'BOKHARA' (Bokhara-i-Sherif), capital of the state of Bokhara, on the left bank of the Zarafshan, and on the irrigation canal of Shahri-rud, situated in a fertile plain.
The western portion of the state is a plain watered by the Zarafshan and by countless irrigation canals drawn from it.
The Hissar range, a westward continuation of the Alai Mountains, separates the Zarafshan from the tributaries of the Oxus - the Surkhan, Kafirnihan and Vakhsh.
The next largest river, the Zarafshan, 660 m.
And History of Bokhara (1873); Fedchenko's "Sketch of the Zarafshan Valley" in Journ.
Border run the Hissar and Zarafshan mountains, and on the S.
The Yarkand-Darya and its numerous tributaries, which are fed by the glaciers of the mountain regions, as also many rivers which are now lost in the steppe or amidst the irrigated fields, bring abundance of water to the desert; one of them is called Zarafshan ("gold-strewing"), as much on account of the fertility it brings as of its auriferous sands.
The absence of any vegetation beyond grass or scrub is a striking feature common to both Pamir and Chang, but there the resemblance ceases, and the physical conformation of mountain and valley to the east and to the west of the upper sources of the Zarafshan is radically distinct.
But this Pamir is situated nowhere near the sources of the Zarafshan or Raskam river, which it borders, and possesses little in common with the Pamirs of the west.
The political boundary between the extreme north of the Kashmir dependencies and the extreme south of Chinese Turkestan is carried by the Zarafshan or Raskam river which runs parallel to the Murtagh at its northern foot (its valley dividing the Murtagh from the Kuen Lun), to a point in about 79° 20' E., where it is transferred to the watershed of the Kuen Lun.