In 1733 a popular organ, the New York Weekly Journal, was established under John Peter Zenger (1697-1746), and in 1735 both the freedom of the press and a great advance toward the independence of the judiciary were the outcome of a famous libel suit against Zenger.
For printing these Zenger was arrested for libel in November 1734.
The case was not brought to trial until August 1735, and in the meantime Zenger was kept in jail.
Since the Zenger trial there had been a court party and a popular party: the former included many wealthy Anglicans and was under the leadership of the De Lanceys, the latter included many wealthy and influential dissenters and was under the leadership of the Livingstons.
Scientific effort received an impetus from the establishment of an independent Czech university at Prague in 1881, and from that time there is hardly a branch of science in which workers of profound and creative talent did not arise (in physics Zenger, in biology Vejdovsky), while a whole series of eminent names as well in the technical and mathematical as in the historical and philological (e.g.