Very curious, in relation to modern evolutional ideas, is the Stoical doctrine that our world is but one of a series of exactly 1 Zeller says that through this distinction Aristotle first made possible the idea of development.
The transition from the 4 Zeller observes that this scale of decreasing perfection is a necessary consequence of the idea of a transcendent deity.
Nature (says Zeller) is to Hegel a system of gradations, of which one arises necessarily out of the other, and is the proximate truth of that out of which it results.
Zeller, Socrates and the Socratic Schools, Eng.
The traits common to Neoplatonism and all these speculations are well summed up by Zeller (Philos.
Zeller, Handbuch der Verfassung and Verwaltung im Grossherzogtum Hessen (Darmstadt, 1885-1893).
The supposition of such influence is favoured by some critics (Tyler, Plumptre, Palm, Siegfried, Cheyne in his Jewish Religious Life after the Exile, and others), rejected by some (Zeller, Renan, Kleinert and others).
See further the articles on Xenophanes; Parmenides; Zeno (of Elea); Melissus, with the works there quoted; also the histories of philosophy by Zeller, Gomperz, Windelband, &c.
In 1896 he succeeded Eduard Zeller as professor of moral philosophy at Berlin.
According to Zeller, the discrepancy is only apparent.
This reconciliation of the internal and the external evidence, countenanced as it is by Theophrastus, one of the best informed of the ancient historians, and approved by Zeller, one of the most learned of the modern critics, is more than plausible; but there is something to be said on the contrary part.
Theol., 1889; Calwer-Zeller, Kirchen-Lexikon.
See Calwer-Zeller, Theologisches Handworterbuch, and the account of him in Albert Knapp's new edition of Die erste Liebe zu Christo (1845).
See Zeller, Philosophie der Griechen, iii.
De l'Ain (1884); Berthold Zeller, Les Armagnacs et les Bourguignons, la Commune de 1413; E.
Zeller, Louis de France et Jean sans Peur (Paris, 1886); and E.
438-475 and 586-592, Zeller, Ueberweg, Erdmann, and works quoted under Sophists.
(Xabout zoo; after Zeller.) C, Microcotyle mormyri.
(Natural size; after Zeller.) E, Bucephalus polymorphus.
The former course has been adopted by Schwegler,5 Zeller,' and Hilgenfeld, 7 the latter by Ritschl $ and Lipsius?
Zeller, Etudes critiques sur le regne de Louis XIII.: le connetable de Luynes, Montauban et la Valteline (Paris, 1879); E.
Darstellung der Jiidisch-Alexandrinischen Religionsphilosophie (1834); Histories of Philosophy by Zeller, Ueberweg, Windelband, &c., and Bibliography of Church History, &c.
Also Zeller, Socrates and the Socratic Schools; Dyeck, De Megaricorum doctrines (Bonn, 1827); Mallet, Histoire de l'ecole de Megare (Paris, 1845); Ritter, Ober die Philosophie der r meg.
As to the Gospel's date, critics have returned from 160-170 (Baur), i 50 (Zeller), 130 (Keim), to 110-115 (Renan) and 80-110 (Harnack): since Irenaeus says its author lived into the times of Trajan (90-117), a date somewhere about 105 would satisfy tradition.
See Edward Zeller, Vortrdge, vol.
Both Zeller and Hegel remark upon the difference between the calm of ancient scepticism and the perturbed state of mind evinced by many modern sceptics.
See Hedonism, EPICUxus; histories of philosophy by Zeller, Windelband, tUeberweg; H.
The most important lake is the Zeller-see (2424 ft.
" It was reserved for Proclus," says Zeller, " to bring the Neoplatonic philosophy to its formal conclusion by the rigorous consistency of his dialectic, and, keeping in view all the modifications which it had undergone in the course of two centuries, to give it that form in which it was transferred to Christianity and Mahommedanism in the middle ages."
[Supposed by Zeller to belong to the latter half of the 1st century B.C.] 6.7repi iiuxiis: De anima: On soul, conjoined with organic body.
[Ascribed to the school of Theophrastus and Strabo by Zeller.] 19.7rEpL 7ropetas: De animalium incessu: On the going of animals.
[Ascribed to the school of Theophrastus and Strabo by Zeller.] 22.1 7repi a.Kovarwv: De audibilibus.
[Ascribed to the school of Theophrastus and Strabo by Zeller.] 234 4,vacoyvw,uovtci: Physiognomonica: On physiognomy, and the sympathy of body and soul.
[Ascribed to Theophrastus, or his time, by Zeller.] 3.t avEpwv 9eaees Kai 7rpoa7 7 yoptaL: Ventorum situs et appellationes: A fragment on the winds.
[According to Zeller, an abstract of the Nicomachean and the Eudemian Ethics, tending to follow the latter, but possibly an early draft of the Nicomachean Ethics.] 3 'H9LKa EbSi) pea or 7rpos Ebbnp.ov: Ethica ad Eudemum: On the same subject.
[An eclectic work of the 1st century B.C., half Academic and half Peripatetic, according to Zeller.] 5.
[The first book a work of the school of Theophrastus or Eudemus, the second later Peripatetic, according to Zeller.] 7repi De virtutibus et vitiis: On virtues I.
Zeller supposes that, though Aristotle may have made preparations for his philosophical system beforehand, still the properly didactic treatises composing it almost all belong to the last period of his life, i.e.
From 335-334 to 322; and from the references of one work to another Zeller has further suggested a chronological order of composition during this period of twelve years, beginning with the treatises on Logic and Physics, and ending with that on Metaphysics.
To save his hypothesis of late composition, Zeller resorts to the vagueness of the word " now " (vuv).
It is agreed, says Zeller, that the traditional order contradicts the original plan.
It is not spurious, as some have supposed, nor later than the De Anima, as Zeller thought, but Aristotle in an earlier frame of mind.
Zeller, indeed, has attempted an exact order of succession: 1.
But Zeller does not give enough weight either to the evidence of early composition contained in the Politics and Meteorology, or to the evidence of subsequent contemporaneous composition contained in the cross-references, e.g between the Physics and the Metaphysics.
Moreover, the arrangement sometimes breaks down: for example, though on the whole the logical books are quoted without quoting the rest, the De Interpretatione (chap. 1) quotes the De Anima, and therefore is falsely taken by Zeller against its own internal evidence to be subsequent to it and consequently to the other logical books.
Zeller tries to get over this difficulty of cross-reference by detaching Metaphysics, Book A, from the rest and placing it before the Physics.
Martin, Krauses Leben and Bedeutung (1881), and Histories of Philosophy by Zeller, Windelband and Hoffding.
Zeller, "Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Stoikers Panatius" in Cornmentationes philologae in honorem Th.
If we consider how Philo, while remaining a devout Jew in religion, yet managed to assimilate the whole Stoic philosophy, we can well believe that the Essenes might have been influenced, as Zeller maintained that they were, by Neo-Pythagoreanism.