The mythology of the Zulus as reported by H.
The native inhabitants of Natal proper were almost exterminated by the Zulus in the early years of the 19th century.
Biggar and with a following of 700 friendly Zulus crossed the Tugela near its mouth.
After the Zulus retired, less than a dozen Englishmen returned to live at the port; the missionaries, hunters and other traders returned to the Cape.
On the 11 th of April, however, they fell into a trap laid by the Zulus and with difficulty cut their way out.
The Boers had firearms, the Zulus their assegais only, and after a three hours' fight the Zulus were totally defeated, losing thousands killed, while the farmers' casualties were under 1 Captain Allen Francis Gardiner (1 79418 5 1) left Natal in 1838, subsequently devoting himself to missionary work in South America, being known as the missionary to Patagonia.
In every case the overlordship of the Zulus was assumed.
In 1843, for instance, no fewer than 50,000 Zulus crossed the Tugela seeking the protection of the white man.
They showed indeed in their dealings both with the natives within their borders and with the Zulus beyond the Tugela a disposition to favour the natives at the expense of their white neighbours in the Transvaal and Orange Free State, and their action against Langalibalele was fully justified and the danger of a widespread native revolt real.
But the new administration at Pretoria inherited many disputes with the Zulus, disputes which were in large measure the cause of the war of 187 9.
For years the Zulus had lived at amity with the Natalians, from whom they received substantial favours, and in 1872 Cetywayo, on succeeding his father Panda, had given assurances of good behaviour.
As the London Convention had stipulated that there should be no trespassing on the part of the Boers over their specified boundaries, and as Natal had been the basis for those operations against the Zulus on the part of the British in 187 9, which alone made such an annexation of territory possible, a strong feeling was once more aroused in Natal.
Dinizulu, however, remained at the time quiescent, though the Zulus were in a state of excitement over incidents connected with the war, when they had been subject to raids by Boer commandoes, and on one occasion at least had retaliated in characteristic Zulu fashion.
Zulus number 75,601 and form 54% of the population in Wakkerstroom district and 18% in Standerton district.
Besides the tribes whose home is in the Transvaal considerable numbers of natives, chiefly members of east coast tribes, Cape Kaffirs and Zulus, go to the Witwatersrand to work in the gold and other mines.
It was also in accord with the desire of the Transvaal Boers to obtain a seaport, a desire which had led them as early as 1860 to treat with the Zulus for the possession of St Lucia Bay.
Add to this condition of things the fact that the Zulus were threatening the Transvaal on its southern border, and the picture of utter collapse which existed in the state is complete.
Thus Sir Bartle Frere wrote at the time: " All accounts from Pretoria represent that the great body of the Boer population is still under the belief that the Zulus are more than a match for us, that our difficulties are more than we can surmount, and that the present is the favourable opportunity for demanding their independence."
In June Sir Garnet Wolseley went to South Africa as commander of the forces against the Zulus, and as high commissioner " for a time," in the place of Sir Bartle Frere, of the Transvaal and Natal.
As a " reward " for their services to the Zulus, the Boers then took over from them a tract of country in which they established a " New Republic."
Mann, The Zulus and Boers of South Africa (1879); H.
Of domestic animals the Zulus possess a dwarf breed of smooth-skinned humped cattle.
- The Zulus live in kraals, circular enclosures with, generally, a ring fence inside forming a cattle pen.
Pearson was besieged by the Zulus in 1879, and was laid out in 1883.
Gibson, The Story of the Zulus (Maritzburg, 1908); J.
Farrer, Zululand and the Zulus: their History, Beliefs, Customs, Military System, &c. (4th ed.
Mason, Life with the Zulus of Natal (1852) and Zululand: a Mission Tour (1862); D.
Leslie, Among the Zulus and Amatongas (2nd ed.
Tyler, Forty Years among the Zulus (Boston, 1891); British official Military Report on Zululand (1906); W.
The Zulus attacked with great gallantry but were received with so deadly a fire that they could not come within thirty yards of the rifles.
The British loss was about ioo, that of the Zulus 150o.
In the long history of mankind it is impossible to deny that stories may conceivably have spread from a single centre, and been handed on from races like the Indo-European and the Semitic to races as far removed from them in every way as the Zulus, the Australians, the Eskimo, the natives of the South Sea Islands.
The sky (which appears to us even less personal) has been regarded as a personal being by Samoyeds, Red Indians, Zulus,5 and traces of this belief survive in Chinese, Greek and Roman religion.
Zulus, Red Indians, Aztecs,' Andaman Islanders and other races believe that their dead assume the shapes of serpents and of other creatures, often reverting to the form of the animal from which they originally descended.
They make good or bad seasons, and control the vast animals who, among ancient Persians and Aryans of India, as among Zulus and Iroquois, are supposed to grant or withhold the rain, and to thunder with their enormous wings in the region of the clouds.
The young prince was educated at Woolwich from 1872 to 1875, and in 1879 took part in the English expedition against the Zulus in South Africa, in which he was killed.
The first was a war with the Zulus, the most powerful and Zulu War warlike of the South Africannatives, who under their ruler, Cetewayo, had organized a formidable army.
In the war which ensued, the British troops who invaded Zulu territory met with a severe reverse; and, though the disaster1was ultimately retrieved by Lord Chelmsford, the war involved heavy expenditure and brought little credit to the British army, while one unfortunate incident, the death of Prince Napoleon, who had obtained leave to serve with the British troops, and was surprised by the Zulus while reconnoitring, created a deep and unfortunate impression.
In 1843, the year in which the British annexed Natal and with it a part of the country hitherto ruled by the Zulus, the Barabuza, under a chief named Swazi, took advantage of the comparative weakness of the Zulu power, 'achieved independence and founded the present state.
The Boers of the Transvaal were then beginning to occupy the regions adjacent to Swaziland and in 1855 the Swazis in order to get a strip of territory between themselves and the Zulus, whose power they still dreaded, ceded to the Boers the narrow strip of land north of the Pongola river now known as the Piet Retief district.
The Zulus under Cetywayo claimed the ceded district as theirs and the Swazis as their subjects and for over ten years no white farmers were able to settle in the district.
Retief, like his English predecessors at Port Natal (known also since 1835 as Durban), sought a formal grant of territory from the chief of the Zulu nation, the Zulus being the acknowledged overlords of the tribes living in Natal.