CHICHEN-ITZA, or CHICHEN, an ancient ruined city of Yucatan, Mexico, situated 22 m.
Unlike the dead cities of the Yucatan plains, Palenque is surrounded by wooded hills and overgrown by tropical vegetation.
There is less stone carving on the exterior walls, door jambs and pillars of the buildings than on those of the Yucatan Peninsula; this is due to the harder and more uneven character of the limestone.
YUCATAN, a peninsula of Central America forming the S.E.
Extremity of the republic of Mexico and including the states of Campeche and Yucatan and the territory of Quintana Roo.
The climate of Yucatan is hot and dry; the Gulf Stream, which sweeps by its N.
For the most part the climate of Yucatan is healthy, though enervating.
It v e mires very little moisture, grows luxuriantly on the thin calcareous soil of Yucatan and is cultivated almost exclusively by the large landowners.
The modern history of Yucatan begins with the expedition of Francis Hernandez de Cordova, a Spanish adventurer settled in Cub, who discovered the E.
,coast of Yucatan in February 1517, when on a slave-hunting .expedition.
The great problem in 41 1 1 the Maya settlements of Yucatan was that of securing and .preserving a water supply for the dry season.
The Mexican State Of Yucatan is bounded N.
The railways include the three lines of the United Railways of Yucatan (373 m.), and a line from Merida to Peto (145 m.).
Quintana Roo was separated from the state of Yucatan in 1902 and received a territorial government under the immediate supervision of the national executive.
Cortes in 1519 is said to have received cotton garments as presents from the natives of Yucatan, and to have found the Mexicans using cotton extensively for clothing.
From Havana); and the Yucatan Channel, about 130 m.
From Cuba went the expeditions that discovered Yucatan (1517), and explored the shores of Mexico, Hernando Cortes's expedition for the invasion of Mexico, and de Soto's for the exploration of Florida.
In that and the following year the coasts of Yucatan and of the Gulf of Mexico were explored successively by Francisco Hernandez Cordova and Juan de Grijalva, who both sailed from Cuba.
Of the Mexican and Central American sculpture and architecture a competent judge says that Yucatan and the southern states of Mexico are not rich in sculptures, apart from architecture; but in the valley of Mexico the human figure, animal forms, fanciful life motives in endless variety, were embodied in masks, yokes, tablets, calendars, cylinders, disks, boxes, vases and ornaments.
C. Mercer, The Hill Caves of Yucatan (Philadelphia, 1896); Clarence B.
The boundary with British Honduras was determined by a treaty of 1893 and is formed in great part by the Hondo river down to the head of Chetumal Bay, and thence through that bay to the Boca Bacalar Chicathe channel separating Yucatan from Ambergris Cay.
On the northern coast of Yucatan is the small, inhabited island of Holbox or Holboy, and on the eastern coast the islands of Mujeres, Cancum and Cozumel, of which the first and last have a considerable population and good ports.
In width, except in southern Vera Cruz, Tabasco, Campeche and Yucatan, where it extends farther into the interior.
The peninsula of Yucatan has no rivers, and that of Lower California only a few insignificant streams in the north.
The north coast of Yucatan is remarkable for the extensive banks built up by the Gulf current from 5 to 7 m.
Progreso, Yucatan, has only an open roadstead, and large vessels cannot approach its landing-place nearer than 6 m.
On the east coast of Yucatan there are two deep, well-sheltered bays, Ascension and Espiritu Santo, which afford good anchorages, and at the north end of the island of Cozumel the bay of Santa Maria offers an excellent harbour.
The tierras calientes (hot lands) of Mexico include the two coastal zones, the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the states of Tabasco, Campeche, and part of Chiapas, the peninsula of Yucatan and a part of eastern Oaxaca.
The rainfall is heavy in the south, except Yucatan, but diminishes gradually toward the north, until on the Pacific and Gulf of California coasts it almost disappears.
These lowland districts are densely forested in the south, except Yucatan, and large areas are covered with streams, swamps and lagoons, the abode of noxious insects, pestilential fevers and dysentery.
The peninsula of Yucatan, whose general level does not rise above 130 to 200 ft.
These exceptional conditions give to Yucatan a moderately hot, dry, and comparatively healthful climate.
Elongata which produces the " henequen " fibre, or sisal hemp, of Yucatan, silk or tree-cotton (Ceiba casearia), sugar-cane, cotton (Gossypium), indigo and " canaigre " (Rumex hymenosepalus) whose root contains a large percentage of tannin.
The government itself must be held partly responsible, as for the transportation of the mountain-bred Yaquis to the low, tropical plains of Yucatan (see Herman Whitaker's The Planter, 1909), but the influence of three and a half centuries of slavery and peonage cannot be shaken off in a generation.
The states and territories, with their areas, capitals and populations, are as follows: The area and population of Yucatan include those of the territory of Quintana Roo, which formed part of that state at the time of the census.
Quintana Roo was detached from the state of Yucatan in 1902 and received a territorial government.
Among the smaller ports, some of which are open to foreign trade, are Matamoros, Tuxpan, Alvarado, Tlacotalpan, Frontera, Campeche and the island of Mujeres (coast of Yucatan) on the Gulf side, and Ensenada, Altata, Santa Rosalia and Soconusco on the Pacific.
In Yucatan the open plains, rich pasture, and comparative freedom from moist heat, insects and vampire bats, have been particularly favourable to cattle-raising, and the animals are generally rated among the best in Mexico.
There are no fisheries of importance except the pearl fisheries on the eastern coast of Lower California, and the tortoise fisheries on the coasts of Campeche, Yucatan, and some of the states facing the Pacific. The pearl fisheries have been worked since the arrival of the Spaniards, and were once very productive notwithstanding the primitive methods employed.
The " ni-in " (also known as " axe ") is a small scale insect belonging to the genus Coccus, found in Yucatan, Oaxaca, Vera Cruz, Michoacan and other southern states, where it inhabits the spondia trees and produces a greasy substance called " ni-inea," which is much used by the natives as a varnish, especially for domestic utensils, as it resists fire as well as water.
Gold is found in Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Vera Cruz, Zacatecas, and to a limited extent in other states; silver in every state and territory except Campeche, Chiapas, Tabasco, Tlaxcala and the Yucatan peninsula; copper in Lower California, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Sonora, Tamaulipas and some other states; mercury chiefly in Guanajuato, Guerrero, San Luis Potosi, Vera Cruz and Zacatecas; tin in Guanajuato; coal, petroleum and asphalt in 20 states, but chiefly in Coahuila, Hidalgo, Michoacan, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas and Vera Cruz; iron in Durango, Hidalgo, Oaxaca and other states; and lead in Hidalgo, Queretaro and in many of the silver-producing districts.
The Maya district of Yucatan has also some vestiges of native traditions in the manuscript translated by D.
Pio Perez (in Stephens, Incidents of Travel in Yucatan) and in the remarkable 16th century Relation de las cocas de Yucatan by Diego de Landa, published by Brasseur de Bourbourg (Paris, 1864).
He came from Tulan or from Yucatan (for the stories differ widely), and dwelt twenty years among.
Pestilence, a few only of the survivors remaining in the land, while the rest migrated into Yucatan and Guatemala.
At the same time many of the Central-American customs differed from the Mexican; thus in Yucatan we find the custom of the youths sleeping in a great bachelor's house, an arrangement common in various parts of the world, but not in Mexico; the same remark applies to the.
Maya exogamous law of a man not taking a wife of his own family name (see Diego de Landa, Relacion de Yucatan, ed.
In comparing these ruins in Yucatan, Chiapas, Guatemala and Honduras, it is evident that, though they are the work of two or more nations highly distinct in language, yet these nations had a common system of pictorial or written characters.
Brinton, The American Race (New York, 1891) and Ancient Phonetic Alphabets of Yucatan; Desire Charnay, The Ancient Cities of the New World (Transl.
Catherwood, artist), Travels in Central America (2 vols., New York, 1841), and Incidents of Travel in Yucatan (2 vols., New York, 1843).