Ayesha, Talba and Zobair, who were strong in Mecca, succeeded in obtaining possession of Basra, but were defeated in 656 at the battle of the Camel (see AaI).
`Abdallah ibn Zobair (of the house of Hashim) immediately stepped forward in Mecca as the avenger of `Ali's family and the champion of religion.
Qais ur-Rugayyat was the poet of `Abdallah ibn uz-Zubair (Abdallah ibn Zobair) and helped him until circumstances went against him, when he made his peace with the caliph.
870), one of Tabari's teachers, a learned historian and genealogist much consulted by later writers, there is a fragment in the KOpriilii library at Constantinople, and another in GÃ¶ttingen, part of which has been made known by Wiistenfeld (Die Familie Al-Zobair, GÃ¶ttingen, 1878).
Zobair, but their leader was defeated in a battle near Am Shams (December 684) by Merwgn b.
- Be fore his death Omar had nominated six of the leading Mohajir (Emigrants) who should choose the caliph from among themselves - Othman, Ali, Zobair, Talha, Sa`d b.
The opposition was headed by Ali, Zobair, Talha, both as leading men among the Emigrants and as disappointed candidates for the Caliphate.
But, that the spiritual nobility was fighting not for principle but for personal advantage was as apparent in Ali's hostilities against Zobair and Talha as in that of the Abbasids against the followers of Ali.
The mass of the mutineers summoned Ali to the Caliphate, and compelled even Talha and Zobair to do him homage.
The new caliph, however, found means of disposing of their opposition, and at the battle of the Camel, fought at Basra in November 656, Talha and Zobair were slain, and Ayesha was taken prisoner.
Zobair, who complained in a somewhat truculent letter that Moawiya's slaves had been guilty of trespassing.
In reply Zobair protested his loyalty to Moawiya, who thereupon pointed a moral for the instruction of Yazid.
Zobair and Hosain b.
Zobair, if necessary, by force.
This army was defeated, and from that time Ibn Zobair was supreme at Mecca.
Ibn Zobair profited greatly by the distress caused by Hosain's death.
But Ibn Zobair refused, and the Medinians, of whom the majority probably had never before seen a prince's court, however simple, were only confirmed in their rancour against Yazid, and told many horrible tales about his profligacy, that he hunted and held wild orgies with Bedouin sheikhs, and had no religion.
Nomair arrived before Mecca in September 683 and found Ibn Zobair ready to defend it.
It is said that on the news of the death of Yazid a conference took place between Hosain and Ibn Zobair, and that the former offered to proclaim the latter as caliph provided he would accompany him to Syria and proclaim a general amnesty.
Ibn Zobair refused haughtily, and Hosain, with a contemptuous criticism of his folly, ordered his army to break up for Syria.
Hitherto Ibn Zobair had confined himself to an appeal to the Moslems to renounce Yazid and to have a caliph elected by the council (shura) of the principal leading men.
IIarith, who had already fought with Ibn Zobair against Yazid, had induced northern Syria and Mesopotamia to declare for Ibn Zobair.
An army sent to the rescue by Ibn Zobair under the command of his brother Mus`ab was beaten in Palestine by `Amr Ashdaq.
Meanwhile Mokhtar (son of that Abu `Obaid the Thaqifite who had commanded the Arabs against the Persians in the unfortunate battle of the Bridge), a man of great talents and still greater ambition, after having supported Ibn Zobair in the siege of Mecca, had gone to Kufa, where he joined the Shiites, mostly Persians, and acquired great power.
Mokhtar was now at the zenith of power, but Ibn Zobair, determined to get rid at all costs of so dangerous an enemy, named his brother Mus`ab governor of Basra and ordered him to march against Kufa.
The troops of Basra had been, since the death of Yazid, at war with the Kharijites, who had supported Ibn Zobair during the siege of Mecca, but had deserted him later.
Ibn Zobair, however, was occupied at Mecca with the rebuilding of the Ka`ba, and Mus`ab was harassed not only by the Kharijites, but also by a noble freebooter, Obaidallah b.
Zobair, caliph of Mecca; that of the caliph of Damascus, Abdalmalik; that of Ali's son Mahommed b.
Yusuf at the head of 2000 Syrians against Ibn Zobair in Mecca, and despatched a messenger toTariq b.'Amr, who 1 Formerly the capital of the homonymous province of Syria; it lies a day's march west from Haleb (Aleppo).
Ibn Zobair employed against him Abyssinians armed with Greek-fire-tubes, who, however, quitted him soon under the pressure of famine.
Mecca being thus left without defenders, Ibn Zobair saw that ruin was inevitable.
With Ibn Zobair perished the influence which the early companions of Mahomet had exercised over Islam.
Nomair, Ibn Zobair had rebuilt and enlarged the house of God.
Thus the protracted war against Ibn Zobair was brought to an end; hence this year (71) also is called the "year of union" (jama'a).
Eutychius and others pretend that he desired to substitute Jerusalem for Mecca, because Ibn Zobair had occupied the latter place, and thus the pilgrimage to the Ka`ba had become difficult for the Syrians.
Hajjaj was a sincere Moslem; this, however, did not prevent him from attacking Ibn Zobair in the Holy City, nor again from punishing rebels, though they bore the name of holy men.
Almost the first act of his reign was the suppression of a rebellion under Talha and Zobair, who were instigated by Ayesha, Mahomet's widow, a bitter enemy of Ali, and one of the chief hindrances to his advancement to the caliphate.