KAMPEN, a town in the province of Overysel, Holland, on the left bank of the Ysel, 31 m.
ZUTPHEN, or Zutfen, a town in the province of Gelderland, Holland, on the right bank of the Ysel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 18 m.
The place has an active trade, especially in grain and in the timber floated down from the Black Forest by the Rhine and the Ysel; the industries include tanning, weaving, and oil and paper manufactures.
GOUDA (or TER GouwE), a town of Holland, in the province of South Holland, on the north side of the Gouwe at its confluence with the Ysel, and a junction station 122m.
E.) on the Ysel; and there is a regular steamboat service in various directions, Amsterdam being reached by the canalized Gouwe; Aar, Drecht and Amstel.
The mud from the Ysel furnishes the material for large brick-works and potteries; there are also a celebrated manufactory of stearine candles, a yarn factory, an oil refinery and cigar factories.
Numerous streams, including the Vecht, Eem, and Ysel, discharged their waters into this lake and issued thence as the Vlie (Latin Flevus), which reached the North Sea by the Vliegat between the islands of Vlieland and Terschelling.
Of the bottom consists of sea clay and the more recent silt of the Ysel; 20 per cent.
The area south of this would be divided into four polders, with reservation, however, of a lake, Yselmeer, in the centre, whence branches would run to Ysel and the Zwolsche Diep, to Amsterdam, and, by sluices near Wieringen, to the northern part of the sea.
It is the centre of the whole northern and eastern canal systems, and by means of the short canal, the Willemsvaart, which joins the Zwarte Water and the Ysel, has regular steamboat communication with Kampen and Amsterdam.
The Rhine in its course through Holland is merely the parent stream of several important branches, splitting up into Rhine and Waal, Rhine and Ysel, Crooked Rhine and Lek (which takes two-thirds of the waters), and at Utrecht into Old Rhine and Vecht, finally reaching the sea through the sluices at Katwijk as little more than a drainage canal.
The Ysel and the Vecht flow to the Zuider Zee; the other branches to the North Sea.
In the Waal ordinary high water is perceptible as far up as Zalt Bommel in Gelderland, in the Lek the maximum limits or ordinary and spring tides are at Vianen and Kuilenburg respectively, in the Ysel above the Katerveer at the junction of the Willemsvaart and past Wyhe midway between Zwolle and Deventer; and in the Maas near Heusden and at Well in Limburg.
As a matter of course, the streams are also turned to account in connexion with the canal system - the Dommel, Berkel, Vecht, Regge, Holland Ysel, Gouwe, Rotte, Schie, Spaarne, Zaan, Amstel, Dieze, Amer, Mark, Zwarte Water, Kuinder and the numerous Aas in Drente and Groningen being the most important in this respect.
The final removal of polder water, however, is only truly effected upon its discharge into the " outer waters " of the country, that is, the sea itself or the large rivers freely communicating with it; and this happens with but a small proportion of Dutch polders, such as those of Zeeland, the Holland Ysel and the Noorderkwartier.
Carried across the river Ysel at Doesburg on a pontoon bridge.
DEVENTER, a town in the province of Overysel, Holland, on the right bank of the Ysel, at the confluence of the Schipbeek, and a junction station Io m.
A number of small old towns are found along the Rhine, the Lek and the Holland Ysel, such as Rhenen (or Reenen), Wyk-by-Duurstede, Yselstein, Montfoort.