Culture yeasts have also been successfully employed in the manufacture of wine and cider.
The group has attained an importance of late even beyond that to which it was brought by Pasteur's researches on alcoholic fermentation, chiefly owing to the exact results of the investigations of Hansen, who first applied the methods of pure cultures to the study of these organisms, and showed that many of the inconsistencies hitherto existing in the literature were due to the coexistence in the cultures of several species or races of yeasts morphologically almost indistinguishable, but physiologically very different.
In the United Kingdom the employment of brewery yeasts selected from a single cell has not come into general use; it may probably be accounted for in a great measure by conservatism and the wrong application of Hansen's theories.
By this method several races of Saccharomycetes and brewery yeasts were isolated and described.
Certain yeasts exercise a reducing action, forming sulphuretted hydrogen, when sulphur is present.
Other yeasts are stated to form sulphurous acid in must and wort.
Moulds and yeasts - appear to be distributed all over the earth.
Among the enzymes already extracted from fungi are invertases (yeasts, moulds, &c.), which split cane-sugar and other complex sugars with hydrolysis into simpler sugars such as dextrose and levulose; diastases, which convert starches into sugars (Aspergillus, &c.); cytases, which dissolve cellulose similarly (Botrytis, &c.); peptases, using the term as a general one for all enzymes which convert proteids into peptones and other bodies (Penicillium, &c.); lipases, which break up fatty oils (Empusa, Phycomyces, &c.); oxydases, which bring about the oxidations and changes of colour observed in Boletus, and zymase, extracted by Buchner from yeast, which brings about the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbondioxide.
Saccharomycetaceae include the well-known yeasts which belong mainly to the genus Saccharomyces.
The ordinary mycelium is the gametophyte since it hears the ascogonia and aritheridia when present; the cqe Two questions of great theoretical importance have been raised over and over again in connexion with yeasts, namely, (I) the morphological one as to whether yeasts are merely degraded forms of higher fungi, as would seem implied by their tendency to form elongated, hypha-like cells in the veils, and their development of "ascospores" as well as by the wide occurrence of yeast-like "sprouting forms" in other fungi (e.g.
Schizomycetes such as Clostridium, Plectridium, &c., where the sporiferous cells enlarge, bear out the same argument, and we must not forget that there are extremely minute " yeasts," easily mistaken for Micrococci, and that yeasts occasionally form only one spore in the cell.
The Sereh disease of the sugar-cane, the slime fluxes of oaks and other trees, are not only very doubtful cases, in which other organisms such as yeasts and fungi play their parts, but it may be regarded as extremely improbable that the bacteria are the primary agents at all; they are doubtless saprophytic forms which have gained access to rotting tissues injured by other agents.
Pure Cultivation of Yeasts.-The methods which were first adopted by Hansen for obtaining pure cultures of yeast were similar in principle to one devised by J.