MONNIKENDAM, a fishing village of Holland, in the province of North Holland, on an inlet of the Zuider Zee known as the Gouw Zee, 12 m.
11) the fleet of Alva on the Zuyder Zee was Alva with- completely defeated by the Sea-Beggars and its Death of seas.
By Friesland and the Lauwers Zee, N.
The rivers of Groningen descending from the Drente plateau meet at the capital, whence they are continued by the Reitdiep to the Lauwers Zee (being discharged through a lock), and by the Ems canal (1876) to Delfzyl.
It is favourably situated at the confluence of a number of canals and rivers which communicate hence with the Zuider Zee by the Meppeler Diep, and rose rapidly into prominence in the 19th century.
1673) and grandson Cornelius, and before the end of the century turned out a Zee-Spiegel of 108 charts (1623), an Atlas novus (Nieuwe Atlas), 1642, enlarged in the course of time until it consisted of 12 folio volumes containing hundreds of maps.
HARDERWYK, a seaport in the province of Gelderland, Holland, on the shores of the Zuider Zee, 17 m.
There is evidence that, towards the close of the mediaeval period, great storms and tidal inundations occurred on the shores of the North Sea and Baltic, and in the course of these floods, culminating in 1297, the Zuider Zee was formed from a lake that existed in its neighbourhood, by the breaking down of dykes.
The towns of the League, stretching from Thorn and Krakow on the East to the towns of the Zuider Zee on the West, and from Wisby and Reval in the North to GÃ¶ttingen in the South, were arranged in groups, following in the main the territorial divisions.
ZUIDER ZEE, or Zuyder Zee, a land-locked inlet on the coast of Holland, bounded N.
Southern) Zee was a small inland lake situated in the southern part of the present gulf, and called Flevo by Tacitus, Pliny, and other early writers.
In 1170 the land between Stavoren, Texel, and Medemblik was washed away, and a century later the Zuider Zee was formed.
The mean depth of the Zuider Zee is 11.48 ft.; depth in the southern basin of the former lake, 19 ft.; at Val van Urk (deep water to the west of the island of Urk), 142 ft.
To Lemmer (Friesland), these lines will connect parts of the Zuider Zee having a uniform depth of 8 ft.
This shallowness of its waters served to protect the Zuider Zee from the invasion of large ships of war.
The fisheries of the Zuider Zee are of considerable importance.
The scheme recommended by the Zuider Zee Vereeniging (1886) formed the subject of a report in 1894 by a state commission.
In 1901 the government introduced a bill in the States General, based on the recommendations of the commission, providing for enclosing the Zuider Zee by building a dike from the North Holland coast, through the Amsteldiep to Wieringen and from that island to the Friesland coast at Piaam; and further providing for the draining of two portions of the enclosed area, namely the N.W.
With the exception of Griend and Schokland, the islands of the Zuider Zee are inhabited by small fishing communities, who retain some archaic customs and a picturesque dress.
It is situated in the middle of the Gooi, a stretch of hilly country extending from the Zuider Zee to about 5 m.
Bishop Godebald (1122-1127) granted to the inhabitants of Utrecht and of Muiden, the neighbouring port on the Zuider Zee, their first privileges, which were confirmed on the 22nd of June 1122 by the emperor Henry V., who died at Utrecht in 1125.
EDAM, a town of Holland in the province of North Holland, close to the Zuider Zee, about 13 m.
It is connected with the Zuider Zee by a fine canal protected by a large sea-lock (1828), and has regular steam-boat communication in various directions.
Free access to the Zuider Zee was obtained by the construction of a new dock in 1357, in which year the town also received civic rights from William V.
NORTH HOLLAND, a province of the kingdom of Holland, lying between the North Sea and the Zuider Zee, and on the landward side bounded by the provinces of South Holland and Utrecht.
The Y, which was formerly an inlet of the Zuider Zee, was drained, and the North Sea ship canal was formed in its stead (1865-1876), and carried through the dunes to Ymuiden.
The security of the Zuider Zee for trade and fishing purposes was the first factor in the commercial development of North Holland, and the cities of Medemblik, Enkhuizen, Hoorn, Edam and Monnikendam, though now little more than market centres for the surrounding district, possessed a large foreign commerce in the 16th and 17th centuries.
GRONINGEN, a town of Holland, capital of the province of the same name, at the confluence of the two canalized rivers the Drentsche Aa and the Hunse (which are continued to the Lauwers Zee as the Reit Diep), 16 m.
Besides the Reit Diep, there are the Ems Canal and the Damster Diep, connecting it with Delfzyl and the Dollart, the Kolonel's Diep with Leeuwarden, the Nord Willem's Canal with Assen and the south and the Stads-Canal south-east with the Ems. Hence steamers ply in all directions, and there is a regular service to Emden and the island of Borkum via Delfzyl, and via the Lauwers Zee to the island of Schiermonnikoog.
In 1439 it decreed that no one might trade in all the district between the Ems and the Lauwers Zee except burghers, and those who had purchased the burwal (right of residence in the city) and the freedom of the gilds.
M., and, including the Zuider Zee and the Wadden (2050 sq.
The principal sea-inlets in the north are the Texel Gat or Marsdiep and the Vlie, which lead past the chain of the Frisian Islands into the large inland sea or gulf called the Zuider Zee, and the Wadden or " shallows," which extend along the shores of Friesland and Groningen as far as the Dollart and the mouth of the Ems. The inland sea-board thus formed consists of low coasts of sea-clay protected by dikes, and of some high diluvial strata which rise far enough above the level of the sea to make dikes unnecessary, as in the case of the Gooi hills between Naarden and the Eem, the Veluwe hills between Nykerk and Elburg, and the steep cliffs of the Gaasterland between Oude Mirdum and Stavoren.
The Zuider Zee and the bay in the Frisian coast known as the Lauwers Zee also gradually came into existence in the 13th century.
The Ysel and the Vecht flow to the Zuider Zee; the other branches to the North Sea.
Into the Zuider Zee there also flow the Kuinder, the Zwarte Water, with its tributary the Vecht, and the Eem.
The shores of the Zuider Zee and the Wadden, and the Frisian and Zuider Zee islands, are also partially protected by dikes.
Sea-aster flourishes in the Wadden of Friesland and Groningen, the Dollart and the Zeeland estuaries, giving place nearer the shore to sandspurry (Spergularia), or sea-poa or floating meadow grass (Glyceria maritima), which grows up to the dikes, and affords pasture for cattle and sheep. Along the coast of Overysel and in the Biesbosch lake club-rush, or scirpus, is planted in considerable quantities for the hat-making industry, and common sea-wrack (Zostera marina) is found in large patches in the northern half of the Zuider Zee, where it is gathered for trade purposes during the months of June, July and August.
Groningen communicates with the Lauwers Zee by the Reitdiep (1873-1876), while the canal to Winschoten and the Stadskanaal, or State canal (1877-1880), bring it into connexion with the flourishing fen colonies in the east of the province and in Drente.
In Friesland, finally, besides the ship canal from Harlingen to the Lauwers Zee there are canals from Leeuwarden to the Lemmer, whence there is a busy traffic with Amsterdam; and the Caspar Robles or Kolonels Diep, and the Hoendiep connect it with Groningen.
The northern and southern provinces are further connected by the lines Amsterdam - Zaandam (1878) - Enkhuizen (1885), whence there is a steam ferry across the Zuider Zee to Stavoren, from where the railway is continued to Leeuwarden (1883-1885); the Netherlands Central railway, Utrecht - AmersfoortZwoole - Kampen (1863); and the line Utrecht - 's Hertogenbosch (1868-1869) which is continued southward into Belgium by the lines bought in 1898 from the Grand Central Belge railway, namely, via Tilburg to Turnhout (1867), and via Eindhoven (1866) to Hasselt.
The fisheries are commonly divided into four particular fishing areas, namely, the " deep-sea " fishery of the North Sea, and the " inner " (binnengaatsch) fisheries of the Wadden, the Zuider Zee, and the South Holland and Zeeland waters.
In the Zuider Zee small herring, flat fish, anchovies and shrimps are caught, the chief fishing centres being the islands of Texel, Urk and Wieringen, and the coast towns of Helder, Bunschoten, Huizen, Enkhuizen, Vollendam, Kampen, Harderwyk, Vollenhove.
Havard, Dead Cities of the Zuider Zee, &c. (translated from the French, London 1876), and D.
Mention may also be made of Old Dutch Towns and Villages of the Zuider Zee, by W.
Zuyder Zee, though the topography of the district has greatly altered.
The Steenwyker Aa, however, enters the Zuider Zee independently.
Off the coast of Holland in summer it is more plentiful, entering the Zuider Zee in such numbers as to give rise to a regular and valuable fishery.
There is reason to believe that the anchovies found at the western end of the English Channel in November and December are those which annually migrate from the Zuider Zee and Scheldt in autumn, returning thither in the following spring; they must be held to form an isolated stock, for none come up from the south in summer to occupy the English Channel, though the species is resident on the coast of Portugal.
The explanation appears to be that the shallow and landlocked waters of the Zuider Zee, as well as the sea on the Dutch coast, become raised to a higher temperature in summer than any part of the sea about the British coasts, and that therefore anchovies are able to spawn and maintain their numbers in these waters.
In length have been taken in the Zuider Zee, and these must be held to have been derived from the spawning of the previous summer.