- See under ZEND-AVESTA.
Under the name of Mouru this place is mentioned with Bakhdi (Balkh) in the geography of the Zend-Avesta (Vendidad, ed Spiegel, 1852-1863), which dates probably from at least 1200 B.C. Under the name of Margu it occurs in the cuneiform (Behistun) inscriptions of the Persian monarch Darius Hystaspis, where it is referred to as forming part of one of the satrapies of the ancient Persian Empire.
At Surat he succeeded, by perseverance and address in his intercourse with the native priests, in acquiring a sufficient knowledge of the Zend and Pahlavi languages to translate the liturgy called the Vendidad Sade and some other works.
In 1771 he published his Zend-Avesta (3 vols.), containing collections from the sacred writings of the fire-worshippers, a life of Zoroaster, and fragments of works ascribed to him.
The ancient Zend name is, according to Rawlinson, Paresina, the essential part of Paropamisus; this accounts for the great Asiastic Parnassus of Aristotle, and the Pho-lo-sin-a of Hsiian Tsang.
In both the Rig Veda and Zend Avesta soma is the king of plants; in both it is a medicine which gives health, long life and removes death.
This is a cord, woven by women of the priestly class, composed of seventy-two threads, representing the seventy-two chapters of the Yasna, a portion of the Zend-Avesta, in the sacredness of which the young.
And repeats the nuptial benediction first in Zend and then in Sanskrit.
When the medical attendant declares the case hopeless a priest advances to the bed of the dying man, repeats sundry texts of the Zend-Avesta, the substance of which tends to afford him consolation, and breathes a prayer for the forgiveness of his sins.
The later developments of the Iranian alphabet are the Pahlavi and the Zend, in which the MSS.
The fravashi or ideal type, the genius of both men and gods in the Zend Avesta (possibly connected originally with the cultus of the dead "), rises in successive ranks from the worshipper's own person through the household, the village, the district and the province, up to the throne of Ahura himself.'
But the idea of Law was generalized in the figure of Rita (what is " fitted " or " fixed "; or the " course " or " path " which is traversed), whose Zend equivalent asha shows that the conception had been reached before the separation of the Eastern Aryans produced the migrations into India and Iran.'
The fundamental idea remains the same in the Zend Asha, its philological counterpart, but it is applied with a difference.
Nor were the authors of the scriptures whose fragments are preserved in the Zend Avesta less conscious of their divine value.
Ancient Ethnograp/iy.In historical times we find the major portion of Iran occupied by peoples of Indo-European origin, terming themselves Aryans (Arya; Zend, Airya) and their language Aryanso in the inscriptions of Dariusthe same name, which is used by the consanguineous tribes of India who were their nearest relations.
The whole country is designated Ariana (Zend, Airyana) the land Descent of the Aryans the original of the Middle-Persian of the Eran and the modern Iran; the Greek geo- 1rau1ma~ui~, graphers Eratosthenes and Strabo were in error when they limited the name to the eastern districts of Iran.
The Hyrcanians (Varkdna in Darius, Zend Vehrkna) on the eastern corner of the Caspian, in the fertile district of Astarabad.
But such usurpation at the old Safawid capital would have been too flagrant an act for general assent; so he put forward Ismail, a nephew of Shah Ilusain, as the representative of sovereignty, and himself as one of his two ministersthe other being Karim Khan, a chief of the Zend Kurds.
Shah Ismail, it need scarcely be said, possessed no real authority; but the ministers were strong men in their way, and the Zend especially had many high and excellent qualities.
The Zend issued from Ispahan, and was a second time defeated in a pitched battle by, the Kajar.
On his side were 80,000 men, commanded by a general who had twice defeated the Zend chief on an equal field.
The rule of the great Zend chief was just and mild, and he is on the whole, considering his education and the cirCumstances under which he was placed, one of the most faultless characters to be met with in Persian history.
Hajji Ibrahim, however, contriving to maintain the loyalty of the citizens towards the Zend reigning family, the usurper was killed, and Lutf Ali Khan, son of Jiafir, proclaimed L~tfAJI king.
While differing widely in character, he was a worthy successor of Karim Khan, the great founder of the Zend dynasty.
Astonished at this, the few Zend cavaliers, thinking that the wholy army of Kajars had returned, fled with precipitation leaving the field in possession of Aga Mahommed.
The Zend is said to be a branch of the Lak tribe, dating from the time of the Kaianian kings, and claims to have been charged with the care of the Zend-Avesta by Zoroaster himself.1 The tree attached to Markhams chapter on the dynasty contains the names of eight members of the family only, i.e.
General whose possession of the crown jewels enabled him, after the defeat of his army at Kazvin, to secure his personal safety and obtain a government; of Hosain Kuli Khan) the shahs brother, which was compromised by the mothers intervention; and of Mahommed, son of Zaki Khan, Zend, who was defeated on more than one occasion in battle, and fled into Turkish territory.
Zend or Old Bactrian,Neither of these two titles is well chosen.
Zend, again (originally zaintish), is not the name of a language, as Anquetil Duperron supposed, but means interpretation or explanation, and is specially applied to the medieval Pahlavi translation of the Ayes/a.
Our Zend-Avesta does not mean the Avesta in the Zend language, but is an incorrect transcription of the original expression Avistgk Va zand, i.e.
But, since we still lack sure data to fix the home of this language with any certainty, the convenient name of Zend has become generally established in Europe, and may be provisionally retained.
But the home of the Zend language was certainly in eastern Iran; all attempts to seek it farther weste.g.
Zend is the language of the so-called Ayes/a,3 the holy book of the Persians, containing the oldest documents of the religion of Zoroaster.
Besides this important monument, which is about twice as large as the Iliad and Odyssey put together, we only possess very scanty relics of the Zend language in medieval glosses and scattered quotations in Pahlavi books.
Not only amongst Iranian languages, but amongst all the languages of the Indo-European group, Zend takes one of the very highest places in importance for the comparative philologist.
The age of Zend must be examined in connection with the age of the Avesta.
The view wbich became current through Anquetil Duperron, that the Ayes/a is throughout the work of Zoroaster (in Zend, Zarathushtra), the founder of the religion, has long been abandoned as untenable.
The gths are still extremely rough in style and expression; the language is richer in forms than the more recent Zend; and the vocabulary shows important differences.
This, and not Zend-A yes/a, is the correct title for the original text of the Persian Bible.
The clearest evidence of the extreme age of the language of the pi ithas is its striking resemblance to the oldest Sanskrit, the language P the Vedic poems. The gatha language (much more than the k1 ter Zend) and the language of the Vedas have a close resemblance, Ai :ceeding that of any two Romanic languages; they seem hardly th ore than two dialects of one tongue.
The language of the other parts of the Avesta is more modern, it not all of one date, so that we can follow the gradual decline Z Zend in the Avesta itself.
We in ye no chronological points by which to fix the date when Zend 01 ased to be a living language; no part of the Avesta can well be re~ tt later than the 5th or 4th century B.C. Before Alexanders ~r Ire it is said to have been already written out on dressed cowhides d preserved in the state archives at Persepolis.
A logical system of comparative exegesis, Ze led by constant reference to Sanskrit, its nearest ally, and to the her Iranian dialects, is the best means of recovering the lost of rise of the Zend texts.
Ira The phonetic system of Zend consists of simple signs which Ca press the different shades of sound in the language with great Pe ecision.
Sanskrit bharahi, Zend wi raiti (he carries); Old Persian margu, Zend murva (Merv); en nskrit rinaktl, Zend irinakhhi.
Triphthongs are not uncommon, th Sanskrit avebhyas (dative plural of acva, a horse) is in Zend in paeibyo; Sanskrit krnoti (he does), Zend kerenaoiti.
Zend has lar 0 a great tendency to insert irrational vowels, especially near ha uids; owing to this the words seem rather inflated; e.g.
Savya a the left) becomes in Zend havaya; bhrajabi (it glitters), Zend cer razaihi; gnaT (7uv,~), Zend gena.
Zend asha for Sanskrit tha, Old Persian aria (in dy taxerxes); fravashi for Pahlavi fravardln, New Persian ferrer tn ie spirits of the dead).
In the gthgs there is a special ablative, limited, as Pa Sanskrit, to the a stems, whilst in later Zend the ablative is PA tended to all the stems indifferently.