His father, James Clinton (1736-1812), served as a captain of provincial troops in the French and Indian War, and as a brigadier-general in the American army in the War of Independence, taking part in Montgomery's attack upon Quebec in 1775, unsuccessfully resisting at Fort Montgomery, along the Hudson, in 1777 the advance of Sir Henry Clinton, accompanying General John Sullivan in 177 9 in his expedition against the Iroquois in western New York, and in 1781 taking part in the siege of Yorktown, Virginia.
The last campaign of the war closed at Yorktown on the 19th of October 1781.
The American army under Washington encamped near Dobbs Ferry on the 4th of July 1781, and started thence for Yorktown in the following month.
In 1779 he entered the French military service (Royal-Baviere), accompanied General Rochambeau to America as his adjutant, distinguished himself during the war with England, notably at the siege of Yorktown, 1781, and in 1785 was promoted to be colonel proprietaire of the regiment Royal-Suedois.
Under McClellan he commanded a division of infantry in the Peninsular campaign, and directed the Union siege operations against Yorktown, and he was soon afterwards placed in command of the V.
McClellan's advance was opposed by a small force of Confederates under General Magruder, which, gradually reinforced, held the historic position of Yorktown for a whole month, and only evacuated it on the 3rd of May.
McClellan lingered north of Richmond, despite President Lincoln's constant demand that he should "strike a blow" with the force he had organized and taken to the Yorktown peninsula in April, until General Lee had concentrated 73,000 infantry in his front; then the Federal commander, fearing to await the issue of a decisive battle, ended his campaign of invasion in the endeavour to "save his army"; and he so far succeeded that on July 3 he had established himself on the north bank of the James in a position to which reinforcements and supplies could be brought from the north by water without fear of molestation by the enemy.
The operations resulted in re-establishing the confidence of the Confederates in their army which Johnston's retreat from Yorktown had shaken, in adding prestige to President Davis and his government, and in rectifying the popular view of General Lee as a commander which had been based upon his failure to recover West Virginia in the autumn of 1861.
This war, by which the United States definitely separated themselves from the British connexion, began with the affair of Lexington in Massachusetts, on the 10th of April 1775, and was virtually ended by the capitulation of Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia, on the 19th of October 1781.
Early in August Cornwallis retired to Yorktown to rest and await developments.
Yorktown fell on the 19th of October, and the war was settled as far as the coast of North America was concerned.
The Canadian government did their best to facilitate the immigration, and allotted land to the Doukhobors in the provinces of Assiniboia near Yorktown and of Saskatchewan near Thunder Hill and Prince Albert.
At Yorktown in the summer of 1907 the Doukhobors established one of the largest and best brick-making plants in Canada, a significant testimony to the way in which the leaders of the community were working in the interests of the whole.
In April 1862 the count took part in the siege of Yorktown, and was present at the action of Williamsburg on the 5th of May.
In February 1781 Congress instructed Jay that he might make concessions regarding the navigation of the Mississippi, if necessary; but further delays were interposed, the news of the surrender of Yorktown arrived, and Jay decided that any sacrifice to obtain a treaty was no longer advisable.
High, is decorated with eight historical paintings: "Landing of Columbus" (1492),(1492), by John Vanderlyn; "De Soto discovering the Mississippi" (1541),(1541), by William Henry Powell; "Baptism of Pocahontas" (1613), by John Gadsby Chapman; "Embarkation of the Pilgrims from Delft Haven" (1620), by Robert Walter Weir; "Signing the Declaration of Independence" (1776), by John Trumbull; "Surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga" (1777), by Trumbull; "Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown" (1781), by Trumbull; and "Washington resigning his Commission at Annapolis" (1783),(1783), by Trumbull.
It was in every way fitting, however, that he who had been the mainspring of the war from the beginning, and had borne far more than his share of its burdens and discouragements, should end it with the campaign of Yorktown, conceived by himself, and the surrender of Cornwallis (October 1781).
He was present at Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown, and afterwards left the army owing to ill-health.
One of the brass cannon used at Yorktown was made of copper taken from the Watchung Mountains during the War for Independence.
He took part in the battles of Brandywine, Germantown and Monmouth, and at Yorktown commanded the first brigade of light infantry.
McClellan laid slow siege to Yorktown, not breaking the thin line first opposed to him, but giving Johnston full time to reinforce and then evacuate the position.
He was present in all Washington's battles, from Brandywine to Yorktown, and his gallantry on every occasion has gained him the title of "the Bayard of the Revolution."
Laurens lost no time in rejoining the army, and at Yorktown was at the head of an American storming party which captured an advanced redoubt.
The war was continued for some years with varying results; but in 1781 the capitulation of a second British army under Cornwallis at Yorktown was a decisive blow, which brought home to the minds of the dullest the assurance that the conquest of America was an impossibility.
The movement in favor of economy was necessarily also a movement in favor of peace; and when the surrenderof Yorktown was known (1782), Lord North at once resigned office.
The succession of failures in America, culminating in Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown in October 1781, wearied the nation, and at length the persistent and powerful attacks of the opposition began to tell.
4 Later he secured a field command, through Washington, and won laurels at Yorktown, where he led the American column in the 1 These facts were first definitely determined by Mrs Gertrude Atherton from the Danish Archives in Denmark and the West Indies; see article in North American Review, Aug.
During the War of American Independence he was in several sea-fights with the English, and was at the taking of Yorktown in 1781.
Among his noteworthy orations of a patriotic character were those delivered at Boston in 1876, at Yorktown in 1881, and in Washington on the completion of the Washington Monument in 1885.
Europe began to respect her again when she signed a Franco-Dutch-Spanish alliance (1779-1780), and when, after the capitulation of the English at Yorktown, the peace of Versailles (1783) crowned her efforts with at least formal success.
Then followed the celebrated march of the combined forces to Yorktown, where on the 22nd of September they formed a junction with the troops of Lafayette; as the result Cornwallis was forced to surrender on the 19th of October.
He was present at Princeton; was chiefly responsible for the mistake in attacking the "Chew House" at Germantown; urged New York as the objective of the campaign of 1778; served with efficiencylat Monmouth and at Yorktown; and after the surrender of Cornwallis was promoted major-general, and served as a commissioner on the exchange of prisoners.
Soc., 1877), "Yorktown Campaign" (New York, 1881), &c.; Sargent's Life of Major John 845 Andre (Boston, 1861), one of the best of Revolutionary biographies; Gen.