But it is more likely, as suggested by Richard Chandler (Life of Waynflete, 1811), that it was some Yorkist attack on him in progress in the papal court, to meet which he appointed next day 19 proctors to act for him.
Waynflete presided as chancellor at the parliament at Coventry in November 1459, which, after the Yorkist catastrophe at Ludlow, attainted the Yorkist leaders.
It was no doubt because of this that, three days before the Yorkist attack at Northampton, he delivered the great seal to the king in his tent near Delapre abbey, a nunnery by Northampton, on the 7th of July 1460 (Rot.
A testimonial to his fidelity written by Henry to the pope on the 8th of November 1460 (Chandler, 346) was written while Henry was in Yorkist hands.
Offices and lands came to John Howard by reason of that fellowship. Henry VI., when restored, summoned him to parliament in 1470 as Lord Howard, a summons which may have been meant to lure him to London into Warwick's power, but he proclaimed the Yorkist sovereign on his return and fought at Barnet and Tewkesbury.
During the Wars of the Roses the town was loyal to Henry VI., and several of the Yorkist leaders were executed here after the battle of Wakefield.
In 1486, the year following the accession of Henry VII., rumours were disseminated by the adherents of the Yorkist dynasty that the two sons of Edward IV., who had been murdered in the Tower of London, were still alive.
It is probable that Symonds acted throughout with the connivance of the Yorkist leaders, and especially of John de la Pole, earl of Lincoln, himself a nephew of Edward IV., who had been named heir to the crown by Richard III.
Messages asking for help were sent to Margaret, duchess of Burgundy, sister of Edward IV., to Sir Thomas Broughton and other Yorkist leaders.
In Flanders, Lincoln joined Lord Lovell, who had headed an unsuccessful Yorkist rising in 1486, and in May 1487 the two lords proceeded to Dublin, where they landed a few days before the coronation of Lambert Simnel.
His next brother, Edmund of Langley, who was created duke of York (1385),(1385), founded the Yorkist line, and was father, by a daughter and co-heiress of Pedro the Cruel, king of Castile, of two sons, Edward, second duke, who was slain at Agincourt, and Richard, earl of Cambridge, who by marrying the granddaughter and eventual heiress of Lionel's daughter Philippa, brought the right to the succession into the house of York.
This view was accepted by Yorkist chroniclers and Tudor historians, who had no reason to speak well of a Pole.
In politics, the queen-mother, who had the private guardianship of her boys, the king and the dukes of Albany and Ross, turned from the Lancastrian to the Yorkist side, while Kennedy and his party (Lancastrians) were accused of endangering Scotland to please France.
Finally, at Coventry, in October, the Yorkist officials were displaced.
The Yorkist faction seems to have been strongest in the eastern portion of the Principality, where the Mortimers were all-powerful, but later the close connexion of the house of Lancaster with Owen Tudor, a gentleman of Anglesea (beheaded in 1461) who had married Catherine of France, widow of Henry V., did much to invite Welsh sympathy on behalf of the claims of Henry Tudor his grandson, who claimed the English throne by right of his grandmother.
Urswick's kinsman, Sir Thomas Urswick, was a Yorkist partisan, who was recorder of London and chief baron of the exchequer.
After the Yorkist failure at Ludlow in 1459, it was Margaret's vindictiveness that embittered the struggle by, a wholesale proscription of her opponents in the parliament at Coventry.
Once she owed her escape from capture to the generosity of a Yorkist squire, who carried her off on his own horse; finally she and her son were brought to Bamburgh through the compassionate help of a robber, whom they had encountered in the forest.
After the Yorkist failure at Ludlow field in October 1459, Edward fled with the earls of Salisbury and Warwick, his uncle and cousin, to Calais.
He was acclaimed by the citizens in an assembly at Clerkenwell, declared king by a Yorkist council, and took possession of the regality on the 4th of March.
He was in that year summoned to Flanders by Margaret, the widowed duchess of Burgundy, and sister of Edward IV., who was the main support of the Yorkist exiles, and who was the enemy of Henry VII.
It is this fact which accounts for the growing bitterness of the Yorkist and Lancastrian parties during the last years of Henry VI.
It is true that some classes were undoubtedly influenced in their choice of sides mainly by the general causes spoken of above; the citizens of London and the other great towns (for example) inclined to the Yorkist faction simply because they saw that under the Lancastrian rule the foreign trade of England was being ruined, and insufficient security was given for life and property.
It would be going too far to seek the origin of the Yorkist partyas some have donein the old enmity of the houses of March, Norfolk and Salisbury against Henry IV.
Hence came the marvellous success of the Yorkist counterstroke in June 1460, when the exiled Warwick, landing in Kent with a mere handful of men, was suddenly joined by the whole of the south of England and the citizens of London, and inflicted a crushing defeat on defeatsth.
The Yorkist army that marched in pursuit of the raiders, and won the ~ bloody field of Towton under Warwicks guidance, gave no quarter.
The Yorkist parliament of November 1461
During the Richa~ first of these periods Edward reigned but Warwick Neville, governed; he was not only the fighting man, but the earl of statesman and diplomatist of the Yorkist party, and Warwick.
He never forgot that the Yorkist party had started as the advocates of sound and strong administration, and the mandatonies of the popular will against the queens incapable and corrupt ministers.
The Yorkist magnates who did not belong to the clan of the Nevilles were not unnaturally jealous of that house, and Edward IV.
His pride was hurt, but for two years more there was no open breach between him and his master, though their estrangement grew more and more marked when Edward continued to heap titles and estates on his wifes numerous relatives, and to conclude for them marriage alliances with all the great Yorkist families B h who were not of the Neville connection.
In this way between he built up for himself a personal following within the Warwick Yorkist party; but the relative strength of this faction and the and of that which still looked upon Warwick as the ng.
Towton, where the Yorkist army was infuriated by the harrying of the Midlands by their enemies in the preceding campaign, was the only fight that ended in a general massacre.
One of the best tests of the prosperity of England under the Yorkist rule seems to be the immense amount of building that was on hand.
They continued to be burnt, or more frequently to make forced recantations, under the Yorkist rule, though the list of trials is not a long one.
The great prelates from Cardinal Beaufort down to Archbishops Bourchier and Rotherham, and Bishop John Russelltrusted supporters of the Yorkist dynasty were mere politicians with nothing spiritual about them.
For taking up this dangerous line of defence, and admitting his doubts about several received articles of faith, he was attacked by the Yorkist archbishop Bourchier in 1457, compelled to do penance, and shut up in a monastery for the rest of his life.
The battered crown which had fallen from Richards helmet was set on the victors head by Lord Stanley, the chief of the Yorkist peers who had joined his standard, and his army hailed him by the new title of Henry VII.
The earl of Richmond had been selected by the conspirators as their figure-head mainly because he was known as a young man of ability, and because he was unmarried and could therefore take to wife the princess Elizabeth, and so absorb the Yorkist claim in his own.
But the Yorkist banner was to be raised, not in the name of Lincoln, but in that of the boy Edward of Clarence, then a prisoner in the Tower.
The Yorkist cause was crushed for four years, till it was raised again by Margaret of Burgundy, with an imposture even more preposterous than that of Lambert Simnel.
In the year of the treaty of Etaples the Yorkist conspiracies began once more to thicken, and Henry was fortunate to escape with profit from the French war before his domestic Yorkist troubles recommenced.
But in the winter of 1494-1495 the traitors were themselves betrayed, and a large number of arrests were made, including not only Lord Fitzwaiter and a number of well-known knights of Yorkist families, but Sir William Stanley, the kings chamberlain, who had been rewarded with enormous gifts for his good service at Bosworth, and was reckoned one of the chief supports of the throne.
The Yorkist claim, after Clarences death, might be supposed to have passed to his cousin Edmund, earl of Suffolk, the younger brother of that John, earl of Lincoln, who had been declared heir to the crown by Richard III., and had fallen at Stoke field.
A similar piece of cruelty was the execution, some time later, of the earl of Suffolk, who had been languishing long years in the Tower; he was destroyed not for any new plots, but simply for his Yorkist descent.
Afterwards, in 1458, he helped to reconcile the contending parties, but when the war was renewed in 1459 he appears as a decided Yorkist; he crowned Edward IV.
In consequence of these treasonable proceedings Henry seized his brother William de la Pole, with four other Yorkist noblemen.
This adventurer, at once ludicrous and formidable, was a native of Ireland, and was thought to be put forward by Richard to test the popularity of the Yorkist cause.
He and his brothers were attainted in England and by Edward the Yorkist parliament in Ireland, but the importance Iv.
Then, in fulfilment of pledges by which he had procured the adhesion of many Yorkist supporters, he was married at Westminster to Elizabeth (1465-1503), eldest daughter and heiress of Edward IV.