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  • Her actions had clearly taken him by surprise.

  • He should view their actions as clearing the way for him.

  • Cade should accept the responsibility of his actions as well.

  • There was nothing maternal about her feelings for Alex – nor anything paternal about his actions toward her when they were alone.

  • Cromwell, who was as a rule especially scrupulous in protecting non-combatants from violence, justified his severity in this case by the cruelties perpetrated by the Irish in the rebellion of 1641, and as being necessary on military and political grounds in that it "would tend to prevent the effusion of blood for the future, which were the satisfactory grounds of such actions which otherwise cannot but work remorse and regret."

  • You turned me away with your suspicious actions, long before Alex came along.

  • Actions spoke louder than words.

  • Her actions toward Julie, her mother and to Betsy with whom she shares a special relationship are markedly different.

  • He was able to see, hear, smell and predict the actions of those around him.

  • She left him there to think about his actions - only he would probably stew on hers instead.

  • Had she awoken, there was no doubt she'd be petrified by his actions in the nearly dark room.

  • It was bad enough that his actions warranted her decision to leave, but now she actually feared him.

  • I do not need to explain my actions to you.

  • Evelyn had little regret for her actions in life, even those she probably should have.

  • All our earlier actions were a series of what ifs.

  • But I hope I'd have the gumption not to rationalize my actions by pretending I believed what I did was right.

  • She'd thought him beyond the duplicity that made up the actions of the elite class.

  • By his actions, she was betting it was negative.

  • During our walks she keeps up a continual spelling, and delights to accompany it with actions such as skipping, hopping, jumping, running, walking fast, walking slow, and the like.

  • Her actions suddenly struck him in a different light.

  • When later on in his memoirs Count Rostopchin explained his actions at this time, he repeatedly says that he was then actuated by two important considerations: to maintain tranquillity in Moscow and expedite the departure of the inhabitants.

  • Had his actions truly set her on this path to end up as the plaything of a creature with no capacity for mercy?

  • He began to think his own actions had cost him the choice he'd yet to give her: to stay forever or return to her planet.

  • There was a moment of realization as he understood her brave actions, and then a snap as the line let loose and he tumbled backwards like some mortally wounded game bird shot from the sky, arms outstretched, scream muffled in his mask.

  • He had never experienced this intimacy with a lady of breeding, and knew that if her family ever learned of their actions, they would demand restitution for his behavior.

  • The full import of his actions hit her, bringing a flood of warmth to her face.

  • His actions were far too bold, and yet the feel of his warm muscular torso was comforting.

  • In particular that conception which regarded "ambition" as the guiding motive in his career has been dispelled by a more intimate and accurate knowledge of his life; this shows him to have been very little the creator of his own career, which was largely the result of circumstances outside his control, the influence of past events and of the actions of others, the pressure of the national will, the natural superiority of his own genius.

  • When reason rises to the conception of universal order, when actions are submitted, by the exercise of a sympathy working necessarily and intuitively to the idea of the universal order, the good has been reached, the true good, good in itself, absolute good.

  • This shows that the principle of the dissipation of energy has control over the actions of those agents only whose faculties are too gross to enable them to grapple individually with the minute portions of matter which are the seat of energy.

  • Poetry and art, and the fairest and most memorable of the actions of men, date from such an hour.

  • Her thoughts and actions are hers alone.

  • His parent's actions seem very vengeful and an overreaction for what he did.

  • Both of us tried to remember details of Quinn's actions when he set up a session.

  • His suspicions concerning Lydia's actions and his continued silence in not reporting them came too close to involving him as an accessory in whatever she might have done.

  • And his actions over the bones bordered on obsessiveness.

  • But she saw what lay beneath his actions: hatred for something she'd done to him.

  • Cats wrestled and played around them while D'Ryn's strict oversight of his and Gage's actions could not be shaken.

  • Perhaps, he thought, we are all owed contemplation of our actions, as a parting gift to those who succeed us so they might somehow learn from our deeds and mistakes.

  • In Dean's mind, her attitude and actions eliminated any thought that she might have read or learned of Annie's final hours earlier.

  • In the zymo-technical industries the various species of yeast exhibit different actions during fermentations.

  • The winter (332-331) which Alexander spent in Egypt saw two memorable actions on his part.

  • That to fit the actions and distances covered by Alexander into such a scheme, assuming that he went by Seistan and Kandahar, would involve physical impossibilities has been pointed out by Count Yorck v.

  • Actions may be transferred to it, and appeals made to it, from the county courts in all cases arising within the jurisdiction of the Cinque Ports as defined by that act.

  • indicator, suitably supported, a to-and-fro motion was recorder given by the electromagnetic actions due to the electric currents constituting the signals.

  • Your actions alone accuse you.

  • The statement is not there because you want the log per se but because the logging of the actions is what documents how much you need to pay.

  • In the absence of efficient communication, potential belligerents are left to impute the worst possible motives to the unexplained actions of others.

  • I mention these reprehensible actions to illustrate how language can divide us.

  • They view the opposition by others to the actions of their country as treason, or at least, inexplicably self-destructive.

  • Thus he learns that words name things and actions and feelings.

  • Besides, in the actions of a statesman one has to distinguish between his acts as a private person, as a general, and as an emperor.

  • Those speeches were intended for quite other conditions, they were for the most part to be spoken at a moment of victory and triumph, generally when he was dying of wounds and the sovereign had thanked him for heroic deeds, and while dying he expressed the love his actions had proved.

  • His eyes glittered feverishly while he tried to prove to Pierre that in his actions there was no desire to do good to his neighbor.

  • The actions of Napoleon and Alexander, on whose words the event seemed to hang, were as little voluntary as the actions of any soldier who was drawn into the campaign by lot or by conscription.

  • A deed done is irrevocable, and its result coinciding in time with the actions of millions of other men assumes an historic significance.

  • (Poniatowski's action against Utitsa, and Uvarov's on the right flank against the French, were actions distinct from the main course of the battle.)

  • "On the contrary, your Highness, in indecisive actions it is always the most stubborn who remain victors," replied Raevski, "and in my opinion..."

  • Never to the end of his life could he understand goodness, beauty, or truth, or the significance of his actions which were too contrary to goodness and truth, too remote from everything human, for him ever to be able to grasp their meaning.

  • He could not disavow his actions, belauded as they were by half the world, and so he had to repudiate truth, goodness, and all humanity.

  • But however small the units it takes, we feel that to take any unit disconnected from others, or to assume a beginning of any phenomenon, or to say that the will of many men is expressed by the actions of any one historic personage, is in itself false.

  • But I did not summon you to discuss my actions, but to give you advice--or an order if you prefer it.

  • If one accepts this twofold aim all Rostopchin's actions appear irreproachable.

  • Not only did it seem to him (as to all administrators) that he controlled the external actions of Moscow's inhabitants, but he also thought he controlled their mental attitude by means of his broadsheets and posters, written in a coarse tone which the people despise in their own class and do not understand from those in authority.

  • His words and actions flowed from him as evenly, inevitably, and spontaneously as fragrance exhales from a flower.

  • But we need only penetrate to the essence of any historic event--which lies in the activity of the general mass of men who take part in it--to be convinced that the will of the historic hero does not control the actions of the mass but is itself continually controlled.

  • So fresh instructions were sent for the solution of difficulties that might be encountered, as well as fresh people who were to watch Kutuzov's actions and report upon them.

  • In such actions, instead of two crowds opposing each other, the men disperse, attack singly, run away when attacked by stronger forces, but again attack when opportunity offers.

  • I'll tell Harrigan to stop the investigation but Arthur's actions are pretty strange.

  • From this position it easily followed that actions, being merely external, were morally indifferent, and that the true Gnostic should abandon himself to every lust with perfect indifference.

  • Lately his actions were more fatherly than anything else.

  • We forbade ourselves to even discuss our impetuous actions for fear of disturbing Howie so all we could do is cross our fingers and pray.

  • It's our actions that put us in harm's way.

  • That's the number of Guardians you've killed directly with your actions over the past few thousand years.

  • No one wants to think about the result of their actions nowadays, and no one talks about how this ruins the poor girl's life.

  • When the kitchen door opened suddenly, they jerked apart and turned guilty faces to Sarah, whose expression made it clear she had seen and comprehended their actions.

  • People had limited control over their emotions, but they could certainly remain in control of their actions.

  • Obviously he did realize the consequences of his actions.

  • It would certainly explain Cade's actions.

  • Meanwhile, we locked on the television, all evening, awaiting the results of our actions.

  • I trust you because of your actions.

  • Their actions showed moral ambiguity.

  • Martha looked awful but apologized for her actions.

  • Dusty gazed at him, sensing how much he loved his sister and how hurt he was by his own actions.

  • And then to waltz in and deliver such an important message at a time when he wanted nothing more than to remain infuriated with her for her actions ...

  • "What's wrong?" she asked, concerned by his actions.

  • It's like getting caught, not by a person, but by the circumstances of your actions.

  • He liked watching her despite her odd actions.

  • A batch of muffins burned in the process but things began to return to normal after Ryland indicated Edith was feeling better and had apologized for her actions.

  • Annie's death was a direct result of him and his actions.

  • I'm sure God has forgiven their little transgressions and the two of them are contrite for their actions.

  • Dean cringed at this first admonition for his impulsive actions.

  • A certain amount of planning and calculation went into all of her actions.

  • The wolf then walked to Connor and repeated her actions.

  • "I'm sure you noticed that my domain in overrun with demons," Death said casually.  "My … interference put the underworld – and all the little humans' souls – at risk, weakened the barriers between here and Hell.  You were right, Gabe.  Even my actions have consequences."

  • Dean sensed part of her was upset by her husband's irresponsible actions.

  • The car had quickly made a U-turn and followed Fred, not taking care to disguise its actions.

  • I know there's nothing I can say to justify my actions.

  • Was there no end to her selfish actions?

  • Darian had a quick wit that was as unpredictable as his actions.

  • We moved our magic source into this world in anticipation of your actions.

  • My allies will block their roads and take the fortresses at the borders, among other actions.

  • Why was she allowing Katie to influence her thoughts and actions?

  • The preference exhibited by yeast cells for sugar molecules is shared by mould fungi and soluble enzymes in their fermentative actions.

  • The latter was a great magician, able, by operating upon waxen figures of the armies and ships of his enemies, to obtain complete power over their real actions.

  • The actions of Montebello (May 20), Palestro (May 3f) and Melegnano (June 8) and the battles of Magenta (June ~) and Solferino (June 24) all went against the Austrians.

  • He decides that human actions are caused or determined by the nature of the agent, but that, ' as man is not a necessary being, his actions are contingent.

  • He looked on the actions of the individual organism and of society as determined by the needs of self-preservation.

  • In this particular, as in his view of organic actions, Kant distinctly opposed the idea of evolution as one universal process swaying alike the physical and the moral world.

  • forbade spiritual courts to take cognizance of " real " and "possessory " actions even in regard to clerks (Migne, loc. cit.; cf.

  • The only other remaining civil jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts was in personal actions where clerks were defendants (Migne, op. cit., s.v.

  • The fifth and last book takes up the question of man's free will and God's foreknowledge, and, by an exposition of the nature of God, attempts to show that these doctrines are not subversive of each other; and the conclusion is drawn that God remains a foreknowing spectator of all events, and the ever-present eternity of his vision agrees with the future quality of our actions, dispensing rewards to the good and punishments to the wicked.

  • It created a Commerce Court (composed of five judges nominated by the president of the United States from the Federal circuit judges), transferred to it jurisdiction in cases instituted to enforce or set aside orders of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, and made the United States instead of the Commission a party in all such actions.

  • The heat attendant on these actions, and on the vital processes of the animal organism, naturally first attracted attention.

  • Whilst this principle is undoubtedly applicable to the great majority of chemical actions under ordinary conditions, it is subject to numerous exceptions, and cannot therefore be taken (as its authors originally intended) as a secure basis for theoretical reasoning on the connexion between thermal effect and chemical affinity.

  • As a very great number of important chemical actions take place on mixing solutions, the method for such cases has been thoroughly studied.

  • Lubbock's experiments of inLlucing ants to seek objects that had been removed show that they are guided by scent rather than by sight, and that any disturbance of their surroundings often causes great uncertainty in their actions.

  • In all probability the actions of ants are for the most part instinctive or reflex, and some observers, such as A.

  • If this were an attempt to steer a middle course his true actions could not have been kept secret long, and as it is implied that the Philistines subsequently acquiesced in David's sovereignty in Hebron, it is not easy to see what interest they had in embroiling him with the men of Judah.

  • But Reid's actions are better than his words; his real mode of procedure is to redargue Hume's conclusions by a refutation of the premises inherited by him from his predecessors.

  • Two miles north-east of the city is the National Cemetery, with graves of 6571 Federal soldiers (5700 unknown) most of whom were killed in the actions near Richmond.

  • These actions proclaimed so unmistakably Napoleon's intention of making Italy an annexe of France as to convince Francis of Austria and Alexander of Russia that war with him was inevitable.

  • The tsar, as protector of the Germanic System, had already been so annoyed by the seizure of the duc d'Enghien on German territory, and by other high-handed actions against the Hanse cities, as to recall his ambassador from Paris.

  • But Napoleon's actions, especially the annexation of Genoa, at last brought the three powers to accord, with the general aim of re-establishing the status quo ante in Germany, Holland, Switzerland and Italy, or, in short, of restoring the balance of power which Napoleon had completely upset.

  • In home affairs as in foreign affairs his actions bespoke the master.

  • The addition of large territories to the grand duchy of Warsaw after the war of 1809 aroused the fears of the tsar respecting the Poles; and he regarded all Napoleon's actions as inspired by hostility to Russia.

  • But there is nothing in his words or actions at this time to show that he desired peace except on terms which were clearly antiquated.

  • His actions at this time have been ascribed to righteous indignation against Metternich's double-dealing.

  • In several families of spiders, but principally in those like the Clubionidae and Salticidae, which are terrestrial in habits, there are species which not only live amongst ants, but so closely resemble them in their shape, size, colour and actions that it requires a practised eye to distinguish the Arachnid from the insect.

  • Now, supposing dealing to be confined to experts, what effects upon the course of prices would one expect from the specialism of the cotton market and improved facilities Effect specula= for dealing, on the assumption that dealers were governed wholly in their actions by the course of prices and never tried to manipulate them?

  • The miracles recorded of Elijah and Elisha lie somewhat apart from the main currents of the history, the narratives themselves are distinct from the historical works in which they have been incorporated, and the character of some of the actions raises serious doubts and difficulties.

  • It is due to the memory of the judges of Lord Coke's time to say that, at any rate as regards contracts made in partibus transmarinis, the same rule appears to have been applied at least as early as 1544, the judges then holding that "for actions transitory abroad action may lie at common law."

  • At the close of the campaign of 1814 he shared with Joseph Bonaparte the responsibility for some of the actions which zealous Bonapartists have deemed injurious to the fortunes of the emperor.

  • The basis of the new system, which was almost entirely Field's work, was the abolition of the existing distinction in forms of procedure between suits in law and equity requiring separate actions, and their unification and simplification in a single action.

  • Photography is based on chemical action induced by luminous rays; apart from this practical application there are many other cases in which actinic rays occasion chemical actions; these are treated in the article Photochemistry.

  • The vast myth of the Ring is related in full several times in each of the three main dramas, with ruthless disregard for the otherwise magnificent dramatic effect of the whole; hosts of original dramatic and ethical ideas, with which Wagner's brain was even more fertile than his voluminous prose works would indicate, assert themselves at all points, only to be thwarted by repeated attempts to allegorize the philosophy of Schopenhauer; all efforts to read a consistent scheme, ethical or philosophical, into the result are doomed to failure; but all this matters little, so long as we have Wagner's unfailing later resources in those higher dramatic verities which present to us emotions and actions, human and divine, as things essentially complex and conflicting, inevitable as natural laws, incalculable as natural phenomena.

  • His career shows no great political ideas, and none of his actions indicate genius.

  • Having become king of Navarre on Jeanne's death in 1349, he suppressed a rising at Pampeluna with much cruelty, and by this and similar actions thoroughly earned his surname of "The Bad."

  • In redhibitory actions (for the annulment of sales), if a slave were returned to the seller, so must also be his parents, brothers and personae contubernio conjunctae.

  • The battle of Alexandria, fought on the 21st of March of that year, between the French army under General Menou and the British expeditionary corps under Sir Ralph Abercromby, took place near the ruins of Nicopolis, on the narrow spit of land between the sea and Lake Aboukir, along which the British of troops had advanced towards Alexandria after the actions of Aboukir on the 8th and Mandora on the 13th.

  • Wicked actions cannot be undone, but in the heavenly account can be counterbalanced by a surplus of good works.

  • Romanes in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica runs as follows: "Instinct is a generic term comprising all those faculties of mind which lead to the conscious performance of actions that are.

  • Wasmann, for example, divides instinctive actions under two groups: (I) those which immediately spring from the inherited dispositions; (2) those which indeed proceed from the same inherited dispositions but through the medium of sense experience.

  • The severe actions of Diirrenstein (near Krems) ors the iith, and of Hollabriinn on the 26th of November, in which Napoleon's marshals learned the tenacity of their new opponents, and the surprise of the Vienna bridge (November 14) by the French, were the chief incidents of this period in the campaign.

  • in twelve days including two sharp rearguard actions, Bernadotte with his fresh troops having fallen behind.

  • Meanwhile the Russians had not lost a single gun and the moral of their men had been improved by the result of the many minor encounters with the enemy; further, the and then began a series of rearguard actions and nocturnal retreats which completely accomplished their purpose of wearing down the French army.

  • Rearguard actions were fought at Pombal (March to), Redinha (March 12) and Condeixa (March 13).

  • With other electrolytes similar phenomena appear, though the primary chemical changes may be masked by secondary actions.

  • His chief peculiarity consists in clearly tracing a strong Pauline influence, especially in Mark, which there remodels certain sayings and actions as these were first registered by the eye-witness documents.

  • casus, a point of law), the art of bringing general moral principles to bear on particular actions.

  • Actions, in short, were of no account whatever, apart from the character that produced them.

  • the Kritik der reinen Vernunft), as distinguished from the "Practical Reason" (praktische Vernunft) which is specially concerned with the performance of particular actions.

  • He took part in all the actions of the great siege, and at the same time served as a librarian in the city archives.

  • Under the excitement created by the actions of Wilkes, Horne plunged into politics, and in 1765 brought out a scathing pamphlet on Lords Bute and Mansfield, entitled " The Petition of an Englishman."

  • The possession of this property brought about frequent disputes with an adjoining landowner, Thomas de Grey, and, after many actions in the courts, his friends endeavoured to obtain, by a bill forced through the houses of parliament, the privileges which the law had not assigned to him (February 1774).

  • Here he sought to ingratiate himself with Luynes and the king by reporting minutely the actions of Marie and by protestations of loyalty.

  • The Piedmontese forces won two actions (8th of April and 30th of May 1848) over the Austrians here.

  • It was the cardinal Louis de Rohan, formerly ambassador at Vienna, whence he had been recalled in 1774, having incurred the queen's displeasure by revealing to the empress Maria Theresa the frivolous actions of her daughter, a disclosure which brought a maternal reprimand, and for having spoken lightly of Maria Theresa in a letter of which Marie Antoinette learned the contents.

  • At first sight it appears difficult to understand how g PP the complicated series of actions which are definitely exhibited as so-called " instincts " by a variety of animals can have been due to the selection of congenital variations, or can be otherwise explained than by the transmission of habits acquired by the parent as the result of experience, and continuously elaborated and added to in successive generations.

  • It is, however, to be noted, in the first place, that the imitation of the parent by the young possibly accounts for some part of these complicated actions, and, secondly, that there are cases in which curiously elaborate actions are performed by animals as a characteristic of the species, and as subserving the general advantage of the race or species, which, nevertheless, can not be explained as resulting from the transmission of acquired experience, and must be supposed to be due to the natural selection of a fortuitously developed habit which, like fortuitous.

  • It is customary to ascribe their successes to the power of the breech-loader, but there were actions in which it played no part, cavalry versus cavalry encounters, and isolated duels between batteries which gave the Prussian gunners a confidence they had not felt when first crossing the frontier.

  • Falckenstein moved forward again on the 8th, and on the 10th the Bavarians were again defeated in a series of actions around Kissingen, Waldaschach and Hammelburg.

  • More partial actions, at Hundheim (23rd), Tauber Bischofsheim (24th),Gerchsheim (25th), Helmstadt (25th) and Rossbrunn (26th) ended in the retreat of the Germans to Wurzburg and beyond; the armistice (Aug.

  • The toxic actions produced in continued fevers, in certain chronic diseases, and by intestinal parasites largely aid in producing degeneration, emaciation and atrophy.

  • One can easily demonstrate all the actions and reactions which take place in this form of acute inflammation.

  • Although a nitrate, its pharmacological actions resemble those of nitrites such as amyl nitrite, taken internally.

  • A king Pollis is spoken of; but nothing is known of his actions.

  • According to its doctrines the normal as well as diseased actions of the body were to be referred to the operation of the pneuma or universal soul.

  • The tendency of the school was to explain the actions and functions of the body on physical, and especially on mechanical, principles.

  • In the mutual behaviour of such cells, toxins, and antitoxins, and again of microbes themselves, we may demonstrate even on the field of the microscope some of the modes of such actions, which seem to partake in great measure at any rate of a chemical quality (agglutinins, coagulins, chemotaxis).

  • Moreover, some of its actions were open to such suspicion that a royal commission was appointed to inquire into certain matters connected with the working of the board.

  • There was to be no taking up of successive positions in accordance with the normal practice of rearguard actions.

  • Although modern mercurial pumps have assumed a multiplicity of forms, their actions can be reduced to two principles, one statical, the other hydrodynamical - at the same time instruments have been devised utilizing both these principles.

  • His tyrannical and barbarous conduct had made him obnoxious at home as well as abroad, and indeed many of his actions recall the worst passages of the history of the later Roman emperors.

  • All actions are product of pleasure and pain, good and evil.

  • In regard to water, all soils have two actions - namely, permeability and absorbability.

  • The decree of God is, when it concerns His own actions, absolute, but when it concerns man's, conditional, i.e.

  • It is enough here to outline his actions in so far as he attempted to create a united, and then a conquering, Arabia.

  • This and other actions excited the French to act on the secret understanding effected with the British foreign minister at the Berlin Congress.

  • Some of his actions roused considerable opposition.

  • The qualification " almost " is necessary because so complex a system of actions comes into play, and accurate observations have extended through so short a period, that the proof cannot be regarded as absolute.

  • This undeniable Providence, the supreme dispenser of our destinies, becomes in the natural course the common centre of our affections, our thoughts, and our actions.

  • Herder defines human history as " a pure natural history of human powers, actions and propensities, modified by time and place."

  • From the 9th of May to the 17th of July there were skirmishes, actions and combats almost daily.

  • In the Principles of Ethics Spencer, though relying mainly on the objective order of nature and the intrinsic consequences of actions for the guidance of conduct, conceives the ethical end in a manner intermediate between the hedonist and the evolutionist.

  • Spencer, however, considers that he can not only anticipate such a state of complete adjustment, but even lay down the rules obtaining in it, which will constitute the code of "Absolute Ethics" and the standard for discerning the "least wrong" actions of relative ethics.

  • That good actions are to be done, because they are of God and from God.

  • These and other actions indicate that William could show on occasion a cold and cynical ruthlessness.

  • His Origines, the work of his old age, was written with that thoroughly Roman conception of history which regarded actions and events solely as they affected the.

  • He imitated the Greek historians in taking particular actions - the Jugurthan War and the Catilinarian Conspiracy - as the subjects of artistic treatment.

  • Willett, A Narrative of the Military Actions of Col.

  • In the case of imperfect gases, all the available experimental evidence shows that the specific volume tends towards its ideal value, V =Re/p, in the limit, when the pressure is indefinitely reduced and the molecules are widely separated so as to eliminate the effects of their mutual actions.

  • No doubt the later indigitamenta (" bidding-prayers") which give us detailed lists of the spirits which preside over the various actions of the infant, or the stages in the marriage ceremony, or the agricultural operations of the farmer, are due in a large measure to deliberate pontifical elaboration, but they are a true indication of the Roman attitude of mind, which reveals itself continually in the analysis of the cults of the household or the festivals of the agricultural year.

  • Instances of this endeavour to maintain, as it were, a respectful distance in speaking of God occur on every page of the Targums, but cases also occur, by no means infrequently, where human actions and passions are ascribed to God.

  • Just as there is a faculty which apprehends beauty in the sphere of art, so there is in the sphere of ethics a faculty which determines the value of actions.

  • From this principle, it follows (I) that the distinction between right and wrong is part of the constitution of human nature; (2) that morality stands apart from theology, and the moral qualities of actions are determined apart from the arbitrary will of God; (3) that the ultimate test of an action is its tendency to promote the general harmony or welfare; (4) that appetite and reason concur in the determination of action; and (5) that the moralist is not concerned to solve the problem of freewill and determinism.

  • There are no remote actions.

  • governed constantly by fears for his person and estate, he was seduced into a series of unworthy actions.

  • Wellhausen regards 1-6 and 7-14 as doublets, and differentiates two actions in the original account which are here confused.

  • Both actions result in the drawing in of an intermediate layer of water from a distance which takes part in the double system of vertical circulation as is indicated in fig.

  • Catherine's policy provoked a crowd of pamphlets, the most celebrated being the Discours inerveilleux de la vie, actions et deportemens de la seine Catherine de Medicis, in which Henri Estienne undoubtedly collaborated.

  • Marie Antoinette's actions were now directed entirely by Fersen, for she suspected Mercy and the emperor of sacrificing her to the interests of Austria (Fersen, i.

  • To civil war she was consistently opposed, and never ceased to dissociate herself from the plans of the emigres, but here again her very position made her an enemy of the republic. In any case, all her actions had as their aim - firstly, the safeguarding of the monarchy and the king's position, and later, when she saw this to be impossible, that of securing the safety of her husband and her son.

  • In the former, the anthracite and lime are ground and carefully mixed in the right proportions to suit the chemical actions involved.

  • The formation of nitrides and cyanamides by actions of this kind and their easy conversion into ammonia is a useful method for fixing the nitrogen of the atmosphere and rendering it available for manurial purposes.

  • The moments of the components of these actions and reactions in a plane to which the axis of rotation is at right angles are the two aspects of the torque acting, and therefore the torque acting on B through the shaft is measured by the torque required to hold A still.

  • Descartes's own attempts to deduce the different qualities and actions of bodies in this way are not of much value.

  • This officer fought a number of brilliant actions, and aided by Major (later Colonel) G.

  • The overthrow of the monarchy on the 10th of August and the September massacres rendered hopeless all attempts at an entente cordiale between the two peoples; and the provocative actions of Chauvelin, undertaken in order to curry favour with the extremists now in power at Paris, undid all the good accomplished by the tact and moderation of Talleyrand.

  • The provocative actions of the French Convention, especially their setting aside of the rights of the Dutch over the estuary of the Scheldt, had brought the two nations to the brink of war, when the execution of Louis XVI.

  • During his last days he signed a paper signifying his reconciliation with the Roman Catholic Church and his regret for many of his early actions.

  • Talleyrand believed that he served those causes best by remaining in office whenever possible, and by guiding or moderating the actions of his chiefs.

  • p. 119) the following definition is given of sacramentalia: " Sacramentals are certain things or actions instituted or consecrated by the Church for the production of certain spiritual effects, and sometimes for the obtaining of a temporal effect."

  • If she flies off, he starts up in an instant to arrive before her at the next place of alighting, and all his actions are full of life and spirit.

  • He belongs distinctly to the romantic school; his forte is vivid and picturesque description, the lively presentation of scenes and actions, characters and states of society, not the subtle analysis of motives, the power of detecting the undercurrents or the generalizing faculty.

  • Possibly Barrow laid more stress also on the orderly " rules of the Word " to be followed in all church actions, and so conveyed a rather different impression.

  • Tne supreme court has general jurisdiction in law and equity, including all actions both civil and criminal.

  • And whilst the Synoptist speeches and actions stand in loose and natural relation to each other, the Johannine deeds so closely illustrate the sayings that each set everywhere supplements the other: the history itself here tends to become one long allegory.

  • The supreme court has original jurisdiction in habeas corpus, quo warranto and mandamus proceedings against all state officers; and it has appellate jurisdiction except in civil actions for the recovery of money or personal property, in which the original amount in controversy does not exceed $200, and which at the same time do not involve the legality of a tax, impost, assessment, toll or municipal fine, or the validity of a statute.

  • They have jurisdiction of various civil actions in which the amount in controversy is less than $100, and concurrent jurisdiction with the superior courts in all cases of misdemeanours, but punishment by a justice of the peace is limited in cities of the first class to a fine of $500, or imprisonment for six months, and elsewhere to a fine of $100 or imprisonment for thirty days.

  • Oku renewed the attack next day, but found only a rearguard in front of him, and without following up the retiring Russians he again halted for six days before proceeding to Haicheng to effect a junction with the 4th Army (Nozu), which meantime had won a number of minor actions and forced the passage of the mountains at Fenshuiling South.'

  • These courts have original jurisdiction in cases at law and in equity in which the value in controversy exceeds $50, in criminal cases amounting to felony, in all matters of probate, in actions for divorce, &c., and appellate jurisdiction in cases arising in the inferior courts.

  • Justices of the peace are elected for two years and have civil jurisdiction in several classes of actions in which the amount demanded does not.

  • And as at the head of the first age stands the first Adam, whose doings affected all his descendants to their harm, so at the head of the second shall stand the second Adam, whose actions shall be potent for good.

  • All controversies of a civil nature, and any question of personal injury on which a suit for damages will lie, although it may also he indictable, may be referred to arbitration; but crimes, and perhaps actions on penal statutes by ntary common informers may not.

  • In such rolling operations the girder is subjected to straining actions different from those which it is intended to resist, and parts intended for tension may be in compression; hence it may need to be stiffened by timber during rolling.

  • Straining Actions and Working Stresses.

  • Straining Actions.

  • But if a load is so applied that the deflection increases with speed, the stress is greater than that due to a very gradually applied load, and vibrations about a mean position are set up. The rails not being absolutely straight and smooth, centrifugal and lurching actions occur which alter the distribution of the loading.

  • The drug has the typical actions of a volatile oil, but exerts some of them in an exceptional degree.

  • i., but his independent actions in ch.

  • The circuit courts have original jurisdiction of all actions and causes, both at law and in equity and such appellate jurisdiction as may be conferred by law.

  • The oil is very readily absorbed from the skin and exerts all its therapeutic actions when thus exhibited.

  • Greek and Roman authors have much to say about Apis, the marks by which the black bull-calf was recognized, the manner of his conception by a ray from heaven, his house at Memphis with court for disporting himself, the mode of prognostication from his actions, the mourning at his death, his costly burial and the rejoicings throughout the country when a new Apis was found.

  • This court has exclusive original jurisdiction in probate matters, and in counties with over 2000 inhabitants its jurisdiction may be extended by popular vote to include concurrent jurisdiction with the district courts in civil matters involving amounts less than $2000, and in criminal actions below the grade of felony.

  • The language is so complete that the dog, pig, crow and other common or unclean animals are all expressed by special words, while the actions of royalty, such as eating, sleeping, walking, speaking, bathing, dying, are spoken of in words quite distinct from those used to describe similar actions of ordinary people.

  • He held that its office was simply to record human actions and that it should be written as a drama.

  • He was far-seeing in arranging all his actions, pleasant and merry all with men; strong and brave, and furious in battle."

  • The problem is whether we can represent the facts more simply by supposing the intervening space to be occupied by a medium which transmits physical actions, after the manner that a continuous material medium, solid or liquid, transmits mechanical disturbance.

  • It has been maintained since the times of the early Greek philosophers, and possibly even more remote ages, that matter is constituted of independent indestructible units, which cannot ever become divided by means of any mutual actions they can exert.

  • It has to be competent to transmit the transverse waves of light and electricity, and the other known radiant and electric actions; the way in which this is done is now in the main known, though there are still questions as to the mode of expression and formulation of our knowledge, and also as regards points of detail.

  • Every year the senate was to appoint sixteen of its number to be in constant attendance upon the king in rotas of four, which sedecimvirs were to supervise all his actions.

  • the bulawa, or baton, the bunchuk, or horse-tail standard, and his official seal; but he was responsible for his actions to the kosh alone, and an inquiry into his conduct was held at the expiration of his term of office in the obschaya shkoda, or, general assembly.

  • Yet Aristippus was compelled to admit that some actions which give immediate pleasure entail more than their equivalent of pain.

  • Goldsborough captured Roanoke Island, and the troops penetrated inland as far as Newbern (actions of February 8 and March 14).

  • The neighbourhood of Marietta witnessed for the next fortnight very heavy fighting, notably at Pine Mountain on the 14th and Kenesaw on the 27th, both actions being frontal assaults gallantly pushed home and as gallantly repulsed.

  • Apart from this, and other actions referred to, two incidents of the coast war call for notice - the career of the "Albemarle" and the duel between the "Atlanta" and the "Weehawken."

  • The lives and actions of apostles and prophets were in their general tenor like those of other men; it was only that, for the particular purpose of their mission, they found themselves carried beyond and above themselves.

  • The accompanying actions (tying knots, &c.) which he performs are assumed to work themselves out on the enemy whose evil eye.

  • The signs or symbolic acts of the prophet probably originated in the actions of sympathetic magic. Thus in the vivid scene of r Kings xxii.

  • But the Confederates, marching swiftly up the Valley, slipped between the converging columns of Fremont from the west and McDowell from the east, and concluded a most daring campaign by the victorious actions of Cross Keys and Port Republic (8th and 9th of June).

  • Our direct sympathy with the agent in the circumstances in which he is placed gives rise, according to this view, to our notion of the propriety of his action, whilst our indirect sympathy with those whom his actions have benefited or injured gives rise to our notions of merit and demerit in the agent himself.

  • In the chamber he was in a minority, since genuine Republicans of all varieties began to see what his success would mean, and his actions were accordingly directed to keeping the public gaze upon himself.

  • " Their actions are cruel among us black people.

  • In two subsequent actions, on the 15th and 19th of May, to windward of Martinique, the French admiral would not be brought to close action.

  • From the 17th of February 1782 to the 10th of June 1783 he fought a series of fine actions against Sir Edward Hughes, by which he secured a marked superiority on the water.

  • But his capture of Trincomalee in July 1782 in spite of Sir Edward Hughes, and the heavy loss he inflicted on the British fleet in several of the actions he fought, constitute the most honourable part of the French naval operations in the war.

  • For details of actions the reader may be referred to Beatson's Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Britain from 1727 to 1783 (London, 1804), and to Sir W.

  • Not only human beings but animals and objects are seen in dreams; and the conclusion would be that they too have souls; the same conclusion may have been reached by another line of argument; primitive psychology posited a spirit in a man to account, amongst other things, for his actions; a natural explanation of the changes in the external world would be that they are due to the operations and volitions of spirits.

  • In philosophical terminology this word is used in two main senses: (I) in ethics, for the view that man is not responsible for his actions, which have, therefore, no moral value; (2) in psychology, for all actions which are not the result of collation or conscious endeavour.

  • Certain actions being admittedly automatic, Descartes maintained that, in regard of the lower animals, all action is purely mechanical.

  • At the lowest level we have vague movements of large groups of muscles, as in "bier-divination," where the murderer or his residence is inferred from the actions of the bearers; of a similar character but combined with more specialized action are many kinds of witch seeking.

  • These more specialized actions are most typically seen in the Divining Rod (q.v.; see also Table-Turning), which indicates the presence of water and is used among the uncivilized to trace criminals.

  • If, however, we abandon intuitional ethics, it is reasonable to argue that the term summum bonum ceases to have any real significance inasmuch as actions are not intrinsically good or bad, while the complete sceptic strives after no systematic ideal.

  • 65, describes the first communion of the newly baptized: " After we have thus washed the person who has believed and conformed we lead him to the brethren so called, where they are gathered together, to offer public prayer both for ourselves and for the person illuminated, and for all others everywhere, earnestly, to the end that having learned the truth we may be made worthy to be found not only in our actions good citizens, but guardians of the things enjoined.

  • The state (or a local authority created by the state) registers his birth, appoints his guardian, provides schools for him and pays for them, allots him a share in the property of a parent dying intestate, licences him when he enters a trade (if the trade needs a licence), marries him, divorces him, entertains civi] actions against him, tries and executes him for murder.

  • radius and there had been constant patrol skirmishes and small actions which continued until the Armistice.

  • As a cavalry subaltern he distinguished himself by his gallant conduct in actions with the Comanches in Texas, and was severely wounded in 1859.

  • Churchwardens are always lay persons, and as they may, like "artificial persons," hold goods and chattels and bring actions for them, they are recognized in law as quasi-corporations.

  • Xenocrates took the tolerant view that it is the possession of appropriate virtue and noble actions, requiring as conditions bodily and external goods.

  • 8): virtuous actions are gentlemanly actions, and happiness accordingly is being at our best and noblest and pleasantest (tipcarov Kai KaXXCaTOV Kai rjScarov).

  • It divides (chap. 8) evidences (7r1aTEts) into two kinds (I) evidence from arguments, actions and men (ai j s v E air&v Tcev Xhywv cal Twv 7rpit aw cal TWV avOpcoirwv); (2) adventitious evidences (ai S' iIriOETOtTOLs X yo,u vots cal Tois rpm-To/lb/0a).

  • But in Ethics a man's individual good is his own happiness; and his happiness is no mere state, but an activity of soul according to virtue in a mature life, requiring as conditions moderate bodily and external goods of fortune; his virtue is (I) moral virtue, which is acquired by habituation, and is a purposive habit of performing actions in the mean determined by right reason or prudence; requiring him, not to exclude, but to moderate his desires; and (2) intellectual virtue, which is either prudence of practical, or wisdom of speculative intellect; and his happiness is a kind of ascending scale of virtuous activities, in which moral virtue is limited by prudence, and prudence by wisdom; so that the speculative life of wisdom is the happiest and most divine, and the practical life of prudence and moral virtue secondary and human.

  • Simple and honourable himself, he was shrewd and penetrating in his judgment of Orientals; and, unlike his great predecessor Clive, he rigidly adhered to the rule of good faith in his own actions, however depraved and however exasperating the conduct of those with whom he had to deal.

  • Here, as in all their actions, they clearly obeyed orders issued from headquarters.

  • There is a marked antagonism in nearly all important particulars between the actions of physostigmine and of atropine.

  • The compounds of magnesium are not absorbed into the blood in any appreciable quantity, and therefore exert no remote actions upon other functions.

  • From this point of view he believed that the real unity of a body is a vinculum substantiale, which gives it its real continuity and is the principle of its actions; that its primary matter is its own principle of resistance; and that it has not only this passive, but also an active, power of its own.

  • teleologism," to express its conclusion that the known Lotze world beyond phenomena is neither absolute thought nor unconscious will, nor the unconscious at all, but the activity of God; causing in us the system of phenomenal appearances, which we call Nature, or bodies moving in time and space; but being in itself the system of the universal reciprocal actions of God's infinite spirit, animated by the design of the supreme good.

  • At the same time it is a curious attempt to restore mechanism and reconcile it with teleology by using the word " mechanism " in a new meaning, according to which God performs His own reciprocal actions within Himself by uniform laws, which are also means to divine ends.

  • But at the end of his Metaphysik, from the conclusion that everything beyond phenomena is divine interaction, he drew the consistent corollary that individual souls are simply actions of the one genuine being.

  • His final view was that certain actions of the divine substance are during consciousness gifted with knowledge of themselves as active centres, but during unconsciousness are non-existent.

  • (c) Wren and Huygens further proved that the law of equal action and reaction, already experimentally established by the former, is deducible from the conservation of the velocity of the common centre of gravity, which is the same as the common velocity of the bodies, that is, deducible from the fact that their common centre of gravity does not change its state of motion or rest by the actions of the bodies between themselves; and they further extended the law to bodies, qua elastic.

  • He apparently forgets that mere feelings often produce actions, as when one writhes with pain.

  • Similarly, he supposes our personal individual will is a collective will containing simpler will-unities, and he thinks that this conclusion is proved by the continuance of actions in animals after parts of the brain have been removed.

  • Olszewski, and illustrated for the first time in public the liquefaction of oxygen and air, by means of apparatus specially designed for optical projection so that the actions taking place might be visible to the audience.

  • Right and wrong belong to actions in themselves.

  • By this he means, not that the ethical value of actions is independent of their motive and end (see ch.

  • This ethical value is perceived by reason or understanding (which, unlike Kant, he does not distinguish), which intuitively recognizes fitness or congruity between actions, agents and total circumstances.

  • Yet, in denying the importance of the emotions in moral judgment, he is driven back to the admission that right actions must be " grateful " to us; that, in fact, moral approbation includes both an act of the understanding and an emotion of the heart.

  • Price's main point of difference with Cudworth is that while Cudworth regards the moral criterion as a v6nma or modification of the mind, existing in germ and developed by circumstances, Price regards it as acquired from the contemplation of actions, but acquired necessarily, immediatel",, intuitively.

  • His first engagement was the battle off Ushant in 1778, and, soon afterwards transferred to the West Indies, he was present, under the command of his cousin Sir Samuel Hood, at all the actions which culminated in Rodney's victory of April 12th, 1782.

  • In one of the actions of this war the "Centaur" and "Implacable," unsupported by the Swedish ships (which lay to leeward), cut out the Russian 80-80-gun ship "Sevolod" from the enemy's line and, after a desperate fight, forced her to strike.

  • In conjunction with the Minorites and the Ghibellines of Italy, Marsilius succeeded in enticing Louis to the fateful expedition to Rome and the revolutionary actions of 1328.

  • No apter estimate of his character can be found than the words of Aeneas Silvius himself: " He was a great-hearted man; but his chief error was that he was a stranger to moderation, and regulated his actions, not by his ability, but by his wishes."

  • The Galileo-Newton theory of motion is that, relative to a suitably chosen base, and with suitable assignments of mass, all accelerations of particles are made up of mutual (so-called) actions between pairs of particles, whereby the two particles forming a pair have accelerations in opposite directions in the line joining them, of magnitudes inversely proportional to their masses.

  • These actions of the state assembly against the college and the bank probably were immediate causes for the insertion in the Federal Constitution (adopted by the convention in Philadelphia in 1787) of the clause (proposed by James Wilson of Pennsylvania, a friend of the college and of the bank) forbidding any state to pass a law impairing the obligation of contracts.

  • Some of his worst actions as a politician were due to a sincere, though exaggerated, gratitude for the support which the Papacy had given him during his minority.

  • Her mere actions were, like those of other and humbler people, dictated by the conditions in which she lived.

  • The machinery of expression having thus been indicated, the connexion of the physical actions and the psychical state was made the subject of speculation by Herbert Spencer (Psychology, 1855) These speculations were reduced to a system by Darwin (Expression of Emotions, 1872), who formulated and illustrated the following as fundamental physiognomical principles: (1) Certain complex acts are of direct or indirect service, under certain conditions of the mind, in order to relieve or gratify certain sensations or desires; and whenever the same states of mind are induced the same sets of actions tend to be performed, even when they have ceased to be of use.

  • He was in command of his army at the actions of Resaca, Dallas,Kenesaw Mountain and the battles about Atlanta.

  • The club was suppressed by the dominant "Caps," who also sought to ruin Sprengtporten financially by inciting his tenants in Finland to bring actions against him for alleged extortion, not in the ordinary courts but in the riksdag itself, where Sprengtporten's political adversaries would be his judges.

  • The growth of a tree, the spark struck from a flint, the devastating floods of a river, mean to him the natural actions of beings within the tree, stone or water.

  • And thus too he explains to himself the phenomena of human life, believing that each man has within him a mannikin or animal which dictates his actions in life.

  • It must be remembered, however, that apart from size and colour all snakes resemble each other in a general way in their form and actions.

  • In these actions, except the last, the Americans had the advantage of greater size and a heavier broadside, but they showed excellent seamanship and gunnery.

  • Its versatile cries and actions, as seen and heard by those who penetrate the solitude of the northern forests it inhabits, can never be forgotten by one who has had experience of them, any more than the pleasing sight of its rust-coloured tail, which an occasional gleam of sunshine will light up into a brilliancy quite unexpected by those who have only surveyed the bird's otherwise gloomy appearance in the glass-case of a museum.

  • Finally an examination took place at the end of the year of office, when each archon had to answer for his actions with person and possessions; till then he could not leave the country, be adopted into another family, dispose of his property, nor receive any " crown of honour."

  • In larger doses a remarkable sequel to these actions may be observed.

  • By the schoolmen, however, the terms were differentiated, conscience being the practical envisaging of good and evil actions; synderesis being, so to speak, the tendency toward good in thought and action.

  • The exact relation between the two was, however, a matter of controversy, Aquinas and Duns Scotus holding that both are practical reason, while Bonaventura narrows synderesis to the volitional tendency to good actions.

  • 11-20), or the assertion of God's indifference towards men's actions (xxxv.

  • c. 57); and in the case of spiritual corporations sole the period of limitation of actions, if any, is governed by the Limitation Act 1833, s.

  • His views were those of a moderate reformer, who desired to renovate but not to end the institutions of the old monarchy; and his memoirs set forth in a favourable light the actions of that parlement, the existence of which was soon to be terminated amid the political storms of the close of the year 1789.

  • army operating on the south side of the capital and took part in all the actions in that quarter.

  • In 1868 it consisted of ~5 steamers (including 2 ironclads) and 44 sailing vessels, but during the various wars of the period 1848-1871, only a few minor actions were fought at sea, and for many years after the French War the development of the navy did not keep pace with that of the empires commercial interests beyond the seas, or compete seriously with the naval power of possible rivals.

  • offended John of Bohemia, who had aided him at and the Muhldorf, thus converting a useful friend into a formidable foe, and his other actions were hardly more judicious.

  • Even the churches offered little opposition to the excesses of persons in authority, and in many instances the clergy, both Protestant and Catholic, acquired an unenviable notoriety for their readiness to overlook or condone actions which outraged the higher sentiments of humanity.

  • One result of this was that it became increasingly difficult in political discussions to avoid criticizing the words and actions of the emperor.

  • It was, indeed, not easy to combine that respect and reverence which the emperor required should be paid to him, with that open criticism of his words which seemed necessary (even for selfdefence) when the monarch condescended to become the censor of the opinions and actions of large parties and classes among his subjects.

  • Monuments commemorate the actions at El Caney and San Juan Hill.

  • It contains the famous maxim that purity of intention may be a justification of actions which are contrary to the moral code and to human laws; and its general tendency is to find excuses for the majority of human frailties.

  • Nevertheless we cannot doubt his goodfaith, not even in the cases in which the moral quality of his actions leaves most to be desired.

  • 13 sqq.), this seems a transition to a quite different set of ideas, namely, the books of fate, or the record of all human actions - conceptions which are actually found in the Koran.

  • With the exception of two or three of the most enlightened courts, the criminal powers of these courts were restricted, but in civil actions they had full scope.

  • Colonel Sir Francis Grenfell succeeded General Sir Evelyn Wood in March 1885, and while under his command the army continued to improve, and fought successful actions at Gemaiza, Argin, Toski and Tokar.

  • ~i; of all actions of the moutheating and speaking, likewise ~jj silence and hunger.

  • An overwhelming naturalism swamped the older reserves of Egyptian art, and the expression of the postures, actions and familiarities of daily life, or the instantaneous attitudes of animals, became the dernier cri of fashion.

  • Aibek meanwhile immediately became involved in war with the Ayyubite Malik al-Ngsir, who was in possession of Syria, with whom the caliph induced him after some indecisive actions to make peace: he then successfully quelled a mutiny of Mamelukes, whom he compelled to take refuge with the last Abbasid caliph Mostasim in Bagdad and elsewhere.

  • The establishment of the Mixed Tribunals in 1876, in place of the system of consular jurisdiction in civil actions, made some of the courts of justice international.

  • Mahdism, however, spread over Darfur in spite of Slatins efforts to stay it He fought no fewer than twenty-seven actions in various parts of his province, but his own troops, in course of time, became infected with the new faith and deserted him.

  • The dervish loss in the two actions was estimated at 1000 killed and wounded, while the Egyptian casualties were only 4 killed and 29 wounded.

  • The violent dislike he conceived for Buoncampagno exerted a marked influence upon his subsequent actions.

  • Vertigo is a frequent result of cerebellar injury: animals indicate it by their actions; patients describe it.

  • Actions of great complexity and delicacy of adjustment are daily executed by each of us without what is ordinarily understood as volition, and without more than a mere shred of memory attached thereto.

  • His intentions, as exhibited to his famous Landelove (National Code), were progressive and enlightened to an eminent degree; so much so, indeed, that they mystified the people as much as they alienated the patricians; but his actions were often of revolting brutality, and his whole career was vitiated by an incurable double-mindedness which provoked general distrust.

  • The king himself was indeed a semi-idiot, scarce responsible for his actions, yet his was the era of such striking personalities as the brilliant charlatan Struensee.

  • Do not employ such physiological antagonists as pilocarpine or morphine, for the lethal actions of all these drugs exhibit not mutual antagonism but coincidence.

  • About 523 he had married the famous Theodora, who, as empress regnant, was closely associated in all his actions till her death in 547.

  • Successive actions at law resulted in the ruling that it was not within the competence of the founder to divert any portion of the revenues of his foundation to the use of others than the members thereof, as specified in the letters patent.

  • From this time a mystic pietism became the avowed force of his political, as of his private actions.

  • The " biographical " view of history, however, implies the weakness, not only of unqualified approval of all Cromwell's actions, but of omitting any attempt to estimate the Protector's real relation to the social and political development of the time.

  • P in the actions of the Congregation.

  • But Postnati, subjects born in Scotland after James's accession to the English throne, were allowed to purchase and hold real property, and " to bring real actions for the same, " in England (1608).

  • If we reflect on the multitude and complexity of such actions and reactions in operation from the youngest stages to the end of the life of each individual, we cannot be surprised at any correlation.

  • In India it had already, before the rise of Buddhism, been raised into an ethical conception by the associated doctrine of Karma, according to which a man's socialpositioninlife and hisphysicaladvantages, or the reverse, were the result of his actions in a previous birth.

  • For as the Arahat had conquered the cravings that were supposed to produce the new body, his actions were no longer Karma, but only Kiriya, that led to no rebirth.4 Another point of Buddhist teaching adopted from previous belief was the practice of ecstatic meditation.

  • Of His teaching we have heard nothing, except in the occasional sentences by which He justified some of His unexpected actions.

  • In both the patient was withdrawn from the multitude and the cure was wrought with the accompaniment of symbolic actions.

  • The actors are never characterized; their actions are simply noted down; there is no praise and no blame.

  • The first portrays Him chiefly by a record of His actions, and illustrates His strength, His sympathy, and His freedom from conventional restraints.

  • The action taken by President Kruger at this election, and his previous actions in ousting President Burgers and in absolutely excluding the Uitlanders from the franchise, all show that at any cost, in his opinion, the government must remain a close corporation, and that while he lived he must remain at the head of it.

  • He was a man of great energy, but all his actions seem to have been dictated by no higher motives than ambition and lust of power.

  • Reason abandons her efforts to mould the world, and is content to let the aims of individuals work out their results independently, only stepping in to lay down precepts for the cases where individual actions conflict, and to test these precepts by the rules of formal logic.

  • Exquisite as he is in his special mode of execution, he undoubtedly falls far short, not only of his great naturalist contemporaries such as 1Vlasaccio and Lippo Lippi, but even of so distant a precursor as Giotto, in all that pertains to bold or life-like invention of a subject or the realization of ordinary appearances, expressions and actions - the facts of nature, as distinguished from the aspirations or contemplations of the spirit.

  • There he was confronted by the ambassadors of Rome, who expressed their surprise at his actions.

  • The zeal and self-sacrificing devotion which some of these establishments, and their inmates, display, and their noble labours on behalf of the country, its people and its history throw into yet more painful relief the actions and attitudes of some of their fellow-Christians.

  • He displayed his skill and bravery in the numerous actions around Charleroi, and especially in the crowning victory of Fleurus, after which in the winter of 1794-95 he besieged Mainz.

  • Averroes was accused of heretical opinions and pursuits, stripped of his honours, and banished to a place near Cordova, where his actions were closely watched.

  • All a man's actions from the cradle to the grave are regulated by it; and the tendency in modern India is for tribes to turn into castes.

  • At the head of an independent command in Moldavia and Walachia, he prevented a large Turkish army from crossing the Pruth (1770); distinguished himself at the actions of Larga and Kagula; and captured Izmail and Kilia.

  • According To The Elementary Kinetic Theory Of An Ideal Gas, The Molecules Of Which Are So Small And So Far Apart That Their Mutual Actions May Be Neglected, The Kinetic Energy Of Translation Of The Molecules Is Proportional To The Absolute Temperature, And Is Equal To 3/2 Of Pv, The Product Of The Pressure And The Volume, Per Unit Mass.

  • The optimates finally decided to support him for the consulship in order to keep out Catiline, and he eagerly embraced the " good cause," his affection for which from this time onward never varied, though his actions were not always consistent.

  • His actions, however, when Caesar's projects became manifest, sufficiently vindicated his honesty.

  • Sin is a term applied not only to actions, but also to dispositions and motives.

  • This fitness God has given to actions, as he has given laws to Nature; and the fitness is as immutable as the laws.

  • After their disgrace he was led into many impolitic actions by his violent and often cruel propensities.

  • Jackson in the meantime had learned that Calhoun as secretary of war had wished to censure him for his actions during the Seminole war in Florida in 1818, and henceforth he regarded the South Carolina statesman as his enemy.

  • The royal courts refused to entertain suits of villeins against their lords, although there was a good deal of vacillation before this position was definitely taken up. Bracton still speaks in his treatise of the possibility for the courts to interfere against intolerable cruelty on the part of the lord involving the destruction of the villein's waynage, that is, of his ploughteam, and in the Notebook of Bracton there are a couple of cases which prove that r3th-century judges occasionally allowed themselves to entertain actions by persons holding in villenage against their lords.

  • Man so infers at first: otherwise we cannot explain the actions of young children, who before they begin to speak give no evidence of universal thinking.

  • He opposed the advance of the British division under Lord Methuen, and fought, though without success, three general actions at Belmont, Graspan and Modder River.

  • A Parsee must be born upon the ground floor of the house, as the teachings of their religion require life to be commenced in humility, and by "good thoughts, words and actions" alone can an elevated position be attained either in this world or the next.

  • to the protection of trade-mark and copyright, to the execution of foreign judgments, to the reception of evidence, and to actions by and against foreigners; (6) promulgating written rules of international law, upon topics previously governed, if at all, only by unwritten custom, with reference e.g.

  • There he and his men played an active part in the actions which ended the war.

  • But her ambition and strong personal prejudices often led her to actions injurious to the realm.

  • The district courts have original jurisdiction in all actions and matters not expressly vested in some other court and appellate jurisdiction in cases arising in the lower courts.

  • Justices of the peace, one of whom is elected biennially in each precinct, have jurisdiction in civil actions in which the amount in controversy does not exceed $200 and the title to or boundary of real estate is not involved, and in criminal actions less than a felony and in which the punishment prescribed by law does not exceed a fine of $100 and imprisonment for six months.

  • The strength of the Whigs at this time and the necessities of the war caused the retirement of Harley, but he remained Anne's secret adviser and supporter against the faction, urging upon her "the dangers to the crown as well as to the church and monarchy itself from their counsels and actions," 3 while the duchess never regained her former influence.

  • His main thesis is that the actions of men cannot be divided into lower and higher.

  • the self-regarding actions of men) which alone, by means of inventions and the circulation of capital in connexion with luxurious living, stimulate society into action and progress.

  • Stillingfleet's actions were as liberal as his opinions, and he aided more than one ejected minister.

  • His argument was that it was useless to send in more reserves to the chaos among the hills west of the Isonzo; that the only way to remedy the situation was to withdraw the bulk of the armies " from close contact with the enemy under the protection of vigorous rearguard actions," and so make possible the organization of a solid defence and eventual counter-attack.

  • If R1=R1, which is the case when the resistance, as well as the effort, arises from the mutual actions of the two bodies, the above becomes, E:Ei:Ei~ 8

  • In later times, the strict adherence to caste duties would naturally receive considerable support from the belief in the transmigration of souls, already prevalent before Buddha's time, and from the very general acceptance of the doctrine of karma (" deed "), or retribution, according to which a man's present station and manner of life are the result of the sum-total of his actions and thoughts in his former existence; as his actions here will again, by the same automatic process of retribution, determine his status and condition in his next existence.

  • It would even seem to be necessarily and naturally implied in Brahmanical belief in metempsychosis; whilst in the doctrine of Buddha, who admits no soul, the theory of the net result or fruit of a man's actions serving hereafter to form or condition the existence of some new individual who will have no conscious identity with himself, seems of a peculiarly artificial and mystic character.

  • Since by the universally accepted doctrine of karman (deed) or karmavipaka (" the maturing of deeds") man himself - either in his present, or some future, existence - enjoys the fruit of, or has to atone for, his former good and bad actions, there could hardly be room in Hindu pantheism for a belief in the remission of sin by divine grace or vicarious substitution.

  • Their past performances could then be checked, and their future actions forecast by the priest; and there was small danger of their straying beyond the limits marked out by authority.

  • These were lists, prepared by collating observations on the actions of substances one upon another, showing the varying degrees of affinity exhibited by analogous bodies for different reagents, and they retained their vogue for the rest of the century, until displaced by the profounder conceptions introduced by C. L.

  • The same discord between his private opinions and his public actions maybe traced in his conduct subsequent to 1534.

  • Interest is confined to the actions, passions, sufferings and joys of human life, to its pathetic, tragic, humorous and sentimental incidents.

  • Both these writers, more particularly the latter, had postulated in controverting Hobbes the existence of a moral sense to explain the fact that we approve benevolent actions, done either by ourselves or by others, which bring no advantage to ourselves.

  • His table of springs of actions shows the same mean-spirited omissions that we notice in his predecessors; he measures the quantity of pleasures by the coarsest and most mechanical tests; and he sets up general pleasure as the criterion of moral goodness.

  • To understand the genesis of human morality we must study the ways of sociable animals such as horses and monkeys, which give each other assistance in trouble, feel mutual affection and sympathy, and experience pleasure in doing actions that benefit the society to which they belong.

  • The term " electricity " is applied to denote the physical agency which exhibits itself by effects of attraction and repulsion when particular substances are rubbed or heated, also in certain chemical and physiological actions and in connexion with moving magnets and metallic circuits.

  • Trans., 1776) constructed an artificial torpedo, by which he imitated the actions of the living animal.

  • Faraday's mind, however, revolted against this notion; he felt intuitively that these distance actions must be the result of unseen operations in the interposed medium.

  • Electric attractions and repulsions were, however, regarded as differential actions in which the mutual repulsion of the particles of electricity operated, so to speak, in antagonism to the mutual attraction of particles of matter for one another and of particles of electricity for matter.

  • But his actions in that position were not calculated to promote the good of his country.

  • vii.) and the inductive method which is discussed in the Novum Organum are at the root of all theories which have constructed a moral code by an inductive examination of human consciousness and the results of actions.

  • Actions are divided, according to the nationality of the defendant, into " Ottoman " and " Foreign "; in the latter, the president of the court alone exercises jurisdiction as a rule, so also in criminal cases against foreigners.

  • One of his first actions was the release of the ex-ministers of Charles X., and he had to deal with the disputes with Switzerland and with the Strassburg coup of Louis Napoleon.

  • Few men, it is probable, have been more atrociously calumniated; but, when every specific statement to h s prejudice has been rejected, he still appears on a general review of his actions worldly, crafty and unscrupulous.

  • This revived spirit of nationalism was by outsiders sometimes associated, quite erroneously, with the aims and actions of the Welsh parliamentary party, the spokesmen of political dissent in Wales; yet in reality this sentiment was shared equally by the clergy of the Established Church, and by a large number of the laity within its fold.

  • Any one of these can pass on its sacred quality to other persons and objects (as a corpse defiles the mourner and his clothes), nay to actions, places and times as well (as a corpse will likewise cause work to be tabooed, ground to be set apart, a holy season to be observed).

  • So in the famous scene of the weighing of the soul, which first appears pictorially under the New Empire, she introduces the deceased before the forty-two assessors of the heavenly judge, Osiris, and presides over the scale in which his actions and life are weighed.

  • He led an expedition following Sherman into the Carolinas and fought two successful actions with Bragg at Kinston, N.C. He was governor of Ohio in 1866-1867, and as such advocated the colonization of the freedmen in a restricted area, and sympathized with President Johnson's programme of Reconstruction and worked for a compromise between Johnson and his opponents, although he finally deserted Johnson.

  • Nay, they added that he was not even obliged to consult the council of state, but was to be regarded as a sovereign lord, responsible to God alone for his actions, and requiring no intermediary between himself and his people.

  • Minor engagements, such as rearguard actions and holding attacks, have consequently often taken place about them, notably in the campaign of 1796-97.

  • No sort of espionage is attempted, no effort made to penetrate privacy; no claim to pry into the secret actions of law-abiding persons is or would be tolerated; the agents of authority must not seek information by underhand or unworthy means.

  • By Orguilleuse he had had two sons, Raymund and Bohemund (the future Bohemund IV.), whose relations and actions determined the rest of his life.

  • 2 For Froude's views and actions, see especially the blue book C. 1399 (1876), containing his report to Lord Carnarvon.

  • Further, we are not only under a government in which actions considered simply as such are rewarded and punished, but it is known from experience that virtue and vice are followed by their natural consequents - happiness and misery.

  • When the argument from analogy seems to go beyond this, a peculiar difficulty starts up. Let it be granted that our happiness and misery in this life depend upon our conduct - are, in fact, the rewards and punishments attached by God to certain modes of action, the natural conclusion from analogy would seem to be that our future happiness or the reverse will probably depend upon our actions in the future state.

  • Finally, that principle in man which reflects upon actions and the springs of actions, unmistakably sets the stamp of its approbation upon conduct that tends towards the general good.

  • But neither in his actions nor in his writings is there the least trace of that belief in liberty of conscience ascribed to him by 18th-century philosophers.

  • But his highest and rarest literary quality is his power of painting characters, scenes, incidents and actions, whether from past history or from contemporary life.

  • We hear, too, of corporeal days and years, corporeal virtues, and actions (like walking) which are bodies ((Teo yam) Obviously, again, the Stoic quality corresponds to Aristotle's essential form; in both systems the active principle, " the cause of all that matter becomes," is that which accounts for the existence of a given concrete thing (Xoyos Ti s ov61as).

  • This Reason even non-rational man unconsciously manifests in his mechanical or instinctive actions which tend to the preservation of himself.

  • Archedemus, a contemporary of Diogenes, put this in plainer terms still: " The end is to live in the performance of all fitting actions " (7ravra Ta Ka81]KovTa E7rtT€XoUVTas 1 v).

  • The Portuguese troops remained under Wellington's command until 1814, and distinguished themselves in many actions, notably at Salamanca and on the Nivelle.

  • It is probable that important consequences of these actions result from the presence of nitrifying bacteria in rotten stone, FIG.

  • In addition to the bacterial actions which result in the oxidization of ammonia to nitrous acid, and of the latter to nitric acid, the reversal of such processes is also brought about by numerous bacteria in the soil, rivers, &c. Warington showed some time ago that many species are able to reduce nitrates to nitrites, and such reduction is now known to occur very widely in nature.

  • These actions are of extreme importance in nature, as their continuation results in the enormous deposits of bog-iron ore, ochre, and - since Molisch has shown that the iron can be replaced by manganese in some bacteria - of manganese ores.

  • In other cases such changes cannot be detected, and the only evidence of their occurrence may be the associated symptoms. The very important work of Ehrlich on diphtheria toxin shows that in the molecule of toxin there are at least two chief atom groups - one, the " haptophorous," by which the toxin molecule is attached to the cell protoplasm; and the other the " toxophorous," which has a ferment-like action on the living molecule, producing a disturbance which results in the toxic symptoms. On this theory, susceptibility to a toxin will imply both a chemical affinity of certain tissues for the toxin molecule and also sensitiveness to its actions, and, furthermore, non-susceptibility may result from the absence of either of these two properties.

  • Arrhenius, who hold that the union of toxin and antitoxin is comparatively loose, and belongs to the classof reversible actions, being comparable in fact with the union of a weak acid and base.

  • Yet, though his mother removed him from the council and began to keep him at a distance, her actions were not unkind.

  • Gregoireana, ou résumé general de la conduite, des actions, et des ecrits de M.

  • Founding ethics on the native and cultivable capacity in men to appreciate worth in men and actions, and, like the ancient Greek thinkers whom he followed, associating the apprehension of morality with the apprehension of beauty, he makes morality wholly independent of scriptural enactment, and still more, of theological forecasting of future bliss or agony.

  • By statute (1891) it has been provided that in civil actions three-fourths of a jury may render a verdict, and in misdemeanour cases five-sixths may give a verdict.

  • And in the confused and contradictory accounts of his actions (for the story in Jordanes cannot be reconciled with the accounts in Olympiodorus and the chroniclers), we can see something of this principle at work throughout.

  • The freethinking school of the Mo'tazilites insisted that the righteousness of God in rewarding or punishing men for their actions could be vindicated only by the recognition of human freedom.

  • "There is no absurdity in supposing that the deity may, for wise purposes, have chosen to open a source of contingency in the voluntary actions of his creatures, to which no prescience can possibly extend."

  • In the Civil War, Winchester, because of its position in the lower Shenandoah Valley, played a great part, and was several times the scene of engagements between the Union and Confederate forces - in 1862, Jackson's actions of Kernstown and Winchester; in the Gettysburg campaign, the capture of a Union garrison by Ewell (14-15 June 1863); and in Sheridan's campaign of 1864 the battle of Winchester or Opequon (Sept.

  • He accompanied Massena to Genoa, and acted as his principal lieutenant throughout the protracted siege of that city, during which he operated with a detached force without the walls, and after many successful actions he was wounded and taken prisoner at Monte Cretto on the 13th of April 1800.

  • In this notable work Steno described various gems, minerals and petrif actions (fossils) enclosed within solid rocks.

  • Even those politicians least disposed to criticize the actions of the king protested vigorously against the provisions concerning the Fondation.

  • As for the reasoning powers in animals, the accounts of monkeys learning by experience to break eggs carefully, and pick off bits of shell, so as not to lose the contents, or of the way in which rats or martens after a while can no longer be caught by the same kind of trap, with innumerable similar facts, show in the plainest way that the reason of animals goes so far as to form by new experience a new hypothesis of cause and effect which will henceforth guide their actions.

  • In his judgments of men and their actions he is unbiassed, and his appreciations of character exhibit a remarkable fineness of perception and a broad sympathy.

  • Throughout his work he gives a prominent place to everything which illustrates human progress in moral and religious, as well as political conceptions, and specially to the rise and development of the idea of religious toleration, finding his authorities not only in the words and actions of men of mark, but in the writings of more or less obscure pamphleteers, whose essays indicate currents in the tide of public opinion.

  • Gardiner's work is long and minute; the fifty-seven years which it covers are a period of exceptional importance in many directions, and the actions and characters of the principal persons in it demand careful analysis.

  • In a book issued in 1921 in justification of his own actions, Mr. Lansing explained that he disagreed with Mr. Wilson on various points, including that of incorporation of the League of Nations in the Peace Treaty; but he was overtly responsible with him for signing the Treaty, and on his return to Washington he urged that the Treaty as formulated be adopted by the Senate.

  • The siege of Delhi, which was the turning-point of the Mutiny, had lasted for more than three months, during which thirty minor actions had been fought in the almost intolerable heat of the Indian midsummer.

  • and fought three general actions under a broiling sun in the hottest season of the year; but the women and children whom it had been his object to save had already been massacred.

  • General Franks' column advanced to Lucknow from the eastern frontier of Oudh, defeating the enemy in four actions.

  • In five months he had beaten the enemy in thirteen general actions and sieges, and had captured some of the strongest forts in India.

  • They accordingly rejected the form of marriage, which, they said, would never have existed but for sin, and lived in absolute lawlessness, holding that, whatever they did, their actions could be neither good nor bad.

  • Its rapid neutralization in the intestine renders it equally devoid of any remote actions.

  • They varied considerably in their estimation of the share which this body had in the real actions and sufferings of Christ.

  • He fought the desperate actions on the Lahn (Sept.

  • The important actions of ergot are on the blood-vessels and the uterus.

  • This view of liberty of will is the only one in accordance with the facts of humanity; it excludes reflective volition, and explains the enthusiasm of the poet and the artist in the act of creation; it explains also the ordinary actions of mankind, which are done as a rule spontaneously and not after reflective deliberation.

  • He held almost independent command with conspicuous success in the actions of Dermbach, Laufach, Kissingen, Aschaffenburg, Gerchsheim, TauberBischofsheim and Wiirzburg.

  • A long experience of his character and actions convinced barons and commons alike that he was a just and sincere man, a friend of good governance, and an honest opponent of arbitrary and unconstitutional rule.

  • had been active and bustling princes, though their actions were misguided and inconsequent.

  • It is a strange fact that Henry, though he was in many respects a conscientious man, with a strong sense of responsibility, and a sincerC piety, was so blind to the unrighteousness of his own actions that he died asserting that neither ambition nor vainglory had led him into France, but a genuine desire to assert a righteous claim, which he desired his heirs to prosecute to the bitter end.

  • Further, a system of granting monopolies and other privileges had again sprung up. Many of these grants embodied some scheme which was intended to serve the interests of the public, and many actions which appear startling to us were covered by the extreme protectionist theories then in vogue.

  • It was necessary to have recourse to one head of the executive government, controlling and directing its actions.

  • Religious hatred had less part in the action of the ruling party, and even from its worst actions a wise man might have predicted that the day of toleration was not so fr~r off as it seemed.

  • his actions, and to treat him as if he were a cipher.

  • For many of the actions of that government no honorable man can think of uttering a word of defence.

  • But these significant actions were almost forgotten in the presence of a new crisis; for in 1876 misgovernment in Turkey had produced its natural results, and the European provinces of the Porte were in a state Of armed insurrection.

  • corps, which he led in all the actions of the Atlanta campaign, receiving another wound at Pickett's Mills.

  • There is very little doubt that the general course of the decompositions follows these iines; but any such simple explanation of the actions taking place is rendered impossible by the fact that, instead of the breaking-down of the hydrocarbons being completed in the coal, and only secondary reactions taking place in the retort, in practice the hydrocarbons to a great extent leave the coal as the vapours of condensible hydrocarbons, and the breaking down of these to such simple gaseous compounds as ethylene is proceeding in the retort at the same time as the breaking up of the ethylene already formed into acetylene and methane, and the polymerization of the former into higher compounds.

  • Starting with a solid hydrocarbon of definite composition, it would be theoretically possible to decompose it entirely into carbon, hydrogen, ethylene and methane, and, by rapidly removing these from the heating zone before any secondary actions took place, to prevent formation of tar.

  • This form of apparatus has been very generally adopted in Great Britain as well as in America, and practically all carburetted water-gas plants are founded upon the same set of actions.

  • Almost as bulky as a woodcock; it is of a much more slender build, and its long legs and neck give it a graceful appearance, which is enhanced by the activity of its actions.

  • The ultimate source of God's actions is something either unintelligible or unrevealed.

  • The advocates of Louis could plead that all his actions down to the dissolution of the National Assembly came within the amnesty then granted, and that the Constitution had proclaimed his person inviolable, while enacting for certain offences the penalty of deposition which he had already undergone.

  • constitutional monarchy and a republic. The government, mainly Thermidorian, trimmed between Moderates and Independents, and for this reason its actions were often inconsistent.

  • All these books tended to increase the ill-feeling between author and public; the Whig press was virulent and scandalous in its comments, and Cooper plunged into a series of actions for libel.

  • And though ultimately the attribution of responsibility for conduct is further limited to actions which are the result of purposive choice (1rpoaipeoi.), Aristotle appears to waver between a view which regards 7rpoaipecns as involving an ultimate choice between divergent ends of moral action and one which would make it consist in the choice of means to an end already determined.

  • Stoic loyalty to a belief in responsibility based on freedom of choice appeared difficult to reconcile with a belief in an all-pervading Anima Mundi, a world power directing and controlling actions of every kind.

  • And there is much that is anticipatory of modern libertarian views in the psychological argument by which Carneades attempted at once to avoid the Epicurean identification of will with chance, and to prove the rationality of choice, undetermined by any external or antecedent necessity, as an explanation of human actions Xxviii.

  • The timeless foreknowledge of the Deity foresees human actions as contingent, not as causally determined.

  • Man is predetermined to act freely, and Divine foreknowledge foresees human actions as contingent.

  • our actions express our purposes.

  • On the other hand if our belief in the necessity of causal connexion is the result of custom, to custom will be due also the belief in a necessity governing human actions observable everywhere in men's ordinary opinions and practice.

  • Contrasted with this belief in necessity the supposition we have of freedom is illusory, and, if extended so as to involve a belief that men's actions do not proceed from character or habitual disposition, immoral.

  • Meaning, design and purpose are to him terms far more explanatory of his movements in the outer world than the mechanical and mathematical equivalents to which his actions will ultimately be reduced if the sciences should achieve their avowed purpose.

  • On the contrary, a belief that conduct necessarily results upon the presence of certain motives, and that upon the application of certain incentives, whether of pain or pleasure, upon the presence of certain stimuli whether in the shape of rewards or punishments, actions of a certain character will necessarily ensue, would seem to vindicate the rationality of ordinary penal legislation, if its aim be deterrent or reformatory, to a far greater extent than is possible upon the libertarian hypothesis.

  • The belief that our actions have been determined in the past carries with it no argument that they will be of a like character in the future.

  • But he has not failed to observe that practical reasonings are not commonly of this kind, but are rather concerned with actions as means to ulterior ends; indeed, he lays stress on this as a characteristic of the " political " life, when he wishes to prove its inferiority to the life of pure speculation.

  • The higher happiness is given to man by free grace of God; but it is given to those only whose heart is right, and as a reward of virtuous actions.

  • Passing to consider what actions are virtuous, we first observe generally that the morality of an act is in part, but only in part, determined by its particular motive; it partly depends on its external object and circumstances, which render it either objectively in harmony with the " order of reason " or the reverse.

  • Since, then, all the voluntary actions of men tend to their own preservation or pleasure, it cannot be reasonable to aim at anything else; in fact, nature rather than reason fixes this as the end of human action; it is reason's function to show the means.

  • As regards "material" goodness of actions, 'he adopts explicitly and unreservedly the formula afterwards taken as fundamental by Bentham; holding that " that action is best which procures the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers, and the worst which in a like manner occasions misery."

  • Accordingly his treatment of external rights and duties, though decidedly inferior in methodical clearness and precision, does not differ in principle from that of Paley or Bentham, except that he lays greater stress on the immediate conduciveness of actions to the happiness of individuals, and more often refers in a merely supplementary or restrictive way to their tendencies in respect of general happiness.

  • Here a more complex phenomenon presents itself for analysis; we have to distinguish in the sense of merit - (1) a direct sympathy with the sentiments of the agent, and (2) an indirect sympathy with the gratitude of those who receive the benefit of his actions.

  • Moral judgments, then, are expressions of the complex normal sympathy of an impartial spectator with the active impulses that prompt to and result from actions.

  • While right and wrong, in Price's view, are " real objective qualities " of actions, moral " beauty and deformity " are subjective ideas; representing feelings which are partly the necessary effects of the perceptions of right and wrong in rational beings as such, partly due to an " implanted sense " or varying emotional susceptibility.

  • Price further follows Butler in distinguishing the perception of merit and demerit in agents as another accompaniment of the perception of right and wrong in actions; the former being, however, only a peculiar species of the latter, since, to perceive merit in any one is to perceive that it is right to reward him.

  • Finally, Price, writing after the demonstration by Shaftesbury and Butler of the actuality of disinterested impulses in human nature, is bolder and clearer than Cudworth or Clarke in insisting that right actions are to be chosen because they are right by virtuous agents as such, even going so far as to lay down that an act loses its moral worth in proportion as it is done from natural inclination.

  • As regards the moral faculty itself, Reid's statement coincides in the main with Price's; it is both intellectual and active, not merely perceiving the " rightness " or " moral obligation " of actions (which Reid conceives as a simple unanalysable relation between act and agent), but also impelling the will to the performance of what is seen to be right.

  • Both thinkers hold that this perception of right and wrong in actions is accompanied by a perception of merit and demerit in agents, and also by a specific emotion; but whereas Price conceives this emotion chiefly as pleasure or pain, analogous to that produced in the mind by physical beauty or deformity, Reid regards it chiefly as benevolent affection, esteem and sympathy (or their opposites), for the virtuous (or vicious) agent.

  • This " pleasurable good-will," when the moral judgment relates to a man's own actions, becomes " the testimony of a good conscience - the purest and most valuable of all human enjoyments."

  • Hence, his method in deciding moral questions is chiefly that of estimating the tendency of actions to promote or diminish the general happiness.

  • To meet the obvious objections to this method, based on the immediate happiness caused by admitted crimes (such as " knocking a rich villain on the head "), he lays stress on the necessity of general rules in any kind of legislation;' while, by urging the importance of forming and maintaining good habits, he partly evades the difficulty of calculating the consequences of particular actions.

  • whether a man is pleased with hearing music, seeing prospects, tasting dainties, performing laudable actions, or making agreeable reflections," and again that by " general good " he means " quantity of happiness," to which " every pleasure that we do to our neighbour is an addition."

  • But in fact the outline of Paley's utilitarianism is to be found a generation earlier - in Gay's dissertation prefixed to Law's edition of King's Origin of Evil - as the following extracts will show: - " The idea of virtue is the conformity to a rule of life, directing the actions of all rational creatures with respect to each other's happiness; to which every one is always obliged..

  • He considers actions solely in respect of their pleasurable a nd painful consequences ex ected or actual; and he P q, P actual; school.

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