By the wars of the Zulu chiefs Chaka, Matiwana and Mosilikatze, these tribes were largely broken up and their power destroyed.
The three last tribes are among those which sought refuge in Natal from Zulu persecution, before the establishment of British rule in 1843.
Distant from the village of Weenen (" Weeping "), so named by the first Boer settlers in memory of a Zulu raid.
The cattle consist chiefly of the Zulu and Africander breeds, but attention has been given to improving the breed by the introduction of Shorthorn, Devon and Holstein (or Friesland) stock.
In the native schools - almost all maintained by Christian missions - Zulu and English are taught, the subjects taken being usually reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, geography and history.
The Zulu king then commanded his impis to kill all the Boers who had entered Natal.
The Zulu forces crossed the Tugela the same day, and the most advanced parties of the Boers were massacred, many at a spot near where the town of Weenen now stands, its name (meaning wailing or weeping) commemorating the event.
Other of the farmers hastily laagered and were able to repulse the Zulu attacks; the assailants suffering serious loss at a fight near the Bushman's river.
Meantime the Boers, who had repelled the Zulu attacks on their laagers, had been joined by others from the Drakensberg, and about 400 men under Hendrik Potgieter and Piet Uys advanced to attack Dingaan.
They rendered their power in Natal absolute, for the time, in the following month, when they joined with Panda, Dingaan's brother, in another attack on the Zulu king.
C.) Scarcely had the colony recovered from the shock of the Zulu War than it was involved in the revolt of the Transvaal Boers (1880-1881), an event which overshadowed all domestic concerns.
The Zulu power, as has been recorded, was broken in 187 9.
Dinizulu, however, remained at the time quiescent, though the Zulus were in a state of excitement over incidents connected with the war, when they had been subject to raids by Boer commandoes, and on one occasion at least had retaliated in characteristic Zulu fashion.
The natives belong to the Bantu negro race and are represented chiefly by Basuto, Bechuana, Bavenda, and Xosa-Zulu tribes.
None of these peoples has any claim to be indigenous, and, save the Bavenda, all are immigrants since c. 1817-1820, when the greater part of the then inhabitants were exterminated by the Zulu chief Mosilikatze (see § History).
After that event Basuto entered the country from the south, Bechuana from the west and Swazi, Zulu, Shangaan and other tribes from the east and south-east.
The Shangaan are members of a Bantu tribe from the Delagoa Bay region who took refuge in the Transvaal between 1860 and 1862 to escape Zulu raids.
Several other east coast tribes, such as the Bankuna, are of mixed Zulu and Shangaan blood.
The inhabitants were unable to withstand the attacks of the disciplined Zulu warriors - or Matabele, as they were henceforth called - by whom large areas of central and western Transvaal were swept bare.
Moreover, the menace of attack on the Zulu side was a serious one, however able the Boers may have been to meet a foe who fought in the open, and who had been beaten by them in previous wars.
Even before annexation had occurred, Shepstone felt the danger so acutely that he sent a message to Cetywayo, the Zulu chief, warning him that British annexation was about to be proclaimed and that invasion of the Transvaal would not be tolerated.
In the meantime, the Zulu forces which threatened the Transvaal had been turned against the British, and the disaster of Isandhlwana occurred.
The Boers, however, continued to agitate for complete independence, and, with the honourable exception of Piet Uys, a gallant Boer leader, and a small band of followers, who assisted Colonel Evelyn Wood at Hlobani, the Boers held entirely aloof from the conflict with the Zulus, a campaign which cost Great Britain many lives and £5,000,000 before the Zulu power was finally broken.
After the " settlement " of the Zulu question, Sir Garnet Wolseley proceeded to Pretoria and immediately organized an expedition against Sikukuni, who throughout the Zulu campaign had been acting under the advice of Cetywayo.
Following up the downfall of the Zulu power after the British conquest in 1879, several parties of Boers began intriguing with the petty chiefs, and in May 1884, in the presence of io,000 Zulus, they proclaimed Dinizulu, the son of Cetywayo, to be king of Zululand (see Zululand).
Many forms of clothing, moreover, seem to call attention to those parts of the body of which, under the conditions of Western civilization at the present day, it aims at the concealment; certain articles of dress worn by the New Hebrideans, the Zulu-Xosa tribes, certain tribes of Brazil and others, are cases in point.
It includes in the north the country of the Ama Tonga, Zaambanland, and other small territories not part of the former Zulu kingdom and stretches north from the lower Tugela to the southern frontier of Portuguese East Africa.
The vast majority of the natives are Zulu (see Kaffirs), but there is a settlement of some 2000 Basutos in the Nqutu district.
After the establishment of the Zulu military ascendancy early in the 19th century various Zulu hordes successively invaded and overran a great part of east-central Africa, as far as and even beyond the Lake Nyasa district.
Hence the impression that the true Zulu are far more numerous north of the Limpopo than has ever been the case.
The circumstances and history of the two chief migrations of Zulu peoples northward are well known; the Matabele were led by Mosilikatze (Umsiligazi), and the Angoni by Sungandaba, both chiefs of Chaka who revolted from him in the early 19th century.
The Zulu possess an elaborate system of laws regulating the inheritance of personal property (which consists chiefly of cattle), the complexity arising from the practice of polygamy and the exchange of cattle made upon marriage.
If she have a brother-in-law named U'Nkomo, she would not use the Zulu for " cow," inkomo, but would invent some other word for it.
(For the Zulu speech, see Bantu Languages.) Towns.
The Zulu gives little attention to the cultivation of the soil.
There is a considerable trade with the natives in cotton goods, &c., and numbers of Zulu seek service in Natal.
The Ingwavu'ma magistracy, like Tongaland, formed no part of the dominions of the Zulu kings, but was ruled by independent chiefs until its annexation by Great Britain in 1895.
The tax has to be paid for each wife a Zulu may possess, whether or not each wife has a separate hut.
At what period the Zulu (one of a number of closely allied septs) first reached the country to which they have given their name is uncertain; they were probably settled in the valley of the White Umfolosi river at the beginning of the 17th century, and they take their name from a chief who flourished about that time.
The earliest record of contact between Europeans and the Zulu race is believed to be the account of the wreck of the " Doddington " in 1756.
At the close of the 18th century the Zulu were an unimportant tribe numbering a few thousands only.
In 1805 he was joined by Chaka, otherwise Tshaka (born c. 1783), the son of the Zulu chief Senzangakona; on the latter's death in 1810 .Chaka, through the influence of Dingiswayo, was chosen as ruler of the Ama-Zulu, though not the rightful heir.
Chaka joined in his patron's raids, and in 1812 the Umtetwa and Zulu drove the Amangwana across the Buffalo river.
By the incorpora tion of these tribes Chaka made of the Zulu a power- Chaka.
The breaking short of the shaft of the assegai when the weapon was used at close quarters was already a common practice among the Ama-Zulu, but Chaka had the shaft of the assegais made short, and their blades longer and heavier, so that they could be used for cutting or piercing.
Chaka had but two ways of dealing with the tribes with whom he came in contact; either they received permission to be incorporated in the Zulu nation or they were practically exterminated.
No tribe against which he waged war was able successfully to oppose the Zulu arms. At first Chaka turned his attention northward.
Those who could fled before him, the first of importance so to do being a chief named Swangendaba (Sungandaba), whose tribe, of the same stock as the Zulu, was known as Angoni.
It was about 1820 that Mosilikatze (properly Umsilikazi), a general in the Zulu army, having incurred Chaka's wrath by keeping back part of the booty taken in an expedition, fled with a large following across the Drakensberg and began to lay waste a great part of the country between the Vaal and Limpopo rivers.
Mosilikatze was not of the Zulu tribe proper, and he and his followers styled themselves Abaka-Zulu.