Abu Zaid also wrote on India, and his work is the most important that we possess before the epoch-making discoveries of Marco Polo.
IBN KHALDUN [Abu Zaid ibn Mahommed ibn Mahommed ibn Khaldun] (1332-1406), Arabic historian, was born at Tunis.
" Samuel ibn Adiya" in Jewish Encyc. and authorities there quoted), and some Christians such as `Adi'ibn Zaid of Hira, who sang alike of the pleasures of drink and of death (ed.
The Caliph laid the duty on Zaid ibn Thabit, a native of Medina, then about twenty-two years of age, who had often acted as amanuensis to the Pro het in whose service Zaid s First p ?
The account of this collection of the Koran has reached - us in several substantially identical forms, and goes back to Zaid himself.
The matter was entrusted to Zaid, who had made the former collection, with three lead ing Koreishites.
It now appears highly probable that this second redaction took this simple form: Zaid read off from the codex which he had previously written, and his associates, simultaneously or successively, wrote one copy each to his dictation.
The combination of pieces of different origin may proceed partly from the possessors of the codices from which Zaid compiled his first complete copy, partly from Zaid himself.
It is said that Othman directed Zaid and his associates, in cases of disagreement, to follow the Koreish dialect; but, though well attested, this account can scarcely be correct.
Zaid may easily have overlooked a few stray fragments, but that he purposely omitted anything which he believed to belong to the Koran is very unlikely.
Only a single friend, his adopted son Zaid (xxxiii.
So, on the other hand, there is no single verse or clause which can be plausibly made out to be an interpolation by Zaid at the instance of Abu Bekr, Omar, or Othman.
Now when we consider that at that time there were many Moslems who had heard the Koran from the mouth of the Prophet, that other measures of the imbecile Othman met with the most vehement resistance on the part of the bigoted champions of the faith, that these were still further incited against him by some of his ambitious old comrades until at last they murdered him, and finally that in the civil wars after his death the several parties were glad of any pretext for branding their opponents as infidels; - when we consider all this, we must regard it as a strong testimony in favour of Othman's Koran that no party found fault with his conduct in this matter, or repudiated the text formed by Zaid, who was one of the most devoted adherents of Othman and his family, and that even among the Shiites criticism of the caliph's action is only met with as a rare exception.
For example, a dispute between master and slave may be found by the cadi to turn on the general question, "Has Zaid, the master of `Amr, S the absolute right to dispose of his slave's earnings ?"
Thus there have always been two kinds of Sufis, and, though the course of history and the wandering habits which various orders borrowed from Buddhism Zaid and `Amr are the Caius and Sempronius of Arabian law.
The successor of Khalid in Irak had not long been in office when Zaid b.
Unfortunately for Zaid he had to do with the same Kufians whose fickleness had already been fatal to his family.
Zaid, gained possession of Tabaristan and occupied the great city of Rai (Rey) near Teheran.