With increasing altitude vegetation becomes more varied and abundant, until the tree limit is reached; then follows a forest belt, which in the highest mountains is limited above by cold as it is below by aridity.
There was nothing to see at this altitude, but he wasn't seeing anything in the book anyway.
But during the summer, temperatures are affected as much by altitude as by latitude, and the coast is cooled at night by breezes from the Gulf.
At the foot of this range there is, relatively speaking, a depression, with an altitude of about 3850 feet.
It is one of the highest mountains of Africa, its highest peak reaching an altitude of 17,007 feet.
The first day was behind him, his muscles weren't overly sore, he seemed to be adjusting to the altitude and he had conquered more hills in one day than a year of Pennsylvania biking would offer.
Southward the altitude falls, Death valley and Coahuila valley being in part below the level of the sea.
The species C. torulosa of North India, so called from its twisted bark, attains an altitude of 150 ft.; its branches are erect or ascending, and grow so as to form a perfect cone.
In very limited spaces on other mountains there are scattered trees - the pinon (nut pine) and the juniper at an altitude between 5000 and 7000 ft.
The range is here called the Muniong, but farther north it receives the name of Monaro Range; the latter has a much reduced altitude, its average being only about 2000 feet.
The very high summer temperatures of the area north of the tropic of Cancer are sufficiently accounted for, when compared with those observed south of the tropic, by the increased length of the day in the higher latitude, which more than compensates for the loss of heat due to the smaller mid-day altitude of the sun.
These mountains, which include the highest peaks in the world, rise, along their entire length, far above the line of perpetual snow, and few of the passes across the main ridges are at a less altitude than 15,000 or 16,000 feet.
A broad depression - the Aral-Caspian desert - has arisen where the plateau formation reaches its greatest altitude, and at the same time suddenly changes its direction from N.W.
The eastern part of the township is generally hilly, reaching a maximum altitude of about 2200 ft., and there are two considerable bodies of water - Laurel Lake in the N.W.
It includes an immense high and broken plateau which spreads from south-west to north-east, losing in width and altitude as it advances north-east.
It is situated in the Sivas-Samsun chausee, altitude 2280 ft., at the mouth of a rocky glen which opens out to the broad valley of the Tozanli Su, a tributary of the Yeshil Irmak.
Most of the glaciers terminate at an altitude of 14,800-14,900 feet, but the small Cesar glacier, drained to the Hausberg valley, reaches to 14,450.
Ben Rinnes (2755 ft.) and several other hills of lesser altitude all lie within a few miles of Dufftown.
North of the Murchison, Mount Augustus and Mount Bruce, with their connecting highlands, cut off the coastal drainage from the interior; but no point on the north-west coast reaches a greater altitude than 4000 feet.
In the ensuing struggle with the empire, that great city rose to the altitude of patriotic heroism.
of Lake Aral; altitude 260 ft.
inland, at an altitude of 140 to 280 ft.
of Montgomery, at an altitude of 600 ft.
A portion of Basil's new city was surrounded with strong walls and turned into a fortress by Justinian; and within the walls, rebuilt in the 13th and 16th centuries, lies the greater part of Kaisarieh, altitude 3500 ft.
of Lake Geuljik (Colchis of the ancients), at an altitude of 5050 ft., some 2 or 3 m.
As in the IndoMalayan sub-region, epiphytic orchids are probably most numerous in point of species, but the genera and even sub-tribes are far more restricted in their range than in the Old World; 4 sub-tribes with 74 genera of Vandeae are confined to South America, though varying in range of climate and altitude.
in altitude), is very picturesque, and the scenery in the environs beautiful.
deep, at an altitude of 3037 ft.).
Its altitude has been estimated at 1587 ft.
The air is bracing, largely because of the city's altitude; the mean annual temperature is 60.8° F.
In extent, in altitude, in mass, in complexity and in geological interest, it is much the most important of the three systems. Almost all the mountains are very bold.
in altitude, is the highest peak of the island.
at an altitude of about 7500 ft., the crest of the mountains reaching another 2500 ft.
wide, the altitude here-300 m.
of it to an altitude of 11,900 ft.
At Cassel, too, the altitude and azimuth instrument is believed to have made its first appearance in Europe.'
It is romantically situated in a wild and deep valley of the Swabian Alps at an altitude of 1600 ft.
above their base, the highest peak, Harney, having an altitude above the sea of 7216 ft.
Nor do the highest summits form a continuous ridge of great altitude for any considerable distance; they are rather a series of groups separated by tracts of very inferior elevation forming natural passes across the range, and broken in some places (as is the case in almost all limestone countries) by the waters from the upland valleys turning suddenly at right angles, and breaking through the mountain ranges which bound them.
Even so small an area as that of Britain illustrates what has already been pointed out, that the species of a flora change both with latitude and altitude.
vapour of the atmosphere is caused in part by vertical movements of the atmosphere involving heat changes and apparently independent of the surface upon which precipitation occurs; but in greater part it is dictated by the form and altitude of the land surface and the direction of the prevailing winds, which itself is largely influenced by the land.
wide, and is crossed by a ferry (altitude, 2 4 25 ft.), on the Sivas-Kharput road.
After running south-east through the grandest scenery, and closely approaching the source of the western Tigris, it turns south-west and leaves the mountains a few miles above Samsat (Samosata; altitude, 1500 ft.).
The most striking trees in the forest region are, in the basin of the Cavalla, the giant Funtumia elastica, which grows to an altitude of 200 ft.; various kinds of Parinarium, Oldfieldia and Khaya; the bombax or cotton tree, giant dracaenas, many kinds of fig; Borassus palms, oil palms, the climbing Calamus palms, and on the coast the coconut.
The highest volcanoes, Tabanan, Batur and Gunung Agung (Bali Beak), have respectively heights of 7545 ft., 73 8 3 ft., and 10,497 ft., the central chain having an average altitude of 3282 ft.
of the great plateau formation of the old continent - the backbone of Asia - which stretches with decreasing altitude and width from of Asia.
Thus at Pioche the altitude is 610o ft., at Hiko 3881 ft., at St Thomas 1600 ft., and at the Eldorado Canyon 828 ft.
The Truckee river flows with more vigour, having its source in Lake Tahoe, in California, at an altitude of 6225 ft., and entering the Carson river through an irrigation canal :completed in 1905; before this date it flowed into Pyramid Lake and Lake Winnemucca in the depression at the foot of the Sierra Nevada.
on all but the lowest ranges, the trees rarely reaching a height of over 15 ft.; and the stunted mountain mahogany on the principal ranges at an altitude of 6800 ft.
The largest of these are Lake Hanel, lying at an altitude of 14,000 ft., at the head of the valley of the same name, and measuring 600 by 400 yds.; and Lake Michaelson (12,700 ft.?) in the Gorges Valley.
A vast pro portion of the continent north of this central line is but a few hundred feet in altitude.
This second barrier is one of the most mighty upheavals in the world, by reason both of its extent and its altitude.
From the Caspian to Karachi it is possible to pass without encountering any orographic obstacle greater than the divide which separates the valley of the Hari Rud from the Helmund hamun basin, which may be represented by an altitude of about 4000 ft.
the ordinary altitude of the higher hills hardly exceeds 4000 ft.; the general level of the table-land lies between 3000 ft.
The portion of Asia west of British India, excluding Arabia and Syria, forms another extensive plateau covering an area as large as that of Tibet, though at a much lower altitude.
The north-eastern portion of this range is of great altitude, and separates the headwaters of the Oxus, which run off to the Aral Sea, from those of the Indus and its Kabul tributary, which, uniting below Peshawar, are thence discharged southward into the Arabian Sea.
West of Ararat high hills extend along the Black Sea, between which and the Taurus range lies the plateau of Asia Minor, reaching to the Aegean Sea; the mountains along the Black Sea, on which are the Olympus and Ida of the ancients, rise to 6000 or 7000 ft.; the Taurus is more lofty, reaching 8000 and 10,000 ft.; both ranges decline in altitude as they approach the Mediterranean.
in altitude, having among them narrow valleys in which the vegetation is scanty, with exceptional regions of greater fertility in the neighbourhood of the coasts, where the rainfall is greatest.
in altitude; along the foot of this range are the principal cultivated districts of central Asia, and here too are situated the few towns which have sprung up in this barren and thinly peopled region.
in average altitude, the highest summits not exceeding 6000 ft., and one of the passes being as low as 1400 ft.
in altitude) along the southern foothills of the east central Caucasus, in the region known as Kakhetia, drained by the Alazan, a left-hand tributary of the Kura.
in area) at an altitude of 6340 ft., the Chaldir-gol (33 sq.
Climate.-Owing in part to the great differences in altitude in different regions of Caucasia and in part to the directions in which the mountain ranges run, and consequently the quarters towards which their slopes face, the climate varies very greatly according to locality.
The greatest recorded range of temperature is at Erivan (altitude 3230 ft.), namely, of 64° between a January average of 14.9° and an August average of 78.8° F.
Flora and Fauna.-Plant-life, in such a mountainous country as Caucasia, being intimately dependent upon aspect and altitude, is treated under Caucasus.
The rotations extending to five, six, seven or more years are, in most cases, only adaptations of the principle to variations of soil, altitude, aspect, climate, markets and other local conditions.
deep, at an altitude of 1902 ft.), the WÃ¶rthersee (17 sq.
deep, at an altitude of '599 ft.), and the elongated Weissensee (4z m.
would seem to be a more correct altitude (Izvestia East Sib.
The town stands on the left bank of the Tordino, where it is joined by the Vezzola, at an altitude of 876 ft.
It is an old mining town, situated at an altitude of 1945 ft.
MARASH (anc. Germanicia-Marasion), the chief town of a sanjak of the same name in the Aleppo vilayet, altitude 2600 ft.
ATLANTA, the capital and the largest city of Georgia, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Fulton county, situated at an altitude of 1000-1175 ft., in the N.W.
A simple plan is as follows - draw an outline of the country of which a map is to be produced upon a board; mark all points the altitude of which is known or can be estimated by pins or wires clipped off so as to denote the heights; mark river-courses and suitable profiles by strips of vellum and finally finish your model with the aid of a good map, in clay or wax.
The horizontal lines are parallels, depending upon the altitude of the pole star, the Calves of the Little Bear and the Barrow of the Great Bear above the horizon.
This altitude was expressed in isbas or inches each equivalent to 1° 42' 50".
The exaggeration in altitude, on these maps and on those of a later date and on a larger scale, was very considerable.
Between the Harrar plateau and Cape Guardafui the coast ranges maintain a mean altitude of from 4000 to 5000 ft., and fall generally in steep escarpments down to the narrow strip of sandy lowlands skirting the Gulf of Aden.
From the table-land rise hills, such as Jebel Kurma, which have an altitude of 4000 ft.
It is the region in winter of constant ice and snow, but its lower altitude gives it a summer climate with a mean temperature of only 1.6° less than Calgary, and i ï¿½ 8° less than Edmonton.
The zone of highlands throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina reaches a mean altitude of 1500 ft., while summits of more than 4000 ft.
The mountainous tract has probably an average altitude of between 6000 and 7000 ft., with a temperate climate and regular rainfall, and is fertile and populous.
high, maintains a mean altitude of i 1,600 ft., and from this great mass.
The Anti-Atlas or Jebel Saghru, also known as the Lesser Atlas, running parallel to and south of the central range, is one of the least elevated chains in the system, having a mean altitude of not more than 5000 ft., although some peaks and even passes exceed 6000 ft.
An extensive water-parting in the north central part of the state, an elevation whose inclination is almost imperceptible, determines the course of three great continental river systems. From this central elevation the land slopes off in all directions, rising again in the extreme north-east corner, where the rugged granite uplift in Cook county, known as the Misquah Hills, reaches an altitude of 2230 ft., the highest point in the state; and in the south-west corner, where an altitude of 1800 ft.
Many peaks of the ranges in this section have an altitude of 11,000 to 13,000 ft., and the elevation of the passes leading over the ranges varies between 7000 and io,000 ft.
of altitude, and that in one place, at least, there exist some very remarkable falls.
Generally a low altitude is desirable, but good results have been obtained in Ceylon in sheltered positions at elevations of 3000 ft.
The climate of Upper Austria, which varies according to the altitude, is on the whole moderate; it is somewhat severe in the north, but is mild in Salzkammergut.
The former becomes narrower and barely attains an average altitude of 3200 ft.
Those on the upper Lena, having a somewhat greater altitude and being situated in higher latitudes, are almost wholly unfitted for agriculture.
it attains in the Weinsberger Wald, of which the highest point is the Peilstein, an altitude of 3478 ft., and descends towards the valley of the Danube through the Gfoehler Wald (2368 ft.) and the Manhartsberg (1758 ft.).
The offshoots of the Alpine group are formed by the Wiener Wald, which attains an altitude of 2929 ft.
Its altitude gives the city a cool invigorating climate, making it a favourite summer residence for the well-to-do classes of Rio.
Its commerce is much facilitated by the system of canals which bring it into communication with Belgium, the coal-basins of Nord and Pasde-Calais, the rich agricultural regions of Flanders and Artois, and the industrial towns of Lille, Armentieres, Roubaix, Tourcoing, Valenciennes, &c. The roadstead is indicated by lightships and the entrance channel to the port by a lighthouse which, at an altitude of 193 ft., is visible at a distance of 19 m.
Its sources are not definitely settled, but it is supposed to rise on the slopes of Dza-Nag-Lung-Mung in about 33° N., 93° E., at an altitude of 16,700 ft.
(2) The capital of the vilayet, the ancient Castamon, altitude 2 500 ft., situated in the narrow valley of the Geuk Irmak (A mnias), and connected by a carriage road, 54 m., with its port Ineboli on the Black Sea.
The culminating point is near the western extremity of this chain and its altitude is estimated at 8500 ft.
The main trunk line reaches an altitude of 3054 ft.
from Durban it has reached an altitude of 5152 ft., but on reaching Ladysmith, 191 m.
from Durban, the altitude has decreased to 3284 ft.
from the port, at a height of 4800 ft., and at Laing's Nek the altitude is 5399 ft.
The higher the altitude the healthier the animals and the greater their immunity from disease.
m., the altitude nowhere falls below 2370 ft.
of altitude covers only 6600 sq.
to E.S.E., border another slightly higher terrace of the same great plateau of north-west Mongolia, upon which Lake Kossogol lies, at an altitude of 5320 ft.
in altitude; while to the south of the eastern T`ien-shan comes the Tarim depression, from 2200 to 3000 ft.
single place (42° N.) in which the altitude drops as low as 3300 ft.; everywhere else it varies between 4000 and 5000 ft.
Kosogol (Khubsu-gul), which lies at an altitude of 5320 ft., close to the Russian frontier, at the foot of the snow-clad Munku-sardyk..
in altitude, which penetrates from the southeast in a north-western direction between the Ektagh Altai and the Khangai Mountains.
Owing to its high altitude, north-western Mongolia is very cold, and the severity of the winter is intensified by the prevalence of cold but dry north-western winds.
The yearly amount of rain at Urga (altitude 4350 ft., at the northern foot of the Kentei Mountains) is only 92 in., and the average temperatures are: year 27° F., January-18°, July 64°; a minimum of - 35° F.
Chiefly owing to the dryness of climate, its physical characteristics are similar to those of Mongolia proper, except that the altitude of the plains is much lower.
The highest peak, the Gerlsdorf or Spitze or Gerlachfalva, situated in the Tatra group, has an altitude of 8700 ft.
The Lower Hungarian highlands extend between the Danube, the Mur, and Lake Balaton, and attain in the] Mesek hills near Mohacs and Pecs an altitude of 2200 ft.
To the north the plateau gradually slopes away towards the Oxus,, falling from an average altitude of 15,000 ft.
Of the well-wooded hills which surround Lemberg, the most important is the Franz-Josef-Berg to the N.E., with an altitude of 1310 ft.
The smaller the drops, the greater the distance; hence it is that the spurious bows are generally only observed near the summits of the bows, where the drops are smaller than at any lower altitude.
- The climate of Venezuela is everywhere tropical except where modified by altitude.
In the Maritime Andes at and above the altitude of Caracas it may be described as semitropical, and in the still higher regions of western Venezuela it approaches the mild temperate.
The tropical vegetation extends to an altitude of about 1300 ft., above which it may be classed as semi-tropical up to about 3500 ft., and temperate up to 7200 ft., above which the vegetation is Alpine.
Several grades are produced in Venezuela, determined by geographical position, altitude and method of curing and preparing for market.
ELBE (the Albis of the Romans and the Labe of the Czechs), a river of Germany, which rises in Bohemia not far from the frontiers of Silesia, on the southern side of the Riesengebirge, at an altitude of about 4600 ft.
of the Elbfall, the latter stream unites with the steep torrential Weisswasser at Madelstegbaude, at an altitude of 2230 ft., and thereafter the united stream of the Elbe pursues a southerly course, emerging from the mountain glens at Hohenelbe (1495 ft.), and continuing on at a soberer pace to Pardubitz, where it turns sharply to the west, and at Kolin (73 o ft.), some 27 m.
BILEJIK (Byzantine Belocome), chief town of the Ertoghrul sanjak of the Brusa vilayet in Asia Minor, altitude 1900 ft., situated on a hill 22 m.
BOBER, a river of Germany, the most considerable of the left bank tributaries of the Oder; it rises at an altitude of 24 4 0 ft., on the northern (Silesian) side of the Riesengebirge.
Altitude 5080 ft.
As the Hindu Kush gradually recedes from the Ab-i-Panja and turns south-westwards it gains in altitude, and we find prominent peaks on the crest which measure more than 24,000 ft.
in altitude, the water-divide overlooks Kafiristan and Badakshan.
altitude and maintaining an average elevation of some 10,000 ft.
of Lake Issyk-kul, at the northern foot of the Trans-Ili Ala-tau Mountains, at an altitude of 2440 ft.
In the Alps it is profitably cultivated up to an altitude of 1870 ft., and in the north of Piedmont as high as 3180 ft.
CHORUM, the chief town of a sanjak of the Angora vilayet in Asia Minor, altitude 2300 ft., situated on the edge of a wide plain, almost equidistant from Amasia and Yuzgat.
A "crested" furrow is obtained by the use of a share, the wing of which is set at a higher altitude than the point, but this type of furrow is less generally found than the "rectangular" form obtained by a level-edged share, which leaves a flat bottom.
On the main route from Hodeda to Sana the first coffee plantations are reached at Usil, at an altitude of 4300 ft., and throughout the western slopes of the range up to an altitude of 7000 ft.
The town of Yarim lies near its southern extremity at an altitude of about 8000 ft.; within a short distance are the sources of the W.
On the plateau, which has an altitude of 4000 ft., there is good pasturage; inland the country slopes gently to a broad valley beyond which the view was bounded by the level horizon of the desert.
From observations made at Sana by Manzoni, Defiers and Glaser, the mean temperature for the year of that city at an altitude of 7300 ft.
Vienna is situated at an altitude of 550 ft.
NECKAR, a river of Germany, and a right-bank tributary of the Rhine, rises between the Black Forest and the Swabian Alb, near Schwenningen, in Wurttemberg, at an altitude of 2287 ft.
Culicidae are by no means confined to lowlying districts, and have even been met with in the Himalayas at an altitude of 13,000 feet.
It is found at an altitude above the sea of from 4000 to 6000 ft.
BAYAZID, or Bajazet, a border fortress of Asiatic Turkey, chief town of a sanjak of the Erzerum vilayet, situated close to the frontiers of Russia and Persia, and looking across a marshy plain to the great cone of Ararat, at a general altitude of 6000 ft.
They extend between the rivers Waag, Arva, Dunajec and Poprad, and form a sharply defined and isolated group, rising abruptly like a gigantic wall to an altitude of over 8400 ft.
The mean altitude is between 6000 and 7500 ft.
The principal valleys, which lie at an altitude of 2600 to 3250 ft.
There are many summer resorts in the Tatra Mountains, the most frequented being Tatrafiired (German, Schmecks), three small villages situated at an altitude of 3250 ft., at the foot of the Schlagendorf peak; and the environs of the Lake of Csorba, which is called the "Pearl of the Tatra."
The country, however, about Bizerta is very mountainous, though the summits do not attain a greater altitude than about 3boo ft.
in altitude, and from whose perennial springs comes the water-supply of Tunis to-day as it did in the time of the Carthaginians and Romans.
palm, which is found on the mountains of the north at no very great altitude.
The hills, which are mainly composed of granite, serpentine and syenite, rise in irregular masses to considerable heights, the loftiest point, Victoria Peak, reaching an altitude of 1825 ft.
(2) The chief town [anc. ], altitude 3320 ft., situated at the S.W.
in altitude, containing numerous valley plains, which is divided in the N.
and 20° 47' N., at an altitude of about 5000 ft., in a depressed plateau on the crest of the Sintaung hills.
the slopes of the mountain are cultivated; a grassy moorland stretches up the next 2500 ft.; then follows a forest, the upper edge of which climbs to an altitude of nearly 8000 ft., and finally there is a wide area of ashes and scoriae.
In all the regions of the main island southward of this belt the only mountains of conspicuous altitude are Omine (6169 ft.) and Odai-gaharazan (5540 ft.) in Yamato and Daisen or Oyama (5951 ft.) in HOki.
from Kumamoto; for, though the highest of its five peaks has an altitude of only 5545 ft., it boasts the largest crater in the world, with walls nearly 2000 ft.
'AXUM, or Aksum, an ancient city in the province of Tigre, Abyssinia (14° 7 52" N., 38° 31' 10" E.; altitude, 7226 ft.), 12 M.
of Knoxville, Tennessee, at an altitude of about 1700 ft.
Situated at an altitude of 1375 ft., it has a severe climate, the average temperatures being - year, 56°; January, 22°; July, 65°.
The total length of the Carpathians is over Boo m., and their width varies between 7 and 230 m., the greatest width of the Carpathians corresponding with its highest altitude.
The Carpathians, which only in a few places attain an altitude of over 8000 ft., lack the bold peaks, the extensive snow-fields, the large glaciers, the high waterfalls and the numerous large lakes which are found in the Alps.
They are nowhere covered by perpetual snow, and glaciers do not exist, so that the Carpathians, even in their highest altitude, recall the middle region of the Alps, with which, however, they have many points in common as regards appearance, structure and flora.
The northern two-thirds of this range has a mean altitude of 3250 ft., and only in its southern portion it attains a mean altitude of 5000 ft.
To the eastern Carpathians belongs also the range of mountains extending between the Laborcza and the Upper Theiss, called Vihorlat, which attains in the peak of the same name an altitude of 3495 ft.
Gerlachfalvi-Csucs), with an altitude of 8737 ft., the highest peak in the whole Carpathian Mountains.
On its west are the Liptauer Magura, with the highest peak the Biela Szkala (6900 ft.), and on its east are the Zipser Magura, which have a mean altitude of 3000 ft.
In their northern portion, they are also called S6var Mountains, and reach in their highest peak, Simonka, an altitude of 3350 ft., while their southern portion, which ends with the renowned Tokaj Hill (1650 ft.), is also called Tokaj Mountains.
The mountains themselves are mostly covered with forests, and their vegetation presents four zones: that of the beech extends to an altitude of 4000 ft.; that of the Scottish fir to 1000 ft.
Above this grows a species of pine, which becomes dwarfed and disappears at an altitude of about 6000 ft., beyond which is a zone of lichen and moss covered or almost bare rock.
ZHELESNOVODSK, a health resort of Russian Caucasia, in the province of Terek, lying at an altitude of 1885 ft.
It lies at an altitude of about 2600 ft.
The city of Herat lies in 34° 20' 30" N., and 62° 11' o" E., at an altitude of 2500 ft.
the altitude of the object observed.
These mountains, which have in the northern part an altitude of 2700 ft., slope down towards the south-east near Tokaj in a hilly plateau of about 1500 ft.
altitude, where the vineyard region is situated.
The mean annual temperature decreases to the north-westward with an increase of both altitude and latitude, and ranges from 73° F.
The Rudolf province lies low - an average altitude of not more than 2000 ft.
Like the districts round Lake Rudolf, the average altitude (near the Nile) is not more than 2000 ft., but the rainfall is more abundant than in the terrible Rudolf region, being an average of 30 in.
Its greatest altitude - the Duke of the Abruzzi's Mt Stanley (Margherita Peak) - is 16,816 ft., and therefore the third highest point on the African continent.
Other ranges, mostly of lower altitude, run parallel mainly to the east and west coasts.
The lake, which is roughly circular with a diameter of some 13 m., lies at an altitude of 6135 ft.
The city lies mainly on a gently rising plateau (altitude, 90 to', 25 ft.) between the Coyote and Guadalupe rivers.
above its mouth) at an altitude of 93 ft., and after 15 m.
The relation of the Americas to each other and to the rest of the world, as the home of plants and animals, is greatly affected by the breadth of the adjacent oceans, and also by the geologically recent changes of altitude whereby the breadth of the narrower parts of the lands and the oceans has been significantly altered.
On the south, east and west, these ranges, though wild and rugged, are of no great elevation, but on the north the Pyrenees attain their greatest altitude in the peaks of Aneto (11,168 ft.) and Monte Perdido (10,998 ft.) - also known as Las Tres Sorores, and, in French, as Mont Perdu.
The highest mountain of the province is in its eastern part, Mount Savelan, with an elevation of 15,792 ft., and the Talish Mountains, which run from north to south, parallel to and at no great distance from the Caspian, have an altitude of 9000 ft.
In fact the modern equatorial, and the altitude and azimuth circle are astrolabes in the strictest and oldest meaning of the term; and Tycho in one of his astrolabes came so near the modern equatorial that it may be taken as the first of the kind.
ANI (anc. Abnicum), an ancient and ruined Armenian city, in Russian Transcaucasia, government Erivan, situated at an altitude of 4390 ft., between the Arpa-chai (Harpasus) and a deep ravine.
BAALBEK (anc. Heliopolis), a town of the Buka`a (Coelesyria), altitude 3850 ft., situated E.
These hills are either of sandstone or ironstone and in altitude vary from about 4800 ft.
It lies at an altitude of nearly 6000 ft., and is well watered by the Caledon and its tributaries.
Kotelnyi is the highest and most massive of the four, reaching a maximum altitude of 1200 ft.
direction through Marshall, Roberts, Grant and Deuel counties and maintains an almost constant altitude of from 1950 to 2050 ft.
of Butte, at an altitude of about 4000 ft.
of Bavaria, springing out of the Fichtelgebirge at an altitude of 2390 ft.
In the Black Mountains, Mitchell (the culminating point of the whole system) attains an altitude of 6711 ft., Balsam Cone, 6645, Black Brothers, 6690, and 6620, and Hallback,6403.
bank of the Missouri River, at the mouth of the Kansas, altitude about Soo ft.
bank of the Rio Grande, at an altitude of 4950 ft.
But although the crests of its component ranges reach altitudes of 21,500 to 22,000 ft., they are not as a rule overtopped by individual peaks of commanding and towering elevation, as the Himalayas are, but run on the whole tolerably uniform and relatively at little greater altitude than the lofty valleys which separate them one from another.
Although they all decrease in altitude from west to east, they nevertheless reach elevations of 19,000 ft., with individual peaks ascending some2000-2500ft.
The flanks of the mountains are so deeply buried in disintegrated material that the difference in vertical altitude between the floors of the valleys and the summits of the ranges is comparatively small.
3 The twin ranges of the Astin-tagh are fairly equivalent in point of magnitude and regularity; but while the Lower Range, on the north, sensibly decreases in altitude towards the east,the Upper Range, on the south, maintains its general altitude in a remarkable way, and is gapped by steep, wild, deeply incised transverse glens directed towards the north, and generally fenced in by dark precipitous walls of rock.
This part of the range is crossed by the pass of Chopur-alik at an altitude of 16,160 ft., but farther east the passes lie at altitudes of 13,380 to 10,520 ft.
The range is crossed by passes at 1 3,97 0, 13,230 and 13,760 ft., and the Piazlik-tagh by a pass at an altitude of 13,640 ft.
Not only is it of lower elevation than them both, but it dies away towards the west, the valleys on each side of it meeting round its extremity to form one broad, open valley, with an altitude of 11,790 to 13,725 ft.
The Ara-tagh is crossed by a pass at an altitude of 14,345 ft.
The next great parallel range is the lofty and imposing Arka-tagh, the Przhevalsky Range of the Russian geographers, which has its eastward continuations in the Marco Polo Range (general altitude 1 5,75 0 - 16, 2 5 0 ft.) and Gurbu-naiji Mountains of Przhevalsky.
Of great length, the Arka-tagh, which is a mountain-system rather than a range, varies greatly in configuration in different parts, sometimes exhibiting a sharply defined main crest, with several lower flanking ranges, and sometimes consisting of numerous parallel crests of nearly uniform altitude.
which, according to Grenard, reaches an altitude of 24,140 ft.
The difference in altitude between the lowest, most northerly range, the Lower Astin-tagh, and the most southerly of the Arka-tagh ranges amounts to nearly 7500 ft.
individually the biggest; whereas the Upper Astin-tagh exceeds the Lower Astin-tagh by an altitude of some 1350 ft., it is itself exceeded by the Akato-tagh to the extent of 1760 ft.
the Nan-shan highlands have their foot on the Mongolian plateau (average altitude, 4000 ft.), i.e.
the Nan-shan mountains consist of short irregular chains, separated by broad plains, dotted with lakes, which differ but slightly in altitude from Tsaidam (8800-900o ft.).
In fact, the region is dominated by three ranges of nearly equal altitude, all lifting many of their peaks above the snow-line.
As a rule the passes are at an altitude of 12,000 to 14,000 ft., and the peaks reach 18,000 to 20,000 ft.
In Bohemia the highest peak Snezka (Schneekoppe) has an altitude of 5,216 ft., in Slovakia the summits of the Carpathians and of the High Tatra rise to a height of between 7,000 and 8,000 ft.
Climate and soil are favourable: beet-root is grown up to an altitude of I, too ft.
Altitude 1630 ft.
DENIZLI (anc. Laodicea ad Lycum), chief town of a sanjak of the Aidin vilayet of Asia Minor, altitude 1167 ft.
The climate of the archipelago, though generally mild, healthy and favourable to plant life, is by no means uniform, owing to the differences of altitude and shelter from wind in different islands.
The last function A, called the altitude function, will be explained when high angle fire is considered.
It is situated at an altitude of 3900 ft., near the western end of a rich well-watered plain through which runs the Kara Su or western Euphrates.
of altitude in Khan-tengri, and are covered with snow and glaciers - the only pass through them being the Muzart.
Barley is grown up to an altitude of 650o ft.
From Irazu (11,200), the culminating point of the range, both oceans and the whole of Costa Rica are visible; its altitude exceeds that of Aneto, the highest point in the Pyrenees, but so gradual is its acclivity that the summit can easily be reached by a man on horseback.
These generally succeed one another as the altitude increases, although the heat is greater at the same elevation on the Pacific than on the Atlantic coast.
in altitude, sloping from the Tian-shan, and intersected by numerous rivers, flowing towards the Oxus.
The population, about 35,000, consists chiefly of Moslem Tajiks, and the closely-related Galchas, and its chief town is Kala-i-khumb on the Panj, at an altitude of 4370 ft.
The highest point in the state is The Double on the Virginia state line, in the eastern part of Harlan county with an altitude of over 4100 ft.
The highest points of the department are found in the wooded highlands of the Ardennes which, with an altitude varying between 980 and 1640 ft., cover the north and north-east.
Between the passes is the ridge of Sonnblick, where a meteorological observatory was established in 1886 at an altitude of 10,170 ft.
gigantea, the largest of known conifers; it is confined to the western portion of the great Californian range for a length of about 260 m., at an altitude of from 5000 to 8400 ft.
trend to crustal deformations which in very early geological time gave a beginning to what later came to be the Appalachian mountain system; but this system had Its climax of deformation so long ago (probably in Permian time) that it has since then been very generally reduced to moderate or low relief, and owes its present altitude either to renewed elevations along the earlier lines or to the survival of the most resistant rocks as residual mountains.
When the peneplain was uplifted the weaker strata were worn down almost to a lowland of a second generation, while the resistant sandstones, of which there a1~- three chief members, retained a great part of their new-gained altitude in the form of long, narrow, even-crested ridges, well deserving of the name of Endless Motintains given them by the Indians, but here and there bending sharply in peculiar zigzags which give this Alleghany section of the mountains an unusual individuality.
The postTertiary uplift, giving the present altitude of 1000 or 1500 ft.
Wit continued decrease of altitude south-eastward, the crystalline belt dips under the coastal plain, near a line marked by the Delaware river from Trenton to Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, and thence south-south-westward through Maryland and Virginia past the cities of Baltimore, Washington and Richmond.
When the central uplands are followed south-east or south to the coast, their altitude and their relief over the valleys gradually decrease; and thus the surface gradually passes under the sea.
in altitude and reaching a summit height of 3186 ft.
across; but in consequence of later elevation, its general surface, now standing at an altitude of 2500 ft is mattirely dissected by the French Broad river and its many branches in valleys 300 ft.
The piedmont belt may be described as a maturely dissected peneplain over much of its extent; it is indeed one of the best examples of that class of forms. Its uplands are of fairly accordant altitude, which gradually decreases from 500 to 1000 ft.
The feature referred to results from the occurrence here of a weak basal formation of clay overlaid by more resistant sandy strata; the clay belt has been stripped for a score or more of miles from its original inland overlap, and worn down in a longitudinal inner lowland, while the sandy belt retains a significant altitude of 200 or 300 ft.
prevail in Pennsylvania and increase in Virginia; then the altitude falls to about 1000 ft.
It is of greater altitude (Mt Marcy 5344 ft.) and of much greater relief than the Superior Oldland; its heights decrease gradually to the north, west and south, where it is unconformably overlapped by Palaeozoic strata like those of Minnesota and Wisconsin; it is of more broken structure and form on.
The till plains, although sweeping in broad swells of slowly changing altitude, are often level to the eye, and the view across them stretches to the horizon, unless interrupted by groves of trees along the watercourses, or by belts of low morainic hills.
As in the Atlantic coastal plain, it is only the lower, seaward part of this region that deserves the name of plain, for there alone is the surface unbroken by hills or valleys; the inner part, initially a plain by reason of its essentially horizontal (gently seaward-sloping) structure, has been converted by mature dissection into an elaborate complex of hills and valleys, usually of increasing altitude and relief as one passes inland.
This cuesta is supported at an altitude of 700 ft.
Although the altitude of plains increases gradually from,6oo or 1200 ft.
The present altitude of the plains near the mountain base is 4000 ft.
east-west, reaching an altitude in Harney Peak of 7216 ft., and an effective relief over the plains of 2000 or 3000 ft.
Its altitude is 5500 ft.
in altitude: like the High Plains farther north, it is extraordinarily smooth; it is very dry, except for occa sional shallow and temporary water sheets after rains.
The higher mountains are barren from the cold of altitude; the timber line in Colorado stands at 11,000 to 12,000 ft.
in altitude, though none rises to 14,500.
long near the southern end of the mountain system in New Mexico and Colorado; its level, treeless floor, at an altitude of 7000 ft~.
They are peculiar in having their altitude dependent on the depth of revived erosion, instead of the amount of faulting, and they are sometimes topographically reversed, in that the revived scarp overlooks a lowland worn on a weak formation in the upheaved fault-block.
The tilting of the mountain mass was presumably not a simple or a single movement; it was probably slow, for Pitt river (headwaters of the Sacramento) traverses the northern part of the range in antecedent fashion; the tilting involved the subdivision of the great block into smaller ones, in the northern half of the range at least; Lake Tahoe (altitude 6225 ft.) near the range crest is explained as occupyilig a depression between two block fragments; and farther north similar depressions now appear as aggraded highland meadows.
In the new altitude of the mountain mass, its steep eastern face has been deeply carved with short canyons; and on the western slope an excellent beginning of dissection has been made in the erosion of many narrow valleys, whose greatest depth lies between their headwaters which still flow on the highland surface, and their mouths at the low western base of the range.
Marine Pliocene beds are reported to have an altitude of as much as 5000 ft.
Its deposition seems to have followed a time of deformation which resulted in an increase of altitude in the Appalachian Mountains, and in an accentuation of the contrast between the highlands and the adjacent plains.
With this goes a general increase of precipitation with altitude, so that a good rainfall map would have its darker shades very generally along the mountain ranges.
Since the area of a circle equals that of the rectilineal triangle whose base has the same length as the circumference and whose altitude equals the radius (Archimedes, KIKXou A ir, prop.i), it follows that, if a straight line could be drawn equal in length to the circumference, the required square could be found by an ordinary Euclidean construction; also, it is evident that, conversely, if a square equal in area to the circle could be obtained it would be possible to draw a straight line equal to the circumference.
Similar wide tracts of less broken country occur, after a mountainous interruption, in northern British Columbia and to some extent in the Yukon Territory, where wide valleys and rolling hills alternate with short mountain ranges of no great altitude.
The temperature depends largely, of course, on altitude, so that one may quickly pass from perpetual snow above 8000 ft.
It rises in a pocket of lofty peaks at an altitude of 10,400 ft.
There are several crateriform hills, and Hali San (Mount Auckland) has an altitude of 6558 ft.
KHARPUT, the most important town in the Kharput (or Mamuret el-Aziz) vilayet of Asia Minor, situated at an altitude of 435 o ft., a few miles south of the Murad Su or Eastern Euphrates, and almost as near the source of the Tigris, on the SamsunSivas-Diarbekr road.
near the ground, but in close woods is comparatively slender in proportion to its altitude.
On the Grampians and neighbouring hills the larch will flourish at a greater elevation than the pine, and will grow up to an altitude of 1700 or even 1800 ft.; but it attains its full size on lower slopes.
The more southerly, the Montagne de Tabe, contains, at its south-eastern end, several heights between 7200 and 9200 ft., while the Montagnes de Plantaurel to the north of Foix are of lesser altitude.
The Brie forms a plateau with few eminences, varying in altitude between 300 and Soo ft.
m., is a broad, undulating tract, rising gradually from the lake to an elevation of from 50 to 80 ft., its altitude averaging somewhat less than 600 ft.
It lies at an altitude of 402 ft.
If, however, a theodolite, fitted with a telescope which can rotate about a horizontal axis and having an altitude circle, is employed, so that when observing a transit the altitude of the sun or star can be read off, then the time need only be known to within a minute or so.
Hence in more recent patterns of magnetometer it is usual to do away with the transit mirror method of observing and either to use a separate theodolite to observe the azimuth of some distant object, which will then act as a fixed mark when making the declination observations, or to attach to the magnetometer an altitude telescope and circle for use when determining the geographical meridian.
The climate necessarily varies widely with the altitude.
On the other hand, since the spurs of the Taurus bring the winter cold a long way south, and the cold increases from west to east as we leave the mild coast of the Mediterranean, far down into the Mesopotamian plain the influence of the snowcovered ridges can be felt, and in the higher parts of the plain snow and ice are not infrequent; and although there is no point of sufficient altitude to retain snow for long, the temperature may fall as low as 14° F., especially if the cold north winds are blowing.
Its average altitude is over 16,000 ft., the northern portion of it being the highest.
The loftiest lake so far as observed is Hospa t'so, near the Lingshi plain on the Kashmir frontier; its altitude is given as 17,930 ft.
Amidst the mountains there are many narrow valleys, partially cultivated from an altitude of 12,000 ft.
The central lake region, extending from the Kuen-lun to the Himalaya, is also characterized by extreme dryness in autumn, winter and spring, with an abundance of rain in summer, whilst the eastern mountain region, extending to China south of the Dang la (which, with an altitude of about 20,000 ft., stretches from 90° to 97° E.
general easterly direction past the Mangtza t'so, Horpa t'so, Charol t'so, and around the northern end of the Aru t'so, all important lakes, at an average altitude of about 16,50o ft.
of Winnipeg, on the Canadian Pacific and Canadian Northern railways, at an altitude of 854 ft.
It consists of a vast central plateau, with an average altitude of about 2500 ft.
Ischl is situated at an altitude of 1533 ft.
It lies in a productive agricultural district, at an altitude of 2129 ft., and is a place of great importance, being the chief depot of the inland trade of the southern part of the state.
A great portion of Istria belongs to the Karst region, and is occupied by the so-called Istrian plateau, flanked on the north and east by high mountains, which attain in the Monte Maggiore an altitude of 4573 ft.
The great altitude accounts for very severe winter cold, occasionally ro to 25° below zero F., accompanied by blizzards (tipi) sometimes fatal to travellers overtaken by them.
The axes will take up any position, and consequently give rise to a continuous series of parhelia which touch externally the inner halo, both above and below, and under certain conditions (such as the requisite altitude of the sun) form two closed elliptical curves; generally, however, only the upper and lower portions are seen.
Immediately to the south-west the fortified hills of Montjuich rise to an altitude of 650 ft., while the view is bounded on the west by the heights which culminate in Tibidabo (1745 ft.), and on the north-east by the Montanas Matas.
of Teheran, on the high road thence to Meshed, at an altitude of 374 0 ft.
The whole country being hilly, the most conspicuous ridge is that lying between the Pawn and the Salween, which has an average altitude of 5000 ft.
in altitude, and is flanked by minor ranges running approximately parallel to the coast, and shutting off the harbours from the interior.
Here, in the intenser insolation which they enjoy on the alpine slopes, they seem to find a compensation for the drawbacks incidental to the altitude of their present station.
The combination of the two, however, shows clearly that, without much variation of heat or loss of light, any extent of space may be covered, and houses of any altitude constructed.
Though the Apennines comprised within the boundaries of Latium do not rise to a height approaching that of the loftiest summits of the central range, they attain to a considerable altitude, and form steep and rugged mountain masses from 4000 to 5000 ft.
at an altitude of 3100 ft., on a low spur overlooking the valley of the Nam Yao.
slope of the Elbruz, in the Caucasus, at an altitude of 13,930 ft., races down the N.
altitude, towards the N.W., and eventually, assuming a westerly course, enters the Gulf of Kyzyl-tash, on the Black Sea, in the vicinity of the Straits of Kerch.
When truly adjusted the theodolite measures the horizontal angle between any two objects, however much they may differ in altitude, as the pole star and any terrestrial object.
altitude is fixed, and rotates with it; both can be clamped to the standard, and motion can be given by a suitable double-ended motion screw.
PINE BLUFF, a city and the county-seat of Jefferson county, Arkansas, U.S.A., situated at an altitude of about 200 ft.
The highest of these is the Baraque de Michel close to the Prussian frontier, with an altitude of 2190 ft.
Adis Ababa stands on the southern slopes of the Entotto range, at an altitude of over 8000 ft., on bare, grassy undulations, watered by small streams flowing S.S.E.
The greater part of Kordofan consists of undulating plains, riverless, barren, monotonous, with an average altitude of 1500 ft.
and 108° 40' and 117° W., at an altitude of 391 ft.
and an altitude of 400 to 1000 ft., and the south-western tract includes 15,000 sq.
It is beautifully situated at an altitude of 1411 ft.
They really consist of a forest-clad and grassy tableland, with summits rising about 8000 ft.; the Anaimudi mountain, which is the highest in southern India, having an altitude of 8850 ft.
Thus at Cape Thorsden (7) in 1882-1883 the mean of a considerable number of observations made the angle between the two directions only 1° 7', the magnetic inclination being 80° 35', whilst the coronal centre had an altitude of 79° 55' and lay somewhat to the west of the magnetic meridian.
At Jan Mayen (8) in 1882-1883, out of 177 arcs whose position was accurately determined, 44 were seen in the north, their summits averaging 38.5° above the northern horizon; 88 were seen in the south, their average altitude above the southern horizon being 33.5° while 45 were in the zenith.
thirty arcs whose altitudes lay between 36° and 80 The altitude.
Furthermore, Gyllenskold says that when arcs mounted, as they not infrequently did, from the horizon, their apparent width might go on increasing right up to the zenith, or it might increase until an altitude of about 45° was reached and then diminish, appearing much reduced when the zenith was reached.
According to numerous observations made at Cape Thorsden, the apparent angular velocity of arcs increases on the average with their altitude.
Dividing the whole number of arcs, 156, whose angular velocities were measured into three numerically equal groups, according to their altitude, the following were the results in minutes of arc per second of time (or degrees per minute of time): - Each group contained auroras which appeared stationary.
Heights have been calculated in various less direct ways, by observing for instance the angular altitude of the summit of an arc and the angular interval between its extremities, and then making some assumption such as that the portion visible to an observer may be treated as a circle whose centre lies over the so-called auroral pole.
inland, lying at an altitude of little over 600 ft.
Lying in a basin sloping in a series of terraces from an altitude of 65 ft.
The surface of the Delta is a wide alluvial plain slopinf gently towards the sea, and having an altitude of 29 ft.
at an altitude of 2000 ft.
Transylvania has the form of an irregular circle, and is a high plateau of a mean altitude of1000-1600ft.
The altitude of the valleys generally increases towards the east of Transylvania, the lowest depression being found in the western part of the Maros valley.
Its altitude is 2422 ft.
south of the lake and at an altitude of 70 ft.
In the southern part of the interior are two large lakes, Amadjuak, which lies at an altitude of 289 ft., and Nettiling or Kennedy.
Their highest summit north of the Usk, on the eastern side, where they are known as the Black Mountains, or sometimes the Black Forest Mountains, is Pen y Gader (2624 ft.) between Talgarth and Llanthony, and on the south-west the twin peaks of the Mynydd Du ("Black Mountain") or the so-called Carmarthenshire Vans or Beacons, only the higher of which, Fan Brycheiniog (2632 ft.), is, however, in Breconshire; while the centre of the crescent is occupied by the masses of the Brecknockshire Beacons or Vans (often called the Beacons simply), the highest point of which, Pen y Fan, formerly also known as Cadair Arthur, or Arthur's Chair, attains an altitude of 2910 ft.
EGIN (Armenian Agn, " the spring"), an important town in the Mamuret el-Aziz vilayet of Asiatic Turkey (altitude 3300 ft.).
There is a tradition that this mountain was once higher than Chimborazo, but a series of eruptions caused the cone to fall in and reduced its summit to its present altitude and broken appearance.
Climatic conditions in Ecuador are very largely contingent on altitude, and the transition from one climate to another is a matter of only a few hours' journey.
In addition to the climatic changes due to altitude, there are others caused by local arid conditions, by volcanic influences and by the influence of mountain ranges on the temperature and rainfall of certain districts.
Moreover, no two summits seem to retain the snow permanently at the same altitude.
Some of these have a very wide range, while others are apparently limited to a small district, or to a certain altitude.
from Pyatigorsk; altitude, 2096 ft.
The surface of the plain rises gradually from the coast inland to an altitude of about 200 ft.
At the village of Afuleh its altitude is 260 ft.
This city itself stands at an altitude of 2500 ft.
above the altitude of Jerusalem; it is here that the Judaean Mountains attain their greatest height.
The great variety of altitude and of surface characteristics gives rise to a considerable number of local climatic peculiarities.
The town, which is situated at an altitude of 4040 ft., is hardly inhabited in the winter.
Duges's statement that there is a second species of Amblystoma, which is normal in its metamorphosis, near Mexico but at a higher altitude, which may explain Velasco's observation that regularly transforming Amblystomas occur near that city; and thirdly, he made a careful examination of the two lakes, Chalco and Xochimilco, where the axolotls occur in abundance and are procured for the market.
The country, especially in its southern parts, is occupied by the offshoots of the Carpathians, which attain in the Giumaleu an altitude of 610o ft.
in altitude, and the enclosing peaks 24,000 ft.
These spurs retain a considerable altitude, for they are marked by peaks exceeding 11,000 ft.
This main watershed retains its high altitude far to the south.
The end of the Cretaceous period saw the beginning of a series of great earth movements ushered in by volcanic eruptions on a scale such as the earth has never since witnessed, which resulted in the upheaval of the Himalayas by a process of crushing and folding of the sedimentary rocks till marine fossils were forced to an altitude of 20,000 ft.
Our limits forbid a historical account of the earlier endeavours to fulfil these ends by means of motions in altitude and azimuth, nor can we do more than refer to mountings such as those employed by the Herschels or those designed by Lord Rosse to overcome the engineering difficulties of mounting his huge telescope of 6 ft.
These platforms are capable of easy motion so that the astronomer may be conveniently situated for observing an object at any azimuth or altitude to which the telescope may be directed.
In the latter case it will be necessary to provide means to mount the coelostat on a carriage by which it can be moved east and west without changing the altitude or azimuth of its polar axis, and also to shift the second mirror so that it may receive all the light from the reflected beam.
C. Chandler in 1884 constructed an equal altitude instrument on this principle, which he called the almucantar, and he found that after disturbance the telescope recovered its original zenith distance within j i of a second of arc. R.
The plateau has an altitude ranging from 4000 to 6000 ft.
Especial importance attaches to the unexpected discovery by Whitehead of a new and peculiar mammalian fauna, inhabiting a small plateau on the top of Mt Data, in north Luzon, at an altitude of more than 7000 ft.
Throughout the archipelago the mean annual temperature varies much more with the altitude than with the latitude, but the range in mean monthly temperatures increases from 3.96° F.
m., and lies at an altitude of 90o ft.
and 127° 6' E., at an altitude of 120 ft., 25 M.
In their first ascent from the garden of the Conservatoire des Arts on the 24th of August 1804 an altitude of 4000 metres (about 13,000 ft.) was attained.
trend to crustal deformations which in very early geological time gave a beginning to what later came to be the Appalachian mountain system; but this system had its climax of deformation so long ago (probably in Permian time) that it has since then been very generally reduced to moderate or low relief, and owes its present altitude either to renewed elevations along the earlier lines or to the survival of the most resistant rocks as residual mountains.
The general character of the state is that of an undulating plateau, with a broad plain near the capital and along the Nam Teng, which is the chief river, with a general altitude of a little under 3000 ft.
Near the western boundary of the state they attain a maximum altitude of 2900 ft.
It narrows to the north and the altitude declines in the same direction.
above the sea in general altitude.
In the mountains the precipitation increases with the altitude; above 6000 or 7000 ft.
Distance from the ocean, situation with reference to the mountain ranges, and altitude are all important determinants of these climatic differences; but of these the last seems to be most important.
At any rate it may be said that generally speaking the maximum, minimum and mean temperatures of points of approximately equal altitude are respectively but slightly different in northern or southern California.2 Death Valley surpasses for combined heat and aridity any meteorological stations on earth where regular observations are taken, although for extremes of heat it is exceeded by places in the Colorado desert.
The distribution of life-zones is primarily a matter of altitude and corresponds to that of the isotherms. The mountain goat and mountain sheep live in the Sierran upper-land, though long ago well-nigh exterminated.
Its habitat extends some 200 m., from latitude 36° to 39°, nowhere descending much below an altitude of 5000 ft., nor rising above 8000 ft.
In the middle of the western part of the island lies the large lake of Wakolo, at an altitude of 2200 ft., with a circumference of 37 m.
BOLI, the chief town of a sanjak of the Kastamuni vilayet in Asia Minor, altitude 2500 ft., situated in a rich plain watered by the Boli Su, a tributary of the Filiyas Chai (Billaeus).
in altitude; the mean elevation is probably less than 2000 ft.; the declivity is sheer towards the lakes, and gradual towards the Caribbean.
It issues in the snowy mountains of Kulu at an altitude of 13,326 ft.
On the north the plateau is supported by a range of varying altitude, which follows the southern coast of the Black Sea and has no distinctive name.
It attains in Lycia an altitude of 10,500 ft., and in the Bulgar Dagh (Cilicia) of over 10,000 ft.
For equilibrium, the altitude of the centre of gravity G must be stationary; hence G must lie in the same vertical line with the point of contact J of the two curves.
In all other cases there must be an upper anda lower limit to the altitude.
z is called the altitude of the pendulum.
(I) The chief town of a vilayet of the same name in Asiatic Turkey; altitude, 5400 ft.
in altitude, more than rio above 13,000 and about 40 above 14,000.
Many parts of the railways among the mountains are remarkable for altitude, construction or scenery.
Notable, too, is the road in Clear Creek Canyon - where the railway track coils six times upon itself above Georgetown at an altitude of .10,000 ft.
of average altitude, covered with countless lakes, lying at altitudes of from 250 to 300 ft.
New Mexico has such a great range of elevations that all four of the zones of vegetation into which the South-West has been divided according to altitude are found within its limits; namely, the zone of cactus, yucca and agave (3000-3500 ft.), where grass is scanty; the zone of greasewood and sage-brush (3500-4900 ft.), where there is little grass, and the cactus species are less numerous; the zone of the cedar (4900-6800 ft.); and the zone of the pine and fir (6800 - 10,800 ft.), in which grass is more abundant.
Paghesh), the chief town of a vilayet of the same name in Asiatic Turkey, situated at an altitude of 47 00 ft., in the deep, narrow valley of the Bitlis Chai, a tributary of the Tigris.
It sends down subordinate ranges or spurs, of considerable altitude, on all sides, one of which extends to Cape Arnauti (the ancient Acamas), which forms the north-west extremity of the island, while others descend on both sides quite to the northern and southern coasts.
The yak of Thibet cannot long survive in the plains of India, or even on the hills below a certain altitude; and that this is due to climate, and not to the increased density of the atmosphere, is shown by the fact that the same animal appears to thrive well in Europe, and even breeds there readily.
The same species can thus endure a great difference of temperature; but the important fact is, that the individuals have become acclimatized to the altitude at which they grow, so that seeds gathered near the upper limit of the range of a species will be more hardy than those gathered near the lower limit.
The first step would be, to obtain seed from healthy trees growing in the coldest climate and at the greatest altitude in its native country, sowing these very largely, and in a variety of soils and situations, in a part of France where the climate is somewhat but not much more extreme.
Now there is a zone of the equatorial Andes, ranging between about 4000 and 6000 feet altitude, where the very best flavoured coffee is grown, where cane is less luxuriant but more saccharine than in the plains, and which is therefore very desirable to cultivate, but where the red man sickens and dies.
It is situated at an altitude of 2750 ft.
in altitude along the coast and alongside Lake Peipus, while in the interior the average elevation ranges from 200 to 300 ft., and nowhere exceeds 450 ft.
in altitude, is broken up by its rivers into well-wooded plateaus with a general inclination from south to north.
above sea-level, and the forest growth does not rise above an altitude of moo to 1500 ft.
On the eastern side of the Cordillera, in the extreme south, the climate is drier and open, and grassy plains are found, but on the western side the dripping forests extend from an altitude of moo to 1500 ft.
of Teheran, on the highroad thence to Meshed, at an altitude of 4460 ft., in 36° 25' N., 54° 59' E.
It abounds on the Alps, the Carpathians and the Siberian ranges, in Switzerland being found at an altitude of 4000 to 6000 ft.
The latter are usually described as mountain ranges, but they are, in fact, only the remains of the ancient plateau, capped with horizontal strata of sandstone, and having a remarkably uniform altitude of 2000 to 2400 ft.
38 5 N.; 46 18 E.; altitude 4423 ft.
Flora.ln the provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran and Astarabad on the Caspian, from the shore to an altitude of about 3000 ft.
The date-palm thrives well as far north as Tabbas in latitude 33 36 and at an altitude of 2000 ft.
The pundit Mohammed Hamid visited it in 1863 and determined its geographical position and altitude.
The plateau which forms the greater part of the protectorate has an altitude varying from 800 to 3000 ft.
Whilst the Little Karroo is divided by a chain of hills which run across it from east to west, and varies in altitude from 1000 to 2000 ft., the Great Karroo has more the aspect of a vast plain and has a level of from 2000 to 3000 ft.
Shutting off the sources of the Indus affluents from those of the Central Asian system of hydrography, this great water-parting is distinguished by a group of peaks of which the altitude is hardly less than that of the Eastern Himalaya.
Independently of the enormous variety of topographical conformation contained in the Himalayan system, the vast altitude of the mountains alone is sufficient to cause modifications of climate in ascending over their slopes such as are not surpassed by those observed in moving from the equator to the poles.
One half of the total mass of the atmosphere and three-fourths of the water suspended in it in the form of vapour lie below the average altitude of the Himalaya; and of the residue, one-half of the air and virtually almost all the vapour come within the influence of the highest peaks.
This is dependent on the temperature of the air which rapidly decreases with altitude.
On the mountains every altitude has its corresponding temperature, an elevation of moo ft.
altitude) on the outer ranges of the eastern Himalaya it amounts to about 120 in.
All these stations are about the same altitude.
Moles, which are unknown in the Indian peninsula, abound in the forest regions of the eastern Himalayas at a moderate altitude, and shrews of several species are found almost everywhere; amongst them are two very remarkable forms of water shrew, one of which, however, Nectogale, is probably Tibetan rather than Himalayan.
Owing to the diversities in altitude the flora of Bolivia represents every climatic zone, from the scanty Arctic vegetation of the lofty Cordilleras to the luxuriant tropical forests of the Amazon basin.
Coca, one of the most important plants of the country, is cultivated on the eastern slopes of the Andes at an altitude of 5000 to 6000 ft., where the temperature is uniform and frosts are unknown.
Quina or calisaya is a natural product of the eastern Andes, and is found at an altitude of 3000 to 9000 ft.
Only points high in altitude catch much rain.
Rainfall varying with the altitude, the lower timber line below which precipitation is insufficient to sustain a growth of trees is about 7000 ft., and the upper timber line about I I,Soo ft.
part of the state, at an altitude of about 2700 ft.
The Dzungarian Ala-tau reach a maximum altitude of r 1,000 ft.
and have a mean altitude of 6250 ft.
The northern part (Czech Cesky Les) attains in the massif of Czerkov an altitude of 3300 ft., but the southern part (Czech Sumava) is at the same time the highest and the most picturesque part of the range, including on the Bohemian side the Osser (4053 ft.) and the Plockenstein (45 1 3 ft.), although the highest peak, the Arber (4872), is in Bavaria.
The Erzgebirge (Czech Rudo Hori), which form the north-west frontier, have an average altitude of 2600 ft., and as their highest point, the Keilberg (4080 ft.).
Several of the villages are built very near the summit of the mountains, and one of them, Gottesgab (pop. about 1500), lies at an altitude of 3345 ft., the highest place in Bohemia and central Germany.
The Riesengebirge (Czech Kroknose) are, after the Alps, among the highest mountains of central Europe, and attain in the Schneekoppe an altitude of 5264 ft.
The fourth side of the rhomb is formed by the so-called Bohemian-Moravian Hills, a plateau or broad series of low hills, composed of primitive rocks, and attaining in some places an altitude of 2500 ft.
Whereas the western Ek-tagh Altai rises above the snowline and is destitute of timber, the eastern double ranges barely touch the snow-line and are clothed with thick forests up to an altitude of 6250 ft.
Such are the Chuya Alps, having an average altitude of 9000 f t., with summits from 11,500 to 12,000 ft., and at least ten glaciers on their northern slope; the Katun Alps, which have a mean elevation of about lo,000 ft.
Several secondary plateaus of lower altitude are also distinguished by geographers.
long) pierces the Katun Alps, and enters a wider valley, lying at an altitude of from 2000 to 3500 ft., which it follows until it emerges from the Altai highlands to join the Biya in a most picturesque region.
The Altai, seen from this valley, presents the most romantic scenes, including the small but deep Kolyvan lake (altitude, 1180 ft.), which is surrounded by fantastic granite domes and towers.
Those of Bashkaus, Chulyshman, and Chulcha, all three leading to the beautiful alpine lake of Teletskoye (length, 48 m.; maximum width, 3 m.; altitude, 1700 f t.; area, 87 sq.
of Byelukha, he assigns an altitude of 17,800 ft.
The altitude rises from l000 ft.
Salzburg, situated at an altitude of 1351 ft.
of Salzburg, at an altitude of 1720 ft., stands the pilgrimage church of Maria Plain, erected in 1674.
The outer range has probably a mean altitude of 8000 ft., the highest known summits being the Hazar Masjed (io,500) and the Kara Dagh (9800).