The double river-systems of the Volga and Kama, the Ob and Irtysh, the Angara and Yenisei, the Lena and Vitim on the Arctic slope, and the Amur and Sungari on the Pacific slope, are instances.
Asia, the same fauna extending in Siberia as far as the Yenisei and the Lena.
The Ob,Yenisei and Lena,which traverse Siberia, are among the largest rivers in the world.
The northern land-mass begins in the north with the area which lies between the Yenisei and the Lena.
It had long the reputation of being almost constantly ice-bound, but after the Norwegian captain Johannesen had demonstrated its accessibility in 1869, and Nordenskield had crossed it to the mouth of the Yenisei in 1875, it was considered by many to offer a possible trade route between European Russia and the north of Siberia.
SAMOYEDES, a tribe of the Ural-Altaic group, scattered in small groups over an immense area, from the Altai mountains down the basins of the Ob and Yenisei, and along the shores of the Arctic ocean from the mouth of the latter river to the White Sea.
The tribe may be subdivided into three main groups: (a) The Yuraks in the coast-region from the Yenisei to the White Sea; (b) the Tavghi Samoyedes, between the Yenisei and the Khatanga; (c) the Ostiak Samoyedes, intermingled with Ostiaks, to the S.
Siberia, on the Altai, and on the Yenisei in the Minusinsk region, are relics of Ugro-Samoyedes.
Aral-Caspian depression to the lowlands of the Tobol, Irtysh and Ob, and thence towards the lower parts of the Yenisei and the Lena.
Along the Tunguzka; they appear also in the Noril Mountains on the Yenisei, whence they extend towards the Arctic .Ocean.
The three principal rivers - the Ob, the Yenisei, and the Lena - take their rise on the high plateau or in the alpine regions fringing it, and, after descending from the plateau and piercing the alpine regions, flow for many hundreds of miles across the high plains and lowlands before they reach the Arctic, Ocean.
Examples are the Ob and the Irtysh, the Yenisei and the Angara (itself a double river formed by the Angara and the Lower Tunguzka), the Lena and the Vitim, the Argun and the Shilka, while the Amur in its turn receives a tributary as large as itself - the Sungari.
It is this Wale ' circumstance that facilitated the rapid invasion of Siberia Wal er l by the Russian Cossacks and hunters; they followed the omm courses of the twin rivers in their advance towards the east, and discovered short portages which permitted them to transfer their boats from the system of the Ob to that of the Yenisei, and from the latter to that of the Lena, a tributary of which - the Aldan - brought them close to the Sea of Okhotsk.
They are open only for 90 to 120 days, and only for 100 days (the Yenisei) or even 70 days (the Lena) in 70° N.
The coast-line has few indentations, the chief being the double gulf of the Ob and the Taz, separated from the Sea of Kara by an elongated peninsula (Samoyede), and from the bay of the Yenisei by another.
Bering Strait, at 1 The Lena at Verkholensk is navigable for 170 days, at Yakutsk for 153 days: the Yenisei at Krasnoyarsk for 196 days.
Even the mouths of the Ob, Yenisei, Lena and Kolyma in 70° N.
For some years a small trade was carried on by the British Captain Wiggins with the mouth of the river Yenisei through the Kara Sea, and after his death in 1905 the Russians themselves endeavoured to carry farther the pioneer work which he had begun.
The Ob-Yenisei canal is ready for use, but its actual usefulness is impaired by the scarcity of water in the smaller streams forming part of the system.
On the Yenisei steamers ply from Minusinsk to Yeniseisk, and to Ghilghila at its mouth; on its tributary, the Angara, of which some rapids have been cleared, though the Padun rapids have still to be rounded by land; and on the Selenga.
The only point still remaining undecided is whether the valleys of the Bom-kemchik (a tributary of the Yenisei) and its left-hand tributaries do not belong geographically to the Altai region.
On this vast upper terrace even the bottoms of the river valleys are at altitudes of 4200 to 5500 ft., with one single exception - the narrow gorge of the Khua (Khi)-khem, or upper Yenisei; while the highest pass across the Tannu-ola Mountains is 7090 ft., though the others are much lower.
Besides the rivers just mentioned, there are others belonging to the basin of the Yenisei (Khua-or Khi-khem, Bei-khem and Bornkemchik); while yet others belong to the Selenga, a river formed by the junction of the Eder with the Telghir.
Coal is known to exist to the southeast of Kobdo, in the Tannu-ola, and in the basin of the Yenisei, but its age is unknown (fresh-water Jurassic ?).
This style and the types of dagger, cauldron, bit and twolooped socketed axehead run right across from Hungary to the upper Yenisei, where a special Bronze Age culture seems to have developed them.
The dominance from the Yenisei to the Carpathians of a distinct style of art which, whatever its original elements may have been, seems to have taken shape as far east as the Yenisei basin is an additional argument in favour of a certain movement of population from the far north-east towards the south Russian steppes.
In this leisurely journey Pallas went by Kasan to the Caspian, spent some time among the Kalmucks, crossed the Urals to Tobolsk, visited the Altai mountains, traced the Irtish to Kolyvan, went on to Tomsk and the Yenisei, crossed Lake Baikal, and extended his journey to the frontiers of China.
ABAKANSK, a fortified town of Siberia, in the Russian government of Yeniseisk, on the river Yenisei, 144 m.
The name Ala-tau also enters into the designation of (6), a range between the upper Yenisei and the upper Ob, in the government of Tomsk, namely, the Kuznetsk Ala-tau, forming an outlier of the Altai Mountains, and reaching 6000-7000 ft.
The system is pierced by the Bel-kem or upper Yenisei, and in 1 06°, at its eastern extremity, it terminates above the depression of the Selenga-Orkhon valley.
Between the breach of the Yenisei and the Kosso-gol (lake) in Ioo 30' E.
In order to study the different eastern kinsfolk of the Finns, Sjogren (1792-1855) extended his journeys to North Russia, and Castren to West and East Siberia (Nordische Reisen and Forschungen), and collected the materials which permitted himself and Schiefner to publish grammatical works relative to the Finnish, Lappish, Zyrian, Tcheremiss, Ostiak, Samoyede, Tungus, Buryat, Karagas, Yenisei-Ostiak and Kott languages.
And finally, the researches of Aspelin (Foundations of Finno-Ugrian Archaeology,,in Finnish, and Atlas of Antiquities) led the Finnish ethnologists to direct more and more their attention to the basin of the Yenisei and the Upper Selenga.
A most interesting and adventurous episode in connexion with Russian trade was the effort repeated over several successive years by the late Captain Wiggins to convey tea entirely by sea from Chinese ports around the North Cape and through the Kara Sea to the Obi and Yenisei rivers.
YENISEI, a river of Asia, which rises in two principal headstreams, the Bei-kem and the Khua-kem, on the plateau of N.W.
The Yenisei continues N.
A canal connects the Great Kaz, a tributary of the Yenisei., with the Ket, an affluent of the Ob.