Of the province of Yunnan, China.
It was selected by the French convention of 1886 as the seat of the overland trade between Tongking and Yunnan, and opened two years later.
Concessions have been obtained by the French government to build a line of railway from the Tongking frontier at the town of Laokay via Mengtsze to Yunnan-fu.
The Lao, who descended from the mountain districts of Yunnan, Szechuen and Kweichow to the highland plains of upper Indo-China, and drove the wilder Kha peoples whom they found in possession into the hills, mostly adopted Buddhism, and formed small settled communities or states in which laws were easy, taxes light and a very fair degree of comfort was attained.
Closely allied with the Lao are a number of tribes found throughout the hill regions of the upper Mekong, between Yunnan and Kwangsi in China and the upper waters of the Menam in Siam.
By the Chinese Shan States, portions of the province of Yunnan, the French province of Indo-China, and the Siamese Shan, or Lao States and Siam; on the S.
Little, Across Yunnan (London, 1910); Rev. J.
M`Carthy, "The Province of Yunnan," in The Chinese Empire (London, 1907); L.
Vandeleuria, ranging from India to Yunnan, has flat nails on the first and fifth toes of both feet, and a very long tail; while the Indo-Malay Chiropodomys has a flat nail on the first toe of both feet and a tufted tail.
(2) Khams or Khamdo, which includes all eastern Tibet between the Chinese, provinces of Szechuen and Yunnan, and the district of Lhorong jong, which forms the eastern border of the Lhasa-governed territory.
An important trade road starts from Likiang Fu in Yunnan, and by way of Chung-tien (Guiedam of the French missionaries) joins the Gyalam at Batang.
- Missions: Manchuria, Korea, Tibet, Japan, China (Sze-Chuen, Kui-Chow, Kwang-tong, Yunnan), Indo-China (W., S.
Yunnan and Chinese.
Oriental plague was observed in the Chinese province of Yunnan from 1871, and also at Pakhoi, a port in the Tongking Gulf, in 1882 - being said to have prevailed there at least fifteen years.
In 1880 therefore plague existed or had existed within ten years, in the following parts of the world: (I) Benghazi, Africa; (2) Persian Kurdistan; (3) Irak, on the Tigris and Euphrates; (4) the Asir country, western Arabia; (5) on the lower Volga, Russia; (6) northern Persia and the shores of the Caspian; (7) Kumaon and Gurhwal, India; (8) Yunnan and Pakhoi, China.
With regard to origin, several endemic centres are now recognized in Asia and Africa, namely, (I) the district of Assyr in Arabia, on the eastern shore of the Red Sea; (2) parts of Mesopotamia and Persia; (3) the district of Garwhal and Kumaon in the North-West Provinces of India; (4) Yunnan in China; (5) East and Central Africa.
Plague was recognized at Hong Kong in May 1894, and there can be little doubt that it was imported from Canton, where a violent outbreak-said to have caused ioo,000 deaths-was in progress a few months earlier, being part of an extensive wave of infection which is believed to have come originally out of the province of Yunnan, one of the recognized endemic centres, and to have invaded a large number of places in that part of China, including Pakhoi and other seaports.
In addition to the provinces of Yunnan, Kwang-si and Kwang-tung in southern China, plague is reported to have been present for several years in a district in Mongolia to the north of Peking, and distant about " twelve days' ride."
Both are insignificant, but the place has gained notoriety from being the nominal terminus in British territory of the railway across the northern Shan States to the borders of Yunnan, with its present terminus at Lashio.
It is served by dug-outs, three in number in 1899, and capable of carrying about fifteen men on a trip. Formerly the trade was very considerable, and the Burmese had a customs station on the island, from which the place takes its name; but the rebellion in the great state of Theinni, and the southward movement of the Kachins, as well as the Mahommedan rebellion in Yunnan, diverted the caravans to the northern route to Bhamo, which is still chiefly followed.
It lies close to the Burmese frontier and on the old trade route from Bhamo to Yunnan, but its importance as an outpost of the British Empire is political rather than commercial.
In a Chinese Herbal compiled before 1700 both the plant and its inspissated juice are described, together with the mode of collecting it, and in the General History of the Southern Provinces of Yunnan, revised and republished in 1736, opium is noticed as a common product.