Flourishing communities were likewise to be found in Hainault, Namur, Cambrai and the other southern districts of the Netherlands, but nowhere else the vigorous independence of Ghent, Bruges and Ypres, nor the splendour of their civic life.
The primatial see was placed at Malines (Mechlin), having under it Antwerp, Hertogenbosch, Roermond, Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres constituting the Flemish province; the second archbishopric was at Cambray, with Tournay, Arras, St Omer, and Namur, - the Walloon province; the third at Utrecht, with Haarlem, Middleburg, Leeuwarden, Groningen and Deventer, - the northern (Dutch) province.
Bruges and Ypres rejected a request of Edward II.
The skilful manoeuvres of the French, whether due to Louis' own generalship or that of his advisers, resulted in the speedy capture of Ghent and Ypres (March), and the retention of the prizes in the usual war of posts which followed.
CORNELIUS JANSEN (1585-1638), bishop of Ypres, and father of the religious revival known as Jansenism, was born of humble Catholic parentage at Accoy in the province of Utrecht on the 28th of October 1585.
On the 11th of July 1302 the great battle of Courtrai (see Infantry) was fought outside its walls, when the French army, under the count of Artois, was vanquished by the allied burghers of Bruges, Ypres and Courtrai with tremendous loss.
Between the Conquest and the 14th century the earldom of Kent was held successively by Odo, bishop of Bayeux, William of Ypres and Hubert de Burgh (sheriff of the county in the reign of Henry III.), none of whom, however, transmitted the honour, which was bestowed by Edward I.
YPRES (Flemish Yperen), a town of Belgium, in the province of West Flanders, of which it was formerly considered the capital.
Jansen, bishop of Ypres and the founder of the Jansenist school, is buried in the cathedral.
Although Ypres is unlikely to regain the importance it possessed when its "red-coated" contingent turned the day in the great battle of Courtrai (1302), it has an important linen and lace trade and a great butter market.
In the 14th century it promised to become one of the principal communes in Flanders; but having incurred the resentment of Ypres on a matter of trade rivalry it was attacked and captured by the citizens of that place, who reduced it to a very subordinate position.
Besides the original meeting of the bishop and Ahasuerus in 1542 and others referred back to 1 575 in Spain and 1599 at Vienna, the Wandering Jew was stated to have appeared at Prague (1602), at Lubeck (1603), in Bavaria 1604), at Ypres (1623), Brussels (1640), Leipzig (1642), Paris (1644, by the " Turkish Spy "),"), Stamford (1658),(1658), Astrakhan (1672),(1672), and Frankenstein (1678).
These, in their order of interest, are Bruges, Antwerp, Louvain, Brussels, Ghent, Ypres, Courtrai, Tournai, Fumes, Oudenarde and Liege.
Bouillon, &c. For officers in the army, there are the Ecole de Guerre or staff college at Brussels with an average attendance of twenty, a riding school at Ypres where a course is obligatory for the cavalry and horse artillery, and for soldiers in the army there are regimental schools and evening classes for illiterate soldiers.
Farnese first won by promises and blandishments the confidence of the Walloons, always jealous of the predominance of the " Flemish " provinces, and then proceeded to make himself master of Brabant and Flanders by force of arms. In succession Ypres, Mechlin, Ghent, Brussels, and finally Antwerp (17th of August 1585) fell into his hands.
These were, indeed, partly restored to Belgium by the peace of Nijmwegen (1679); but on the other hand it lost Valenciennes, Nieuport, St Omer, Ypres and Charlemont, which were only in part recovered by the peace of Ryswick (1697).
After vainly attempting to break the Austrian centre, Pichegru suddenly turned their left, and defeated Clerfayt at Cassel, Menin and Courtrai, while Moreau, his second in command, defeated Coburg at Tourcoing in May 1794; then after a pause, during which Pichegru feigned to besiege Ypres, he again dashed at Clerfayt and defeated him at Rousselaer and Hooglede, while Jourdan came up with the new army of the Sambre-and-Meuse, and utterly routed the Austrians at Fleurus on the 27th of June 1794.
BARRIER TREATY, the name given first to the treaty signed on 29th of October 1709 between Great Britain and the statesgeneral of the United Netherlands, by which the latter engaged to guarantee the Protestant succession in England in favour of the house of Hanover; while Great Britain undertook to procure for the Dutch an adequate barrier on the side of the Netherlands, consisting of the towns of Furnes, Nieuport, Ypres, Menin, Lille, Tournai, Conde, Valenciennes, Maubeuge, Charleroi, Namur, Halle, Damme, Dendermond and the citadel of Ghent.
A second Barrier Treaty was signed between Great Britain and Holland on 29th of January 1713, by which the strong places designed for the barrier were reduced to Furnes, the fort of Knocke, Ypres, Menin, Tournai, Mons, Charleroi and the citadel of Ghent, and certain fortresses in the neighbourhood of that city and of Bruges; Great Britain undertaking to obtain the right for the Dutch to garrison them from the future sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands.
An exceptional position among the cities of France is taken up by those of Flanders, more particularly the three "Great Towns," Bruges, Ghent and Ypres, whose population was Flemish, i.e.