- The rodent skull is characterized by the great size of the premaxillae, which completely separate the nasals from the maxillae; by the presence of zygomatic arches; and by the wide unoccupied space existing between the incisors and the cheek-teeth; and (except in the Duplicidentata) by the antero-posteriorly elongated glenoid cavity for the articulation of the lower jaw.
In the skull the tympanic bulla is hollow, the pterygoid fossa shallow and the zygomatic arch slender, with a rudimentary jugal bone.
It shows the characteristic hippopotamus-flange to the lower jaw, but has also a large descending process from the jugal bone of the zygomatic arch of the skull.
They are specially distinguished by the great development of the anterior half of the zygomatic arch of the skull, and by the presence in the boars of a horny protuberance of the skin in front of each eye, which overlies a tuberosity on the nasal bone; the molars are also small and simple, and the anterior premolars are generally shed at an early stage of life.
The zygomatic arch is variously developed, and the position of the jugal is a character for grouping the families.
In the skull the zygomatic arch is slender and the jugal bone small and not extending far forwards, being supported by the long zygomatic process of the maxilla, while the infra-orbital foramen is mostly large, and there are no post-orbital processes.
Finally, the Philippine Rhynchornys is represented by a rat with two pairs of molars and a long shrew-like nose, the zygomatic arch of the skull being also placed unusually far backward.
Zygomatic arch, the middle portion of which is formed by the more or less straight and horizontal jugal, and the large infra-orbital canal, traversed by a portion of the masseter muscle.
The most remarkable feature of the genus is, however, the extraordinary development of the zygomatic arches of the skull, which are enormously expanded vertically, forming great convex bony capsules on the sides of the face, enclosing on each side a large cavity lined with mucous membrane internally, and communicating by a small opening with the mouth.
The jaws are short and strong, and the width of the zygomatic arches, and great development of the bony ridges on the skull, give ample space for the attachment of the powerful muscles by which they are closed.
The facial portion of the skull is very short; a long process of the maxillary bone descends from the anterior part of the zygomatic arch; and the ascending ramus of the mandible is remarkably high.
4 in.), the Yagans present in some respects a more debased type characterized by low brows, prominent zygomatic arches, large tumid lips, flat nose, loose wrinkled skin, black restless eyes very wide apart, coarse black unkempt hair, and head and chest disproportionately large compared with the extremely slender and outwardly curved legs.
Next in constancy are the " sublingual," closely associated with the last-named, at all events in the locality in which the secretion is poured out; and the " zygomatic," found only in some mammals in the cheek, just under cover of the anterior part of the zygomatic arch, the duct entering the mouth-cavity near that of the parotid.
The latter sends a horizontal or slightly ascending process backwards below the orbit to join the under surface of the zygomatic process of the squamosal, which is remarkably large, and instead of ending as usual behind the orbit, runs forwards to join the greatly developed post-orbital process of the frontal, and even forms part of the posterior and inferior boundary of the orbit, an arrangement not met with in other mammals.
The squamosal enters considerably into the formation of the temporal fossa, and, besides sending the zygomatic process forwards, it sends down behind the meatus auditorius a post-tympanic process which aids to hold in place the otherwise loose tympano-periotic bone.
The expanded anterior root of the zygomatic process has its front border oblique.
The front root of the zygomatic arch is nearly vertical, and placed so far back that it is above the second molar, while the orbit - a unique feature among rodents - is almost completely surrounded by bone.