The constellation and sign of the zodiac known as "the fishes" is treated under Pisces.
CAPRICORNUS (" THE Goat"), in astronomy, the tenth sign of the zodiac, represented by the symbol T-2° intended to denote the crooked horns of this animal.
The Asfar malwashe, or "Book of the Zodiac," is astrological.
By Ur, Ruha, while P'tahil was engaged in his work of creation, became mother of three sets of seven, twelve and five sons respectively; all were translated by P'tahil to the heavenly firmament (like the Archons of Mani), the first group forming the planets and the next the signs of the zodiac, while the third is as yet undetermined.
Castor and Pollux), in astronomy, the third sign in the zodiac, denoted by the symbol II.
In the heavens she is amongst the signs of the zodiac as the constellation Virgo.
The zodiac was a Babylonian invention of great antiquity; and eclipses of the sun as well as of the moon could be foretold.
Deals with astronomy - the moon, stars, and the zodiac, the sun, the planets, the seasons and the calendar.
Since the accession of the emperors of the Han dynasty, 206 B.C., the civil year of the Chinese has begun with the first day of that moon in the course of which the sun enters into the sign of the zodiac which corresponds with our sign Pisces.
ZODIAC (o ituKAos, from 'Cv&cov, " a little animal "), in astronomy and astrology, an imaginary zone of the heavens within which lie the paths of the sun, moon and principal planets.
The twelvefold division of the zodiac was evidently suggested by the occurrence of twelve full moons in successive parts of it in the course of each year.
We owe to its realization by them the constitution and nomenclature of the twelve signs of the zodiac. Assyrian cylinders and inscriptions indicate for the familiar series of our text-books an antiquity of some four thousand years.
Numerous indications accordingly point to a corresponding primitive zodiac. Setting aside as doubtful evidence derived from interpretations of cuneiform inscriptions, we meet, in connexion with Mithraic and Mylittic legends, reminiscences of a zodiac and religious calendar in which the Bull led the way.'
And the Pleiades continued, within historical memory, to be the first asterism of the lunar zodiac. 2 Lenormant, Origines de l'Histoire, i.
The fish-tailed Goat of the zodiac presents corpus.
In the formation of the constellations of the zodiac little regard was paid to stellar configurations.
The Egyptians adopted from the Greeks, with considerable modifications of its attendant symbolism, the twelve-fold division of the zodiac. Aries became the Fleece; two Sprouting Plants, typifying equality or resemblance, stood for Gemini; Cancer was re-named Scarabaeus; Leo was converted, from the axe-like configuration of its chief stars, into the Knife: Libra into the Mountain of the Sun, a reminiscence, apparently, of the Euphratean association of the seventh month with a " holy mound," designating the biblical tower of Babel.
The motive of some of the substitutions was to avoid the confusion which must have ensued from the duplication of previously existing native asterisms; thus, the Egyptian and Greek Lions were composed of totally different stars.: Abstractions in other cases replaced concrete objects, with the general result of effacing the distinctive character of the Greek zodiac as a " circle of living things."
The knowledge of the solar zodiac thus turned to account for dualistic purposes was undoubtedly derived from the Greeks.
It is denominated by Humboldt 5 the " zodiac of hunters and shepherds," and he adds that the presence in it of a tiger gives it an exclusively Asiatic character.
Of the zodiac in its true sense of a partitioned belt of the sphere there was no aboriginal knowledge on the American continent.
The synodical revolution of the moon laid down the lines of the solar, its sidereal revolution those of the lunar zodiac. The first was a circlet of " full moons "; the second marked the diurnal stages of the lunar progress round the sky, from and back again to any selected star.
The notion of a twenty-seven-fold division of the zodiac was deeply rooted in Hindu tradition.
Positive proof of the high antiquity of the Hindu lunar zodiac is nevertheless afforded by the undoubted fact that the primitive series opened with Krittika (the Pleiades) as the sign of the vernal equinox.
Here the " signs " and the " constellations " of the lunar zodiac form two essentially distinct systems. The ecliptic is divided into twenty-seven equal parts, called bhogas or arcs, of Boo' each.
The nomenclature of the Hindu signs of the zodiac, save as regards a few standard asterisms, such as Agvini and Krittikä, was far from uniform.
The Aztec calendar includes nakshatra titles borrowed, not only through the medium of the Tatar zodiac, but likewise straight from the Indian scheme, apart from any known intervention.
11 Several houses and couches were ranged along the Hindu zodiac with the naive idea of providing resting-places for the wandering moon.
That the Arab was essentially a copy of the Hindu lunar zodiac can scarcely admit of doubt.
The alternative view, advocated by Weber, that the lunar zodiac was primitively Chaldaean, rests on a very shadowy foundation.
Euphratean exploration has so far brought to light no traces of ecliptical partition by the moon's diurnal motion, unless, indeed, zodiacal associations be claimed for a set of twenty-eight deprecatory formulae against evil spirits inscribed on a Ninevite tablet.4 The safest general conclusions regarding this disputed subject appear to be that the sieu, distinctively and unvaryingly Chinese, cannot properly be described as divisions of a lunar zodiac, that the nakshatras, though of purely Indian origin, became modified by the successive adoption of Greek and Chinese rectifications and supposed improvements; while the manazil constituted a frankly eclectic system, in which elements from all quarters were combined.
The refined system of astrological prediction based upon the solar zodiac was invented in Chaldaea, obtained a second home and added elaborations in Egypt, and spread irresistibly westward about the beginning of the Christian era.
With the respective and relative positions in the zodiac of the sun, moon and planets, the character of their action 1 Whitney, Notes to Surya-Siddhanta, p. zoo.
They were called the " media of the whole circle of the zodiac "; 11 each ten-day period of the Egyptian year was consecrated to the decanal god whose section of the ecliptic rose at its commencement; the body was correspondingly apportioned, and disease was cured by invoking the zodiacal regent of the part affected.
As the date of inception of the circular zodiac now at Paris the year 46 B.C. has, however, been suggested with high probability, from (among other indications) the position among the signs of the emblem of the planet Jupiter.
The companion rectangular zodiac still in situ on the portico of the temple of Isis at Dendera suits, as to constellational arrangements, the date 29 A.D.
The Greek signs of the zodiac, including Libra, are obvious upon both these monuments, which have thrown useful light upon the calendar system and method of stellar grouping of the ancient Egyptians.16 Planispheres.
- An Egypto-Greek planisphere, first described by Bianchini, 17 resembles in its general plan the circular zodiac of Dendera.
The Tatar zodiac is not unfrequently found engraven on Chinese mirrors in polished bronze or steel of the 7th century, and figured on the " plateau of the twelve hours "' 5 " Orat.
A zodiac on the " astrological altar of Gabies " in the Louvre illustrates the apportionment of the signs among the inmates of the Roman Pantheon; 3 and they occur as a classical reminiscence in the mosaic pavements of San Miniato and the baptistery at Florence the cathedral of Lyons, and the crypt of San Savino at Piacenza.4 Zodiacal symbolism became conspicuous in medieval art.
The zodiac of Notre Dame of Paris, opening with Aquarius, is a noted instance.'
In the zodiac of Merton College, Oxford, Libra is represented by a judge in his robes and Pisces by the dolphin of Fitzjames, warden of the college, 1482-1507.6 The great rose-windows of the Early Gothic period were frequently painted with zodiacal emblems; and some frescoes in the cathedral of Cologne contain the signs, each with an attendant angel, just as they were depicted on the vault of the church at Mount Athos.
The " zodiac of labours " was replaced in French castles and hotels by a " zodiac of pleasures," in which hunting, hawking, fishing and dancing were substituted for hoeing, planting, reaping and ploughing.8 It is curious to find the same sequence of symbols employed for the same decorative purposes in India as in Europe.
A perfect set of signs was copied in 1764 from a pagoda at Verdapettah near Cape Comorin, and one equally complete existed at the same period on the ceiling of a temple near Mindurah 9 The hieroglyphs representing the signs of the zodiac in astronomical works are found in manuscripts of about the 10th century, but in carvings not until the 15th or 16th.
The whole subject of the history of the zodiac is very obscure.
(Vitruvius names Cicero and Lucretius as post nostram memoriam nascentes.) The subjects of the eight chapters are - (1) the signs of the zodiac and the seven planets; (2) the phases of the moon; (3) the passage of the sun through the zodiac; (4) and (5) various constellations; (6) the relation of astrological influences to nature; (7) the mathematical divisions of the gnomon; (8) various kinds of sundials and their inventors.
Ganymede was afterwards regarded as the genius of the fountains of the Nile, the life-giving and fertilizing river, and identified by astronomers with the Aquarius of the zodiac. Thus the divinity that distributed drink to the gods in heaven became the genius who presided over the due supply of water on earth.
A few hexameters by him on the twelve signs of the Zodiac are quoted by Ausonius.
To this period are due famous frescoes in the Palazzo Schifanoia, which was built by the Este family; those of the lower row depict the life of Borso of Este, in the central row are the signs of the zodiac, and in the upper are allegorical representations of the months.
The zodiac of Denderah; the Savoyards who carved their pine-forests into toys; the naked Derar, horsed on an idea, charging a troop of Roman cavalry; the long, austere Pythagorean lustrum of silence; Napoleon on the deck of the "Bellerophon," observing the drill of the English soldiers; the Egyptian doctrine that every man has two pairs of eyes; Empedocles and his shoe; the horizontal stratification of the earth; a soft mushroom pushing its way through the hard ground, - all these allusions and a thousand more are found in the same volume.