whom Montaigne dubbed " the greatest principal of France," Achilles Estago and Diogo de Teive.
The romance took many forms, and in two of them at least works appeared which exercised very considerable influence abroad.
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