Cubic zirconia (often abbreviated CZ) is a lab-created crystalline cubic form of zirconium oxide stabilized with small quantities of other minerals, typically yttrium or calcium.
Ekeberg discovered an element, tantalum, in some Swedish yttrium minerals.
By the same method as had succeeded with aluminium (reduction of the chloride by potassium) Wohler in 1828 obtained metallic beryllium and yttrium.
For the preparation of yttrium compounds the best raw material is gadolinite, which, according to Kiinig, consists of 22.61% of silica, 34.64.
Metallic yttrium is obtainable as.
Or by electrolysing the double chloride of yttrium and sodium.
By repeated fractionations he was able to divide yttrium into distinct portions which gave different spectra when exposed in a high vacuum to the spark from an induction coil.
This result he considered to be due, not to any removal of impurities, but to an actual splitting-up of the yttrium molecule into its constituents, and he ventured to draw the provisional conclusion that the so-called simple bodies are in reality compound molecules, at the same time suggesting that all the elements have been produced by a process of evolution from one primordial stuff or "protyle."
This "new earth" turned out to be nothing more nor less than a basis yttrium phosphate.
Dyson has measured some eight hundred lines in the lower chromosphere and identified them with emission spectra of the following elements: hydrogen, helium, carbon with the cyanogen band, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, zinc, strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, ytterbium, lead, europium, besides a few doubtful identifications; it is a curious fact that the agreement is with the spark spectra of these elements, where the photosphere shows exclusively or more definitely the arc lines, which are generally attributed to a lower temperature.