In 1893 a contract was made with the Eastern and South Africa Telegraph Company for the construction, laying and maintenance of a cable from Zanzibar to the Seychelles and Mauritius, a distance of 2210 m., for a subsidy of £28,000 a year for twenty years.
Some require the hot, moist temperature of a stove; such are C. amabile, a native of Sumatra, C. amoenum (India), C. Balfourii (Socotra), C. giganteum (West tropical Africa), C. Kirkii (Zanzibar), C. latifolium (India), C. zeylanicum (tropical Asia and Africa), and others.
South of the equator, Arab slave-dealers penetrated from Zanzibar to the great lakes and the Congo during the second and third quarters of the 19th century, but their power, though formidable, has disappeared without leaving any permanent traces.
In 1862 Said Majid, sultan of Zanzibar, decided to build a town on the shores of the bay, and began the erection of a palace, which was never finished, and of which but scanty ruins remain.
The towns on the eastern seaboard, of which Mukdishu and Brava were the chief, formed part of the Zenj " empire " (see Zanzibar) and shared its fate, being conquered in turn by the Portuguese (16th century), the imans of Muscat (17th century), and the sultans of Zanzibar (1866).
By treaties with Somali sultans in 1889 and by subsequent agreements with Great Britain, Zanzibar and Abyssinia, the coast east of the British Somali protectorate fell within the Italian sphere of influence (see Africa, § 5).
In August 1892 the sultan of Zanzibar leased the Benadir ports of Italy for fifty years.
By an agreement dated the 13th of January 1905 the sultan of Zanzibar ceded his sovereign rights in the Benadir ports to Italy in return for the payment of a lump sum of £144,000.
It was believed in 1862 that about 19,000 passed every year from the Nyasa regions to Zanzibar, whence large supplies were drawn for the markets of Arabia and Persia up to 1873.
The mission of Sir Bartle Frere to the sultan of Zanzibar in 1873 brought about a treaty for the suppression of the slave trade.
With the establishment of a British protectorate at Zanzibar, and of British and German protectorates on the mainland of East Africa and in the region of the head-waters of the Nile, the East African slave trade received its death-blow.
Slavery itself has been abolished in the Zanzibar, British, German and Portuguese dominions, and had ceased in Madagascar even before its conquest by the French.
Durban is also in regular and frequent communication by passenger steamers with the other South African ports, as well as Mauritius, Zanzibar, &c., and with India, Australia, the United States and South America.
A submarine cable from Durban goes to Zanzibar and Aden, whence there is communication with every quarter of the globe.
Being the port on the mainland nearest the town of Zanzibar, 26 m.
The buildings include the residence of the administrator, barracks, a government school for natives, a mosque and Hindu temple, and the establishment of the Mission du Sacre Caur, which possesses a large plantation of coco-nut palms. Bagamoyo is in telegraphic communication with Zanzibar and with the other coast towns of German East Africa, and has regular steamship communication with Zanzibar.
The overthrow of the Wahhabis in 1817 restored Sultan Said to independence; he equipped and armed on Western models a fleet built in Indian ports, and took possession of Sokotra and Zanzibar, as well as the Persian coast north of the straits of Hormuz as far east as Gwadur, while by his liberal policy at home Sohar, Barka and Muscat became prosperous commercial ports.
On his death in 1856 the kingdom was divided, Majid, a younger son, taking Zanzibar, while the two elder sons contested the succession to Oman.
This well-known Arab term for coast-belt (which in the plural form reappears as the familiar "Swahili" of Zanzibar) is applied to a third division of Tunisia, viz.
This second group may be divided into a-Barbaloins, obtained from Barbadoes aloes, and reddened in the cold, and Barbaloins, obtained from Socotrine and Zanzibar aloes, reddened by ordinary nitric acid only when warmed, or by fuming acid in the cold.
Pangani (pop. about 3500) is situated at the mouth of the river of the same name; it serves a district rich in tropical products, and does a thriving trade with Zanzibar and Pemba.
There is a submarine cable from Dar-es-Salaam to Zanzibar, and an overland line connecting all the coast stations.
From about 1830, or a little earlier, the Zanzibar Arabs began to penetrate inland, and by 1850 had established themselves at Ujiji on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika.
This extension of Arab influence was accompanied by vague claims on the part of the sultan of Zanzibar to include all these newly opened countries in his empire.
Zanzibar at this time was in semidependence on India, and British influence was strong at the court of Bargash, who succeeded to the sultanate in 1870.
British influence was, however, still so powerful in Zanzibar that the agents of the German Colonization Society, who in 1884 sought to secure for their country territory on the east coast, deemed it prudent to act secretly, so that both Great Britain and Zanzibar might be confronted with accomplished facts.
The German acquisitions were resented by Zanzibar, but were acquiesced in by the British government (the second Gladstone administration).
On the 28th of October 1890 the sultan of Zanzibar ceded absolutely to Germany the mainland territories already leased to a German company, receiving as compensation £200,000.
While these negotiations were going on, various German companies had set to work to exploit the country, and on the 16th of August 1888 the German East African Company, the lessee of the Zanzibar mainland strip, took over the administration from the Arabs.
In the same period of time the Zanzibar Arab traders were advancing from the south on the Bahima kingdoms of the western Victoria Nyanza and on Buganda.
But owing to the indirect influence of the British government, exercised through Sir John Kirk at Zanzibar, the Egyptian dominions were prevented from coming south of the Victoria Nile.
Meanwhile the Zanzibar Arabs had reached Buganda in everincreasing numbers as traders; but many of them were earnest 1 The letter was entrusted to Linant de Bellefonds, a Belgian in the Egyptian service, who had been sent to Buganda by Gordon.
The restless Arabs of Zanzibar had since 1857 steadily advanced Zanzibar influence to Tanganyika, Nyasa, and even through the Masai countries to the north-east coast of Victoria Nyanza and the " back door " of Uganda.
There is more than one meaning of Zanzibar discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
He offered himself to the Church Missionary Society and sailed on the 17th of May 1882, at the head of a party of six, for Zanzibar, and thence set out for Uganda; but, prostrated by fever and dysentery, he was obliged to return to England in 1883.
The name is also given to Zanzibar copal.
The White Fathers also work in the Great Lakes region, and on the Zanzibar coast are the French Congregation of the Holy Ghost and German Benedictines.
Zanzibar is also one of the centres of the Universities Mission, another being Likoma on Lake Nyasa.
In 1895 the chief of Katr (Sheikh Jasim ben Thani), instigated by the Turks, attacked Sheikh Isa of Bahrein, but his fleet of dhows was destroyed by a British gunboat, and Bahrein (like Zanzibar) has since been detached from Oman and placed directly under British protection.
The sultan, a descendant of those Yemenite imams who consolidated Arab power in Zanzibar and on the East African coast, and raised Oman to its position as the most powerful state in Arabia during the first half of the 19th century, resides at Muscat, where his palace directly faces the harbour, not far from the British residency.
The settlement in East Africa menaced the old-established British influence over Zanzibar, which was all the more serious because of the close connection between Zanzibar and the rulers of the Persian Gulf; and Australia saw with much concern the German settlement in New Guinea, especially as a British Protectorate (which in the view of Australians should have included the whole of what Germany was allowed to take) had previously been established in the island.
It was made after Bismarck had retired from office, and he, as did the colonial party, severely criticized the details; for the surrender of Zanzibar and Witu cut short the hopes which had been formed of building up a great German empire controlling the whole of East Africa.
On the 26th of February 1886 Emjn received despatches from Cairo via Zanzibar, from which he learned all that had occurred during the previous three years, and that he might take any step he liked, should he decide to leave the country.
His communications to Europe through Zanzibar led to the relief expedition under H.
The expedition arrived at Zanzibar at the end of the year.
The stream of arms flowing from Zanzibar to Muscat continued to increase in volume, and in 1892 no less than 11,50o firearms were landed at Muscat, of which more than half were at once reexported.
Cable communication with Europe, via the Seychelles, Zanzibar and Aden, was established in 1893, and the Mauritius section of the Cape-Australian cable, via Rodriguez, was completed in 1902.
Vulturina of Zanzibar, conspicuous by the bright blue in its plumage, the hackles that adorn the lower part of its neck, and its long tail.
The so-called Java sparrow (Munia oryzivora), although a destructive bird to rice, has been widely distributed by accident or design, and is now found in several East Indian islands besides Java, in south China, St Helena, India, Zanzibar and the east African coast.
Some of the larger craft, which are called baglah, and vary from 50 to 300 tons, carry merchandise to and from Bombay, the Malabal Coast, Zanzibar, &C.; while the smaller vessels, called Oagarah, and mostly under 20 tons, are employed in the coasting trade and the pearl-fisheries on the Arabian coast.