In the book of Zechariah Zerubbabel has already fallen into the background and the high priest is the leading figure of the Judean community.
It is strange that neither Haggai nor his contemporary Zechariah mentions or implies any return of exiles from Babylon, and the suggestion has accordingly been made that the return under Cyrus described in Ezra i.-iv.
1 in Field's Hexapla; Kohler, Weissagungen Haggai's, 32; Wright, Zechariah and his Prophecies, xix.
It was therefore natural that Haggai and Zechariah should urge the speedy building of the temple, in order that the great king might be fittingly received.
Haggai's reproofs touched the conscience of the Jews, and the book of Zechariah enables us in some measure to follow the course of a religious revival which, starting with the restoration of the temple, did not confine itself to matters of ceremony and ritual worship. On the other hand, Haggai's treatment of his theme, practical and effective as it was for the purpose in hand, moves on a far lower level than the aspirations of the prophet who wrote the closing chapters of Isaiah.
Zechariah was slain after six months by Shallum ben Jabesh in Ibleam; but the usurper fell a month later to Menahem, who only after much bloodshed established his posi tion.
Their narratives can be partially supplemented from other sources (Haggai; Zechariah i.
The next historical notice is dated in the second year of Darius (520) when two prophets, Haggai and Zechariah, came forward to kindle the Judaeans to new efforts, and in spite of opposition the work went steadily onwards, thanks to the favour of Darius, until the Temple was completed four years later (Ezra v.
Greater weight must be laid upon the independent evidence of the prophetical writings, and the objection that Palestine could not have produced the religious fervency of Haggai or Zechariah without an initial impulse from Babylonia begs the question.
Zechariah, in his turn, proclaims the overthrow of all difficulties in the path of the new king, who shall rule in glory supported by the priest (Zech.
Nehemiah naturally gives us only his version, and the attitude of Haggai and Zechariah to Zerubbabel may illustrate the feeling of his partisans.
Forty-two years before his day, under King Pontius Pilate, there had appeared the true prophet Yahya or John son of Zechariah, an incarnation of Hibil, of whose birth and childhood fantastic stories are told.
In 1857 he undertook with other scholars a Theologisch-homiletisches Bibelwerk, to which he contributed commentaries on the first four books of the Pentateuch, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Matthew, Mark, Revelation.
9-12), and the Messianic vision of Zechariah xiv.
9; Zechariah xi.
Ben Sira indeed in his list of worthies mentions Zerubbabel, Joshua and Nehemiah; but Zerubbabel and Joshua he must have known from the books of Haggai and Zechariah, and he may well have been acquainted with that document relating to Nehemiah which the Chronicler incorporated with his book.
Malachi, Ezra and Nehemiah, like Haggai and Zechariah, are still very far from holding that the sin of Israel lies all in the past.
These considerations, in addition to numerous phrases and expressions which cannot here be noticed, of which the full force can only be felt by those who have specially studied the Maccabaean period and those other portions of the Old Testament, such as Zechariah ix.
And the book of Joel; and also the last chapter (especially) of the book of Zechariah, may unhesitatingly be referred.
Apocalyptical elements disclose themselves in the prophetical books of Ezekiel, Joel, Zechariah, while in Isaiah xxiv.
Haggai and Zechariah explained the delay by the failure of Judah to rebuild II.
ZECHARIAH, son of Berechiah, son of Iddo (or by contraction, son of Iddo), a prophet of the Old Testament.
The first eight chapters of the book of Zechariah exactly fit into this historical setting.
1-5, 24) is open to doubt, because (a) the statements of the compiler of Ezra are not contemporary evidence, (b) the contemporary Haggai and Zechariah seem to imply that this work first began in 520 (Hag.
Aroused by the prophets Haggai and Zechariah the building was then resumed, and despite fresh attempts to hinder the work it was completed, consecrated and dedicated 1 References to I Esdras in this article are to the book discussed above as Ezra, Third Book Of.
But from the independent testimony of Haggai and Zechariah it is doubtful whether the chronicler's account of the return under Cyrus is at all trustworthy.
Somewhat later, in the visions of Zechariah, angels play a great part; they are sometimes spoken of as " men," sometimes as mal'akh, and the Mal'akh Yahweh seems to hold a certain primacy among them.21 Satan also appears to prosecute (so to speak) the High Priest before the divine tribunal.
The dates of the other Minor Prophets (in some cases approximate) are: Micah, c. 725 - c. 680 B.C. (some passages perhaps later); Zephaniah, c. 625; Nahum, shortly before the destruction of Nineveh by the Manda in 607; Habakkuk (on the rise and destiny of the Chaldaean empire) 605-600; Obadiah, after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans in 586; Haggai, 520; Zechariah, i.
There is little noticeable in Hobbes' dating of the prophets, though he considers it " not apparent " whether Amos wrote, as well as composed, his prophecy, or whether Jeremiah and the other prophets of the time of Josiah and Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai and Zechariah, who lived in the captivity, edited the prophecies ascribed to them.
Wilna, 1898) translation of the Yalqut on Zechariah by E.
The beginnings of this process can probably be traced within the canon itself, in the book of Joel and the last chapters of Zechariah; 3 and, if this be so, we see from Zech.
It was, however, only very gradually that the figure and name of the Messiah acquired the prominence which they have in 2 The hopes which Haggai and Zechariah connect with the name of Zerubbabel, a descendant of David, hardly form an exception to this statement.
Driver in Zechariah in Century Bible, pp. 259, 271), puts them forward as arguments.
Trans., Dissertations on the Genuineness of Daniel and the Integrity of Zechariah (Edin., 1848), and Dissertations on the Genuineness of the Pentateuch (Edin., 1847), in which the traditional view on each question is strongly upheld, and much capital is made of the absence ofharmony among the negative critics; Die Bucher Moses and A gypten (1841); Die Geschichte Bileams u.
Seiner Weissagungen (1842; translated along with the Dissertations on Daniel and Zechariah); Commentar fiber die Psalmen (1842-1847; 2nd ed., 1849-1852; Eng.
Had the Book of Daniel been extant and generally known) after the time of Cyrus (537-529 B.C.), it would be natural to look for some traces of its power among the writings of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, whose works, however, show no evidence that either the name or the history of Daniel was known to these authors.
In Isaiah and Zechariah, notably, older and later groups of prophecies are preserved, whereas here the new preludes and new sequels suggest that the original nucleus has passed through the hands of writers in touch with those vicissitudes of thought which can be studied more completely elsewhere.
As time rolled on they became invested with increasing sanctity; and though the prophet Zechariah, when consulted about them at the close of the exile (Zech.