Secondly, lie simulated thunder and lightning, the latter by flashing in Zeno's eyes an intolerable light from a slightly hollowed mirror.
Antigonus Gonatas, bluff soldier-spirit that he was, heard the Stoic philosophers gladly, and, though he failed to induce Zeno to come to Macedonia, persuaded Zeno's disciple, Persaeus of Citium, to enter his service.
He rejected Zeno's doctrine of desirable things, intermediate between virtue and vice.
It was Zeno, the controversialist of the Eleatic school, who was regarded in after times as the " discoverer " of dialectic.3 Zeno's amazing skill in argumentation and his paradoxical conclusions, particular and general, inaugurate a new era.
Zeno's paradoxes, notably, for example, the puzzle of Achilles and the Tortoise, are still capable of amusing the modern world.
Aristo of Chios and Herillus of Carthage, Zeno's heterodox pupils, Persaeus, his favourite disciple and housemate, the poet Aratus, and Sphaerus, the adviser of the Spartan king Cleomenes, are noteworthy minor names; but the chief interest centres about Zeno, Cleanthes, Chrysippus, who in succession built up the wondrous system.
Zeno's residence at Athens fell at a time when the great movement which Socrates originated had spent itself in the second generation of his spiritual descendants.
Than those of any other Stoic. Zeno's seeming dualism of God (or force) and formless matter he was able to transform into the lofty pantheism which breathes in every line of the famous.
The eminent teachers of the time are said to have been Aristo, Zeno's heterodox pupil, and Arcesilas, who in Plato's name brought Megarian subtleties and Pyrrhonian agnosticism to bear upon the intruding doctrine; and after a vigorous upgrowth it seemed not unlikely to die out.
The circumstances of the time, such as the decay of Greek city-life, the foundation of large territorial states under absolute Greek rulers which followed upon Alexander's conquests, and afterwards the rise of the world-empire of Rome, aided to develop the leading idea of Zeno's There he had anticipated a state without family life, without law courts or coins, without schools or temples, in which all differences of nationality would be merged in the common brotherhood of man.
We have here a compromise between Zeno's and Aristotle's doctrines.
Doubtless, at the first founding of the school Zeno himself and Zeno's pupils were inspired with this hope; they emulated the Cynics Antisthenes and Diogenes, who never shrank out of modesty from the name and its responsibilities.