In 1666 he was appointed teacher of 'medicine at Mainz and body-physician to the archbishop-elector; and the same year he was made councillor of commerce (Commerzienrat) at Vienna, where he had gained the powerful support of Albrecht, Count Zinzendorf, prime minister and grand chamberlain of the emperor Leopold I.
For some reason he incurred the disfavour of Zinzendorf and fled to Holland, where with the aid of the government he continued his experiments.
Salem was founded in 1766 by Friedrich Wilhelm von Marschall (1721-1802), a friend of Zinzendorf, and the financial manager of the board controlling the Moravian purchase made in North Carolina in 1753, consisting of 100,000 acres, and called Wachovia.
But under Zinzendorf the history of the Moravians took an entirely new turn.
Bohm.-Bruder (1882); Muller, Das Bischofstum der Bruder-Kirche (1888); Zinzendorf als Erneuerer der alien Bruder-Kirche (1900); Die deutschen Katechismen.
Bohm.-Bruder (1887); Becker, Zinzendorf and sein Christentum im Verhaltnis zum kirchlichen u.
For other sources see articles "Bohmische-Bruder" and "Zinzendorf" in Hauck's Realencyklopaedie; and for latest results of historical research, Zeitschrift fur Briidergeschichte (half-yearly).
Those who had fled to Philadelphia in Pennsylvania (1734) formed a small community under the name of Schwenkfelders; and Zinzendorf and Spangenberg, when they visited the United States, endeavoured, but with little success, to convert them to their views.
In London he met Peter Miller who had been ordained by Zinzendorf for work in Carolina.
Bengel (better known as a commentator), Zinzendorf, Butler and the Erskines helped to redeem the time from the reproach of being the dark age of Protestantism.
In 1728 Count Zinzendorf visited Jena, and Spangenberg made his acquaintance; in 1730 he visited the Moravian colony at Herrnhut.
Spangenberg's participation in private observances of the Lord's Supper and his intimate connexion with Count Zinzendorf brought matters to a crisis.
He was offered by the senate of the theological faculty of Halle the alternative of doing penance before God, submitting to his superiors, and separating himself from Zinzendorf, or leaving the matter to the decision of the king, unless he preferred to "leave Halle quietly."
At first he went to Jena, but Zinzendorf at once sought to secure him as a fellow labourer, though the count wished to obtain from him a declaration which would remove from the Pietists of Halle all blame with regard to the disruption.
During the second half of this missionary period of his life he superintended as bisho p the churches of Pennsylvania, defended the Moravian colonies against the Indians at the time of war between France and England, became the apologist of his body against the attacks of the Lutherans and the Pietists, and did much to moderate the mystical extravagances pf Zinzendorf, with which his simple, practical and healthy nature was out of sympathy.
In addition to the Idea fidei fratrum, Spangenberg wrote, besides other apologetic books, a Declaration fiber die seither gegen uns ausgegangenen Beschuldigungen sonderlich die Person unseres Ordinarius (Zinzendorf) betreffend (Leipzig, 1751), an Apologetische Schlussschrift (1752), Leben des Grafen Zinzendorf (r77 2-1775); and his hymns are well known beyond the Moravian circle.
Bethlehem was founded by the Moravians, led by Count Nikolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf, shortly before Christmas in 1741, and the season of the year suggested its name; for the first century of its existence it was almost exclusively a settlement of that sect, and it is still their American headquarters.
At Lindsey House Count Zinzendorf established a Moravian Society (c. 1750).