The native inhabitants of Natal proper were almost exterminated by the Zulus in the early years of the 19th century.
But the quiet of the country was destroyed by the inroads of Chaka, the chief of the Zulus (see Zululand).
Biggar and with a following of 700 friendly Zulus crossed the Tugela near its mouth.
Pursued by the Zulus, all the surviving inhabitants of Durban were compelled for a time to take refuge on a ship then in harbour.
After the Zulus retired, less than a dozen Englishmen returned to live at the port; the missionaries, hunters and other traders returned to the Cape.
On the 11 th of April, however, they fell into a trap laid by the Zulus and with difficulty cut their way out.
The Boers had firearms, the Zulus their assegais only, and after a three hours' fight the Zulus were totally defeated, losing thousands killed, while the farmers' casualties were under 1 Captain Allen Francis Gardiner (1 79418 5 1) left Natal in 1838, subsequently devoting himself to missionary work in South America, being known as the missionary to Patagonia.
In every case the overlordship of the Zulus was assumed.
In 1843, for instance, no fewer than 50,000 Zulus crossed the Tugela seeking the protection of the white man.
They showed indeed in their dealings both with the natives within their borders and with the Zulus beyond the Tugela a disposition to favour the natives at the expense of their white neighbours in the Transvaal and Orange Free State, and their action against Langalibalele was fully justified and the danger of a widespread native revolt real.
But the new administration at Pretoria inherited many disputes with the Zulus, disputes which were in large measure the cause of the war of 187 9.
For years the Zulus had lived at amity with the Natalians, from whom they received substantial favours, and in 1872 Cetywayo, on succeeding his father Panda, had given assurances of good behaviour.
As the London Convention had stipulated that there should be no trespassing on the part of the Boers over their specified boundaries, and as Natal had been the basis for those operations against the Zulus on the part of the British in 187 9, which alone made such an annexation of territory possible, a strong feeling was once more aroused in Natal.
Dinizulu, however, remained at the time quiescent, though the Zulus were in a state of excitement over incidents connected with the war, when they had been subject to raids by Boer commandoes, and on one occasion at least had retaliated in characteristic Zulu fashion.
Zulus number 75,601 and form 54% of the population in Wakkerstroom district and 18% in Standerton district.
Besides the tribes whose home is in the Transvaal considerable numbers of natives, chiefly members of east coast tribes, Cape Kaffirs and Zulus, go to the Witwatersrand to work in the gold and other mines.
It was also in accord with the desire of the Transvaal Boers to obtain a seaport, a desire which had led them as early as 1860 to treat with the Zulus for the possession of St Lucia Bay.
Add to this condition of things the fact that the Zulus were threatening the Transvaal on its southern border, and the picture of utter collapse which existed in the state is complete.
Thus Sir Bartle Frere wrote at the time: " All accounts from Pretoria represent that the great body of the Boer population is still under the belief that the Zulus are more than a match for us, that our difficulties are more than we can surmount, and that the present is the favourable opportunity for demanding their independence."
The Boers, however, continued to agitate for complete independence, and, with the honourable exception of Piet Uys, a gallant Boer leader, and a small band of followers, who assisted Colonel Evelyn Wood at Hlobani, the Boers held entirely aloof from the conflict with the Zulus, a campaign which cost Great Britain many lives and £5,000,000 before the Zulu power was finally broken.
In June Sir Garnet Wolseley went to South Africa as commander of the forces against the Zulus, and as high commissioner " for a time," in the place of Sir Bartle Frere, of the Transvaal and Natal.
Following up the downfall of the Zulu power after the British conquest in 1879, several parties of Boers began intriguing with the petty chiefs, and in May 1884, in the presence of io,000 Zulus, they proclaimed Dinizulu, the son of Cetywayo, to be king of Zululand (see Zululand).
As a " reward " for their services to the Zulus, the Boers then took over from them a tract of country in which they established a " New Republic."
Mann, The Zulus and Boers of South Africa (1879); H.
Of domestic animals the Zulus possess a dwarf breed of smooth-skinned humped cattle.
- The Zulus live in kraals, circular enclosures with, generally, a ring fence inside forming a cattle pen.
Pearson was besieged by the Zulus in 1879, and was laid out in 1883.
In all some 3500 Zulus were killed and about 3000 taken prisoners, the majority of the prisoners being released in 1907 (see further Natal: History).
Gibson, The Story of the Zulus (Maritzburg, 1908); J.
Farrer, Zululand and the Zulus: their History, Beliefs, Customs, Military System, &c. (4th ed.
Mason, Life with the Zulus of Natal (1852) and Zululand: a Mission Tour (1862); D.
Leslie, Among the Zulus and Amatongas (2nd ed.
Tyler, Forty Years among the Zulus (Boston, 1891); British official Military Report on Zululand (1906); W.
The Zulus attacked with great gallantry but were received with so deadly a fire that they could not come within thirty yards of the rifles.
The British loss was about ioo, that of the Zulus 150o.
Among objects used are a pool of ink in the hand (Egypt), the liver of an animal (tribes of the North-West Indian frontier), a hole filled with water (Polynesia), quartz crystals (the Apaches and the Euahlayi tribe of New South Wales), a smooth slab of polished black stone (the Huille-che of South America), water in a vessel (Zulus and Siberians), a crystal (the Incas), a mirror (classical Greece and the middle ages), the finger-nail, a swordblade, a ring-stone, a glass of sherry, in fact almost anything.
On the 22nd of January 1879 a British force encamped at the foot of the hill was attacked by about io,000 Zulus, the flower of Cetewayo's army, and destroyed.
Of the ZuluKaffir tribes Zulus propex numbered 35,275, Fingoes 6275, and Ama Xosa 5376 (see Kaffirs; and Zululand: Inhabitants).
The Zulus are mostly found in that part of the country nearest Zululand.
Between i 8 i 7 and 1831 the country was devastated by the chief Mosilikatze and his Zulus, and large areas were depopulated.
The emigrants soon came into collision with Mosilikatze, raiding parties of Zulus attacking Boer hunters who had crossed the Vaal without seeking permission from that chieftain.
During their stay there they had inflicted a severe defeat on the Zulus under Dingaan (December 1838), an event which, following on the flight of Mosilikatze, greatly strengthened the position of Moshesh, whose power became a menace to that of the emigrant farmers.
It was a blunder to have allowed him to go, and the blunder ended in a tragedy, for while out on a reconnaissance with a few troopers they were surprised by Zulus, and the Prince Imperial was killed (June r, 1879).
To this day there are numerous traces in popular belief, especially in Germany, of respect for the snake, which seems to be a survival of ancestor worship, such as still exists among the Zulus and other savage tribes; the "house-snake," as it is called, cares for the cows and the children, and its appearance is an omen of death, and the life of a pair of house-snakes is often held to be bound up with that of the master and mistress themselves.
When the lad, who had already taken part in fights with the Matabele and the Zulus, was fourteen his family settled north of the Vaal and were among the founders of the Transvaal state.
CETYWAYO (?-1884), king of the Zulus, was the eldest son of King Umpande or Panda, and a nephew of the two previous kings, Dingaan and Chaka.
In the following year, at an assembly of the Zulus, it was resolved that Panda should retire from the mangement of the affairs of the nation, which were entrusted to Cetywayo, though the old chief kept the title of king.
Friendly relations were then maintained between the Zulus and Natal for many years.
Sir Bartle Frere, who became high commissioner of South Africa in March 1877, found evidence which convinced him that the Kaffir revolt of that year on the eastern border of Cape Colony was part of a design or desire "for a general and simultaneous rising of Kaffirdom against white civilization"; and the Kaffirs undoubtedly looked to Cetywayo and the Zulus as the most redoubtable of their champions.
The disaster of Isandhlwana and the defence of Rorke's Drift signalized the commencement of the campaign, but on the 4th of July the Zulus were utterly routed at Ulundi.