- See under ZEND-AVESTA.
Under the name of Mouru this place is mentioned with Bakhdi (Balkh) in the geography of the Zend-Avesta (Vendidad, ed Spiegel, 1852-1863), which dates probably from at least 1200 B.C. Under the name of Margu it occurs in the cuneiform (Behistun) inscriptions of the Persian monarch Darius Hystaspis, where it is referred to as forming part of one of the satrapies of the ancient Persian Empire.
In 1771 he published his Zend-Avesta (3 vols.), containing collections from the sacred writings of the fire-worshippers, a life of Zoroaster, and fragments of works ascribed to him.
The ancient Zend name is, according to Rawlinson, Paresina, the essential part of Paropamisus; this accounts for the great Asiastic Parnassus of Aristotle, and the Pho-lo-sin-a of Hsiian Tsang.
In both the Rig Veda and Zend Avesta soma is the king of plants; in both it is a medicine which gives health, long life and removes death.
This is a cord, woven by women of the priestly class, composed of seventy-two threads, representing the seventy-two chapters of the Yasna, a portion of the Zend-Avesta, in the sacredness of which the young.
And repeats the nuptial benediction first in Zend and then in Sanskrit.
When the medical attendant declares the case hopeless a priest advances to the bed of the dying man, repeats sundry texts of the Zend-Avesta, the substance of which tends to afford him consolation, and breathes a prayer for the forgiveness of his sins.
The later developments of the Iranian alphabet are the Pahlavi and the Zend, in which the MSS.
The fravashi or ideal type, the genius of both men and gods in the Zend Avesta (possibly connected originally with the cultus of the dead "), rises in successive ranks from the worshipper's own person through the household, the village, the district and the province, up to the throne of Ahura himself.'
But the idea of Law was generalized in the figure of Rita (what is " fitted " or " fixed "; or the " course " or " path " which is traversed), whose Zend equivalent asha shows that the conception had been reached before the separation of the Eastern Aryans produced the migrations into India and Iran.'
The fundamental idea remains the same in the Zend Asha, its philological counterpart, but it is applied with a difference.
Nor were the authors of the scriptures whose fragments are preserved in the Zend Avesta less conscious of their divine value.
Ancient Ethnograp/iy.In historical times we find the major portion of Iran occupied by peoples of Indo-European origin, terming themselves Aryans (Arya; Zend, Airya) and their language Aryanso in the inscriptions of Dariusthe same name, which is used by the consanguineous tribes of India who were their nearest relations.
The whole country is designated Ariana (Zend, Airyana) the land Descent of the Aryans the original of the Middle-Persian of the Eran and the modern Iran; the Greek geo- 1rau1ma~ui~, graphers Eratosthenes and Strabo were in error when they limited the name to the eastern districts of Iran.
The Hyrcanians (Varkdna in Darius, Zend Vehrkna) on the eastern corner of the Caspian, in the fertile district of Astarabad.
But such usurpation at the old Safawid capital would have been too flagrant an act for general assent; so he put forward Ismail, a nephew of Shah Ilusain, as the representative of sovereignty, and himself as one of his two ministersthe other being Karim Khan, a chief of the Zend Kurds.
Shah Ismail, it need scarcely be said, possessed no real authority; but the ministers were strong men in their way, and the Zend especially had many high and excellent qualities.
The Zend issued from Ispahan, and was a second time defeated in a pitched battle by, the Kajar.
On his side were 80,000 men, commanded by a general who had twice defeated the Zend chief on an equal field.
The rule of the great Zend chief was just and mild, and he is on the whole, considering his education and the cirCumstances under which he was placed, one of the most faultless characters to be met with in Persian history.
Hajji Ibrahim, however, contriving to maintain the loyalty of the citizens towards the Zend reigning family, the usurper was killed, and Lutf Ali Khan, son of Jiafir, proclaimed L~tfAJI king.
While differing widely in character, he was a worthy successor of Karim Khan, the great founder of the Zend dynasty.
Astonished at this, the few Zend cavaliers, thinking that the wholy army of Kajars had returned, fled with precipitation leaving the field in possession of Aga Mahommed.
The Zend is said to be a branch of the Lak tribe, dating from the time of the Kaianian kings, and claims to have been charged with the care of the Zend-Avesta by Zoroaster himself.1 The tree attached to Markhams chapter on the dynasty contains the names of eight members of the family only, i.e.
General whose possession of the crown jewels enabled him, after the defeat of his army at Kazvin, to secure his personal safety and obtain a government; of Hosain Kuli Khan) the shahs brother, which was compromised by the mothers intervention; and of Mahommed, son of Zaki Khan, Zend, who was defeated on more than one occasion in battle, and fled into Turkish territory.
Zend or Old Bactrian,Neither of these two titles is well chosen.
Zend, again (originally zaintish), is not the name of a language, as Anquetil Duperron supposed, but means interpretation or explanation, and is specially applied to the medieval Pahlavi translation of the Ayes/a.
Our Zend-Avesta does not mean the Avesta in the Zend language, but is an incorrect transcription of the original expression Avistgk Va zand, i.e.
But, since we still lack sure data to fix the home of this language with any certainty, the convenient name of Zend has become generally established in Europe, and may be provisionally retained.
But the home of the Zend language was certainly in eastern Iran; all attempts to seek it farther weste.g.
ZEND - AVESTA, the original document of the religion of Zoroaster, still used by the Parsees as their bible and prayer-book.
The name " Zend-Avesta " has been current in Europe since the time of Anquetil Duperron (c. 1771), but the Parsees themselves call it simply Avesta, Zend (i.e.
Text and translation are often spoken of together in Pahlavi books as Avistak va Zand (" Avesta and Zend "), whence - through a misunderstanding - our word Zend-Avesta.
The language of the Avesta is still frequently called Zend; but, as already implied, this is a mistake.
The merit of achieving this belongs to the enthusiastic orientalist Anquetil Duperron, the fruit of whose prolonged stay in India (1755-1761) and his acquaintance with the Parsee priests was a translation (certainly very defective) of the Zend-Avesta.
Coi ientific study of Zend texts began with E.
In the latest inscriptions the iguage is already much degraded; but on the whole it is almost antique as Zend, with which it has many points in common.
R instance, if we take a sentence from an inscription of Darius Auramazda hya imam bumim ada hya avam asmnam ada hya trtiyam ada hya siytim ada rniartiyahya hya Dkrayavauni shayathiyam akunaush aivam paruvnam khshayathiyam, would be in Zend Ahuro mazdgo y imAm bemim adat ye aom asmanem adat y ishim adat y shgitim adat mashyahe y dflraya~vohum khshaetem erenaot OyUm pourunam khshaetem.
Zend bagem, Old Persiah bagam, Sanskrit bhagam; I Persian hamarana, Zenci hamerena, Sanskrit samarana.
As ~ards consonants, it is noticeable that the older I (soft s) still mserved in Zend passes into da rule that still holds in New rsian; compare Sanskrit.
Thus we have Old Persian or Zend., Pahlavl.