Astarabad owes its origin to Yazid ibn Mohallab, who occupied the province early in the 8th century for Suleiman, the seventh of the Omayyad caliphs (715-717), and was destroyed by Timur (Tamerlane) in 1384.
The final blow to any political pretensions of Medina was dealt by the caliph when he had his son Yazid declared as his successor, thus taking away any claim on the part of the citizens of Medina to elect to the caliphate.
On the accession of Yazid, Hosain refused homage and raised an army, but was slain at Kerbela (680).
Medina was besieged and sacked by the troops of Yazid (682) and Mecca was besieged the following year.
The siege was raised in the third month on the news of the death of Yazid, but not before the Ka`ba had been destroyed.
In the 10th century it suffered severely, being repeatedly pillaged in the wars of the Fatimite caliphs Al-Qaim and Abu Tahir Ismail el Mansur with the Sunnite leader Abu Yazid and the Zenata Berbers.
Kerbela owes its existence to the fact that IJosain, a son of `Ali, the fourth caliph, was slain here by the soldiers of Yazid, the rival aspirant to the caliphate, on the 10th of October A.D.
Tie discontent under Yazid III.
Yazid, 133136 (751753).
Yazid, 214 (829).
In the confusion which followed on the death of the Omayyad caliph Yazid the Egyptian Moslems declared themselves for Abdallh b.
It was he who appointed Yazid, the son of Abu Sofian, and after his death, his brother Moawiya as governor of Syria, and assigned the province of Egypt to Amr-ibn-el-Ass (`Amr b.
- Moawiya, son of the well-known Meccan chief Abu Sofian, embraced Islam together with his father and his brother Yazid, when the Prophet conquered Mecca, and was, like them, treated with the greatest distinction.
When Abu Bekr sent his troops for the conquest of Syria, Yazid, the eldest son of Abu Sofian, held one of the chief commands, with Moawiya as his lieutenant.
Madaini says that Moawiya was prompted to it, because when he consulted the Syrians about the choice of his son Yazid as his successor, they had proposed Abdarrahman.
This only seems to be certain, that the succession of Yazid was generally acknowledged before the death of his father, except in Medina.
We can scarcely, therefore, credit the charges made by the adversaries of his chosen successor Yazid, that he was a drinker of wine, fond of pleasure, careless about religion.
On his accession Yazid sent a circular to all his prefects, officially announcing his father's death, and ordering them to administer the oath of allegiance to their subjects.
Meanwhile Yazid, having been informed of the riotous behaviour of the Shiites in Kufa, sent Obaidallah, son of the famous Ziyad and governor of Basra, to restore order.
Sa`d and his officers, Obaidallah and even Yazid came to be regarded as murderers, and their names have ever since been held accursed by all Shiites.
Yazid was very sorry for the issue, and sent the prisoners under safe-conduct to Medina.
Yazid, when informed of this, swore in his anger to have him imprisoned.
But Ibn Zobair refused, and the Medinians, of whom the majority probably had never before seen a prince's court, however simple, were only confirmed in their rancour against Yazid, and told many horrible tales about his profligacy, that he hunted and held wild orgies with Bedouin sheikhs, and had no religion.
"I cast off the oath of allegiance to Yazid, as I cast off my turban," exclaimed the first, and all others followed, casting off one of their garments, till a heap of turbans and sandals lay on the floor.
At last the patience of Yazid was exhausted.
The remaining citizens were compelled to take the oath of allegiance to Yazid in a humiliating form; the few who refused were killed.
The siege had lasted 65 - others say 40 - days, when the news came of the death of Yazid, which took place presumably on the r4th of Rabia I, 64 (rath November 683).
It is said that on the news of the death of Yazid a conference took place between Hosain and Ibn Zobair, and that the former offered to proclaim the latter as caliph provided he would accompany him to Syria and proclaim a general amnesty.
Hitherto Ibn Zobair had confined himself to an appeal to the Moslems to renounce Yazid and to have a caliph elected by the council (shura) of the principal leading men.
Yazid is described in the Continuatio Isidori Byz.
The mother of Yazid, Maisun, belonged to the most powerful tribe in Syria, the Kalb, and it seems that this and the cognate tribes of Qoda'a (Yemenites) had enjoyed certain prerogatives, which had aroused the jealousy of the Qais and the cognate tribes of Modar.
Immediately after the death of Yazid, Zofar b.
IIarith, who had already fought with Ibn Zobair against Yazid, had induced northern Syria and Mesopotamia to declare for Ibn Zobair.
He had pledged himself after some hesitation to Yazid, but now his 1 Dozy took communis for a gloss to civiliter.
Yazid, and after him `Amr b.
- Merwan strengthened his position according to the old oriental fashion by marrying the widow of Yazid, and soon felt himself strong enough to substitute his own son Abdalmalik for Khalid b.
Yazid as successor-designate.
The troops of Basra had been, since the death of Yazid, at war with the Kharijites, who had supported Ibn Zobair during the siege of Mecca, but had deserted him later.
Yazid at the head of the powerful tribe of Shaiban, who, himself a Kharijite, had assumed the title of Prince of the Believers, and had even succeeded in occupying Kufa.
His partisans fled before `Omara's army and penetrated into Khorasan, where they were disarmed by the governor Yazid, son of the celebrated Mohallab, who had died in the year 701.
Yazid, to whom he gave his own daughter in marriage.
He himself had married `Atika, a daughter of Yazid, a union which was in all respects a happy one.
The old man - he was born in the year 640 - was released by Yazid b.
Mohallab, whom he had recalled from Khorasan, and imprisoned, had escaped and put himself under the protection of Suleiman, who made himself surety for the fine to which Yazid had been condemned.
Yazid discovered soon that the system of taxation as regulated by Hajjaj could not be altered without serious danger to the finances of the empire, and that he could not afford the expenses which his prodigal manner of life involved.
Reign of Yazid II.
Yazid II., son of Abdalmalik and, by his mother `Atika, grandson of Yazid I., ascended the throne without opposition.
Had appointed governor, arrived, arrested Yazid, and sent him to Omar, who called him to account for the money he had mentioned in his letter to Suleiman, and imprisoned him when he pretended not to be able to pay the amount.