It was not recognized that many of the diseases of fermented liquids are occasioned by foreign yeasts; moreover, this process, as was shown later by Hansen, favours the development of foreign yeasts at the expense of the good yeast.
In the United Kingdom the employment of brewery yeasts selected from a single cell has not come into general use; it may probably be accounted for in a great measure by conservatism and the wrong application of Hansen's theories.
Pure Cultivation of Yeasts.-The methods which were first adopted by Hansen for obtaining pure cultures of yeast were similar in principle to one devised by J.
By this method several races of Saccharomycetes and brewery yeasts were isolated and described.
Cerevisiae, is never found wild, but the wine yeasts occur abundantly in the soil of vineyards, and so are always present on the fruit, ready to ferment the expressed juice.
Certain yeasts exercise a reducing action, forming sulphuretted hydrogen, when sulphur is present.
Other yeasts are stated to form sulphurous acid in must and wort.
Yeasts was by studying morphological differences with the aid of the microscope.
Culture yeasts have also been successfully employed in the manufacture of wine and cider.
Flux.A common event in the exudation of turbid, frothing liquids from wounds in the bark of trees, and the odours of putrefaction and even alcoholic fermentation in these are sufficiently explained by the coexistence of albuminous and saccharine matters with fungi, yeasts and bacteria in such fluxes.
He examined the yeasts under the microscope, and at once saw that the globules from the sound beer were nearly spherical, whilst those from the sour beer were elongated; and this led him to a discovery, the consequences of which have revolutionized chemical as well as biological science, inasmuch as it was the beginning of that wonderful series of experimental researches in which he proved conclusively that the notion of spontaneous generation is a chimera.
Many cancer-parasites have been described in cancerous growths, including bacteria, yeasts and protozoa, but the innumerable attempts made to demonstrate the causal infective organism have all completely failed.
Moulds and yeasts - appear to be distributed all over the earth.
Among the enzymes already extracted from fungi are invertases (yeasts, moulds, &c.), which split cane-sugar and other complex sugars with hydrolysis into simpler sugars such as dextrose and levulose; diastases, which convert starches into sugars (Aspergillus, &c.); cytases, which dissolve cellulose similarly (Botrytis, &c.); peptases, using the term as a general one for all enzymes which convert proteids into peptones and other bodies (Penicillium, &c.); lipases, which break up fatty oils (Empusa, Phycomyces, &c.); oxydases, which bring about the oxidations and changes of colour observed in Boletus, and zymase, extracted by Buchner from yeast, which brings about the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbondioxide.
Physiologically, any cell or group of cells separated off from a hypha or unicellular fungus, and capable of itself growing out - germinating - to reproduce the fungus, is a spore; but it is evident that so wide a definition does not exclude the ordinary vegetative cells of sprouting fungi, such as yeasts, or small sclerotium like cell-aggregates of forms like Coniothecium.
Saccharomycetaceae include the well-known yeasts which belong mainly to the genus Saccharomyces.
The group has attained an importance of late even beyond that to which it was brought by Pasteur's researches on alcoholic fermentation, chiefly owing to the exact results of the investigations of Hansen, who first applied the methods of pure cultures to the study of these organisms, and showed that many of the inconsistencies hitherto existing in the literature were due to the coexistence in the cultures of several species or races of yeasts morphologically almost indistinguishable, but physiologically very different.
The ordinary mycelium is the gametophyte since it hears the ascogonia and aritheridia when present; the cqe Two questions of great theoretical importance have been raised over and over again in connexion with yeasts, namely, (I) the morphological one as to whether yeasts are merely degraded forms of higher fungi, as would seem implied by their tendency to form elongated, hypha-like cells in the veils, and their development of "ascospores" as well as by the wide occurrence of yeast-like "sprouting forms" in other fungi (e.g.
Numerous other cases of symbiosis have been discovered among the fungi of fermentation, of which those between Aspergillus and yeast in sake manufacture, and between yeasts and bacteria in kephir and in the ginger-beer plant are best worked out.
Schizomycetes such as Clostridium, Plectridium, &c., where the sporiferous cells enlarge, bear out the same argument, and we must not forget that there are extremely minute " yeasts," easily mistaken for Micrococci, and that yeasts occasionally form only one spore in the cell.
The Sereh disease of the sugar-cane, the slime fluxes of oaks and other trees, are not only very doubtful cases, in which other organisms such as yeasts and fungi play their parts, but it may be regarded as extremely improbable that the bacteria are the primary agents at all; they are doubtless saprophytic forms which have gained access to rotting tissues injured by other agents.
19, 20), where anaerobic bacteria are associated with yeasts, several interesting examples of symbiosis among bacteria are now known.