In 1576 William, with the support of Holland, Zeeland and their allies, put forth forty articles, by which doctors, elders and deacons were recognized, and church discipline given to the elders, subject to appeal to the magistrate and by which the Church was placed in absolute dependence on the state.
Dordrecht, Leiden, Haarlem, Delft, Vlaardigen, Rotterdam in Holland, and Middleburg and Zierikzee in Zeeland, repeated with modifications the characteristics of the communes of Flanders and Brabant.
He inherited Flanders and Artois, purchased the county of Namur (1427) and compelled his cousin Jacqueline, the heiress of Holland, Zeeland, Hainault and Friesland, to surrender her possessions to him, 1428.
Four duchies, Brabant, Gelderland, Limburg and Luxemburg; seven counties, Flanders, Artois, Hainault, Holland, Zeeland, Namur and Zutphen; the margraviate of Antwerp; and five lordships - Friesland, Mechlin, Utrecht, Overyssel, and Groningen with its dependent districts.
Flushing, the port of Zeeland, which commanded the approach to Antwerp; and the inhabitants were compelled to take the oath to the prince of Orange, as stadtholder of the king.
These striking successes caused a wave of revolt to spread through Holland, Zeeland, Gelderland, Utrecht and Friesland.
In the spring of 1575 conferences with a view to peace were held at Breda, and on their failure Orange, in the face of Spanish successes in Zeeland, was forced to seek foreign succour.
The sovereignty of Holland and Zeeland was offered to the queen of England, but she, though promising secret support, declined.
The stadtholder summoned a meeting of the states of Holland and Zeeland to Delft, and on the 25th of April an act of federation between the two provinces was executed.
Things looked ill for the patriots, and Zeeland Smpuatninisyh.
A treaty establishing a firm alliance between the provinces, represented by the states-general, assembled at Brussels on the one part, and on the other by the prince of Orange, and the states of Holland and Zeeland, was agreed upon and ratified under the title of the " Pacification of Ghent."
The authority conferred upon Orange as stadtholder by the provinces of Holland and Zeeland was thus ratified, but that astute statesman had no confidence that Philip intended to observe the treaty any longer than it suited his convenience.
Through his exertions the Spanish troops had not only been expelled from Holland and Zeeland, but also from the citadels of Antwerp and Ghent, which were now in the hands of the patriots.
He was invited to come to Brussels, and after some hesitation, and not without having first obtained the approval of the states of Holland and Zeeland, he assented.
The Union of Utrecht was signed on the 29th of January by the representatives of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Zutphen.
ZEELAND (or Zealand), a province of Holland, bounded S.E.
Zeeland consists of the delta islands formed about the estuaries of the Maas and Scheldt with its two arms, the Honte or Western Scheldt, and the Ooster Scheldt, together with a strip of mainland called ZeelandFlanders.
The soil of Zeeland consists of a fertile sea clay which especially favours the production of wheat; rye, barley (for malting), beans and peas, and flax are also cultivated.
The mainland of Zeeland-Flanders was formerly also composed of numerous islands which were gradually united by the accumulation of mud and sand, and in this way many once flourishing commercial towns, such as Sluis and Aardenburg, were reduced in importance.
In 1110 an apostate monk in Zeeland, Tanchelm, carried their views still farther, and asserted that the sacraments were only valid through the merits and sanctity of the ministers.
On the death of Frederick Henry William succeeded him, not only in the family honours and possessions, but in accordance with the terms of the act of survivance in all his official posts, as stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overyssel and Groningen and captain-general and admiral-general of the Union.
Violently attacked by the English and by his own countrymen for this act, he retired from public affairs and, save for a mission to Paris in 1590, lived henceforth in Leiden or on his estate in Zeeland, where he worked at a translation of the Bible.
VEERE, a town in the province of Zeeland, Holland, on the island of Walcheren, 4 m.
This was followed by his marriage, in 1608, to Marie Reigersberg, a lady of family in Zeeland, a woman of great capacity and noble disposition.
In 1618 Prince Maurice set out on a sort of pacific campaign, disbanding the civic guards in the various cities of Guelders, Holland and Zeeland, and occupying the places with troops on whom he could rely.
Steam tramways connect it with Schiedam, and with Numansdorp on the south of the island of Beierland, and there is a regular service of steamers by river and canal to Antwerp by way of the South Holland and Zeeland Islands and in every direction.
(Mesch in the province of Limburg), and from 3° 23' 27" (Sluis in the province of Zeeland) to 7° 12' 20" E.
In the north and south, however, this line is broken by the inlets of the sea which form the Frisian and the South Holland and Zeeland islands respectively; but the dunes themselves are found continued along the seaward side of these islands, thus indicating the original continuity of the coast-line.
The extensive sea-arms forming the South Holland and Zeeland archipelago are the Hont or West Scheldt, the East Scheldt, the Grevelingen (communicating with Krammer and the Volkerak) and the Haringvliet, which after being joined by the Volkerak is known as the Hollandsch Diep. These inlets were formerly of much greater extent than now, but are gradually closing up owing to the accumulation of mud deposits, and no longer have the same freedom of communication with one another.
In fact, one quarter of the whole kingdom, consisting of the provinces of North and South Holland, the western portion of Utrecht as far as the Vaart Rhine, Zeeland, except the southern part of ZeelandFlanders, and the north-west part of North Brabant, lies below the Amsterdam zero; and altogether 38% of the country, or all that part lying west of a line drawn through Groningen, Utrecht and Antwerp, lies within one metre above the Amsterdam zero and would be submerged if the sea broke down the barrier of dunes and dikes.
Country, whilst the Scheldt has its mouth only in Holland, giving its name to the two broad inlets of the sea which bound the Zeeland islands.
This is afforded, either by means of a so-called sleeping dike (slaperdyk) behind the weak spot, as, for instance, between Kadzand and Breskens in Zeeland-Flanders, and again between 's Gravenzande and Loosduinen; or by means of piers or breakwaters (hoofden, heads) projecting at intervals into the sea and composed of piles, or brushwood and stones.
Nearly all the polders of Zeeland and South Holland are able to discharge naturally into the sea at average low water, self-regulating sluices being used.
The final removal of polder water, however, is only truly effected upon its discharge into the " outer waters " of the country, that is, the sea itself or the large rivers freely communicating with it; and this happens with but a small proportion of Dutch polders, such as those of Zeeland, the Holland Ysel and the Noorderkwartier.
Only of certain districts, however, can it be said that they are positively unhealthy; to this category belong some parts of the Holland provinces, Zeeland, and Friesland, where the inhabitants are exposed to the exhalations from the marshy ground, and the atmosphere is often burdened with sea-fogs.
Sea-aster flourishes in the Wadden of Friesland and Groningen, the Dollart and the Zeeland estuaries, giving place nearer the shore to sandspurry (Spergularia), or sea-poa or floating meadow grass (Glyceria maritima), which grows up to the dikes, and affords pasture for cattle and sheep. Along the coast of Overysel and in the Biesbosch lake club-rush, or scirpus, is planted in considerable quantities for the hat-making industry, and common sea-wrack (Zostera marina) is found in large patches in the northern half of the Zuider Zee, where it is gathered for trade purposes during the months of June, July and August.
In Zeeland they connect the towns of the interior with the sea or the river mouths; for example, the one from Middelburg to Veere and Flushing (1866-1878), from Goes to the East Scheldt, and from Zierikzee also to the East Scheldt.
The state first began to encourage the construction of these local light railways by means of subsidies in 1893, since when some of the most prominent lines have come into exist ence, such as Purmerend - Alkmaar (1898), Zutphen - Emmerich (1902), along the Dedemsyaart in Overysel (1902), from 's Hertogenbosch via Utrecht and Eindhoven to Turnhout in Belgium (1898), and especially those connecting the South Holland and Zeeland islands with the railway, namely, between Rotterdam and Numansdorp on the Hollandsch Diep (1898), and from Breda or Bergen-op-Zoom, via Steenbergen to St Philipsland, Zierikzee and Brouwershaven (1900).
Zeeland and Groningen are the two principal agricultural provinces, and after them follow Limburg, North Brabant, Gelderland and South Holland.
The fishing industry of the Netherlands may be said to have been in existence already in the 13th century, and in the following century received a considerable impetus from the discovery how to cure herring by William Beukelszoon, a Zeeland fisherman.
The fisheries are commonly divided into four particular fishing areas, namely, the " deep-sea " fishery of the North Sea, and the " inner " (binnengaatsch) fisheries of the Wadden, the Zuider Zee, and the South Holland and Zeeland waters.
The number of members in the first chamber is 50, South Holland sending io, North Holland 9, North Brabant and Gelderland each 6, Friesland 4, Overysel, Limburg and Groningen each 3, Zeeland, Utrecht and Drente each 2.
Of Abjuration, by which at his persuasion the repret sentatives of the provinces of Brabant, Flanders, Holland, Zeeland, Gelderland and Utrecht, assembled at the Hague, declared that Philip had forfeited his sovereignty over them, and that they held themselves henceforth absolved from their allegiance to him.
Antwerp, with St Aldegonde as its burgomaster, was still in the hands of the patriots and barred the way to the sea, and covered Zeeland from invasion.
Maurice of Nassau, William's second son, had indeed on his father's death been appointed captain and admiral-general of the Union, president of the Council of State, and stadholder of Holland and Zeeland, but he was as yet too young, only seventeen, to take a leading part in affairs.
His edict prohibiting all commercial intercourse with the enemy at once aroused against him the bitter hostility of the merchants of Holland and Zeeland, who thrived by such traffic. His attempts to pack the council of State, on which already two Englishmen had seats, with personal adherents and to override the opposition of the provincial states of Holland to his arbitrary acts, at last made his position impossible.
Everywhere, save in staunch and steadfast Holland and Zeeland, a feeling of wavering and hesitation was spreading through the land.
In Holland and Zeeland William was supreme, but elsewhere his aims and his principles were misrepresented and misunderstood.
The traders of Holland and Zeeland had thriven mightily by the war.
In 1631 a large Spanish fleet carrying a picked force of 6000 soldiers, for the invasion of Zeeland, was completely c destroyed by the Dutch in the Slaak and the troops made prisoners.