The highest form of the doctrine is scientific materialism, by which term is meant the doctrine so commonly adopted by the physicist, zoologist and biologist.
More than this, he seems to be the earliest ornithologist, perhaps the earliest zoologist, to conceive the idea of each genus possessing what is now called a " type " - though such_a term does not occur in his work; and, in like manner, without declaring it in so many words, he indicated unmistakably the existence of subgenera - all this being effected by the skilful use of names.
It is certain that the first four volumes were written if not printed before that method was promulgated, and when the fame of Linnaeus as a zoologist rested on little more than the very meagre sixth edition of the Systema Naturae and the first edition of his Fauna Suecica.
Turner - the latter (as his publications prove) a zoologist of much promise, who in 1851 died, a victim to his own zeal for investigation, of a wound received in dissecting.
Oiseaux in Vieillot's Faune francaise (8vo, 1822-1829); France but there is a great number of local publications of which Mr Saunders has furnished (Zoologist, 18 7 8, pp. 95-99) a catalogue.
One may almost say an English translation also, for Major Feilden's contribution to the Zoologist for 1872 on the same subject gives the most essential part of Herr Miiller's information.
Pp. 393-417), and even these might be left to pass unnoticed, were it not that we recognize in them the germ of the great work which the same admirable zoologist subsequently accomplished.
Pp. 445-474), being that, it is true, of an estimable zoologist, but of one who had no special knowledge of ornithology.
The views of Bonaparte were, it appears, also shared by an ornithological amateur of some distinction, John Hogg, who propounded a scheme which, as he subsequently stated (Zoologist, 1850, p. 2797), was founded strictly in accordance with them; but it would seem that, allowing his convictions to be warped by other considerations, he abandoned the original " physiological " basis of his system, so that this, when published in 1846 (Edinb.
To the Zoological Society of London a plan published in its Proceedings for that year (pp. 46-48), and reprinted also in his own journal The Zoologist (pp. 2780-2782), based on exactly the same considerations, dividing birds into two groups, " Hesthogenous "- a word so vicious in formation as to be incapable of amendment, but intended to signify those that were hatched with a clothing of down - and " Gymnogenous," or those that were hatched naked.
Yet this distinguished zoologist selects the sternum as furnishing the key to his primary groups or " Orders " of the class, adopting, as Merrem had done long before, the same two divisions Cartnatae and Ratitae, naming, however, the former Tropidosternii and the latter Homalosternii.
The freshness, the air of leisure, the enthusiasm of discovery that mark the work of these old writers have lessons for the modern professional zoologist, who at times feels burdened with the accumulated knowledge of a century and a half.
In 1893, some years after the identification of the somites of Limulus with those of Scorpio, thus indicated, had been published, zoologists were startled by the discovery by a Japanese zoologist, Kishinouye (8), of a seventh prosomatic somite in the embryo of Limulus longispina.
The great Arthropod class, the Crustacea, presents to the zoologist at the present day an immense range of forms,.
Anatomy and the study of animal mechanism, animal physics and animal chemistry, all of which form part of a true zoology, were excluded from the usual definition of the word by the mere accident that the zoologist had his museum but not his garden of living specimens as the botanist had; 1 and, whilst the zoologist was thus deprived of the means of anatomical and physiological study - only later supplied by the method of preserving animal bodies in alcohol - the demands of medicine for a knowledge of the structure of the human animal brought into existence a separate and special study of human anatomy and physiology.
It was reserved for a philosophic zoologist of the 19th century (Agassiz, Essay on Classification, 1859) to maintain that genus, order and class were also objective facts capable of precise estimation and valuation.
We have mentioned Lamarck before his great contemporary Cuvier because, in spite of his valuable philosophical doctrine of development, he was, as compared with Cuvier and estimated as a systematic zoologist, a mere enlargement and logical outcome of Linnaeus.
Cuvier may be regarded as the zoologist by whom anatomy was made the one important guide to the understanding of the relations of animals.
The ' The curious but apparently well-attested fact of the occurrence in England, near Poole, in June 1851, of a male bird of this species (Zoologist, pp. 3601, 3654) has been overlooked by several writers who profess to mention all cases of a similar character.
The task of the palaeontologist thus begins with the appearance of life on the globe, and ends in close relation to the studies of the archaeologist and historian as well as of the zoologist and botanist.
That wealth of evidence which the zoologist enjoys, including environment in all its aspects and anatomy in its perfection of organs and tissues, the palaeontologist finds partially or wholly destroyed, and his highest art is that of complete restoration of both the past forms and past environments of life (see Plates I.
Bit by bit mutations are added to each other in different single characters until a sum or degree of mutations is reached which no zoologist would hesitate to place in a separate species or in a separate genus.
L * An independent anatomical investigation of the Mollusca had been carried on by the remarkable Neapolitan naturalist Poli (1791), whose researches 2 were not published until after his death (1817), and were followed by the beautiful works of another Neapolitan zoologist, the illustrious Delle Chiaje.3 The embranchement or sub-kingdom Mollusca, as defined by Cuvier, included the following classes of shellfish: (1) the cuttles or poulps, under the name Cephalopoda; (2) the snails, whelks and slugs, both terrestrial and marine, under the name Gastropoda; (3) the sea-butterflies or winged-snails, under the name Pteropoda; (4) the clams, mussels and oysters, under the name Acephala; (5) the lamp-shells, under the name Brachiopoda; (6) the seasquirts or ascidians, under the name Nuda; and (7) the barnacles and sea-acorns, under the name Cirrhopoda.
The most important and extensive contributions to this progress have been made by the Belgian zoologist, Dr Paul Pelseneer, who has made the Mollusca his special study.
Mantelli, and some careful observations on its habits in captivity were published by John Wolley and another (Zoologist, pp. 3409, 3605).
Millais, "The True Position of Mus rattus and its Allies," Zoologist, June 1905.
In 1792, Carey, a Baptist, who was not only a cobbler, but a linguist of the highest order, a botanist and zoologist, published his Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens, and the book marks a distinct point of departure in the history of Christianity.
But in the higher regions it presents many features of special interest alike to the zoologist and the traveller.
Though Sumatra is separated from Java by so narrow a strait, both the zoologist and the botanist at once find that they have broken new ground on crossing to the northern island.
The society of sciences, that of northern antiquaries, the natural history and the botanical societies, &c., publish their transactions and proceedings, but the Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, of which 14 volumes with 259 plates were published (1861-1884), and which was in the foremost rank in its department, ceased with the death in 1884 of the editor, the distinguished zoologist, I.
The most famous zoologist contemporary with these men was Salomon Dreier (1813-1842).
In some of these respects the Dipleurula may have diverged from the ancestor of Enteropneusta and of other animals, but it could not as yet have been recognized as echinodermal by a zoologist, for it presented none of the structural peculiarities of the modern adult echinoderm.