The materials required are iron borings, sal-ammoniac and sulphur; these are mixed together, moistened with water, and rammed into the socket, which is previously half filled with yarn, well caulked.
To-day a spinner who is asked to quote for deliveries of yarn for, say, the next six months, may obtain from a broker quotations for deliveries of the cotton that he needs, in quantities as he needs it, for the next six months, and upon these quotations he may base his own for yarn.
The spinning or throwing which follows is done on a frame with upright spindles and flyers, the yarn as it is twisted being drawn forward through guides and wound on revolving bobbins with a reciprocating motion.
Its manufactures of yarn are on the largest scale, the spinning mills often working night and day for many months together.
In selling yarn for export it is usual to allow the buyer only 11% for payment in 14 days, or in some cases the discount is at the rate of 5% per annum for 3 months, which is equivalent to 14%.
The spinner who persists in over-weighting his yarn finds it difficult to obtain "repeat" orders.
The white and red lead are mixed together to form a putty, and are filled into the socket alternately with layers of well-caulked yarn, starting with yarn and finishing off with the lead mixture.
When a spinner is required to quote prices of yarn for delivery in the future he is fixed on the horns of a dilemma.
The men devote to the loom those hours which are not required for the cultivation of their little farms; the women spin and reel the yarn during the intervals of their other domestic occupations.
The exports which come next in value are opium, wood-oil, hides, beans, cotton yarn and raw silk.
The present trade is centred in brewing, corn-milling, yarn and farm-produce.
Linen yarn and cloth are largely manufactured, especially in the south about Osnabruck and Hildesheim, and bleaching is engaged in extensively; woollen cloths are made to a considerable extent in the south about Einbeck, GÃ¶ttingen and Hameln; cotton-spinning and weaving have their principal seats at Hanover and Linden.
The great bulk of the yarn spun in Great Britain ranges between comparatively narrow limits of count, and such staples as 32' to 36 s twist and 36' to 46' weft in American, 50 9 to 60 s twist and 42' to 62' weft in Egyptian, make up a large part of the total.
A great amount of doubled and trebled yarn is now sold, though it does not appear that recent expansions have added much to doubling spindles, and considerable developments continue in the use of dyed and mercerized yarns.
The Yarn Market, a picturesque octagonal building with deep sloping roof, in the main street, dates from c. 1600, and is a memorial of Dunster's former important manufacture of cloth.
The exports consist chiefly of woollen yarn, woollens, cotton goods, cotton yarn, machinery, &c. and coal.
It is a thriving manufacturing town, its chief industries being leather-making, yarn-spinning, cottonand linen-weaving, the manufactures of cigars, brushes, liquors and oil, and glueand soap-boiling.
West Africa.-Cotton has long been grown in the various countries on the west coast of Africa, ginned by hand or by very primitive means, spun into yarn, and woven on simple looms into " country cloths "; these are often only a few inches wide, so that any large cloths have to be made by sewing the narrow strips together.
Demands for yarn cannot be expected to come always at the most favourable time socially for the distribution of the cotton.
Its industrial establishments comprise tobacco, yarn, thread, linen and woollen cloth manufactories, bleaching and dyeing works, breweries and oil and flour mills.
The industries (linen, yarn-spinning, distilling, brewing, salt-refining, shipbuilding) are comparatively unimportant.
The mud from the Ysel furnishes the material for large brick-works and potteries; there are also a celebrated manufactory of stearine candles, a yarn factory, an oil refinery and cigar factories.
Imports include cotton and silk goods, coal, iron and steel, petroleum, timber, raw wool, cotton yarn and cork.
The imports are chiefly cotton yarn and piece goods, kerosene oil, palm-leaf fans, aniline dyes, sugar and matches.
The most important industries of the town are the manufacture of buckskin, the spinning of carded yarn and vicuna-wool, and the processes of dyeing, finishing and wool-spinning connected with these.
The principal articles of import in 1919-20 were: cotton piece-goods and yarn £ 2,180,000, hides and skins £1,291,000, coal £626,000, grain and flour £541,000, coffee, sugar, tobacco, hardware, petroleum and provisions.
The older shipyards have been considerably extended, and shipbuilding is actively carried on, especially by the Orlando yard which builds large ships for the Italian navy, while new industries - namely, glass-making and copper and brass-founding, electric power works, a cement factory, porcelain factories, flour-mills, oil-mills, a cotton yarn spinning factory, electric plant works, a ship-breaking yard, a motorboat yard, &c. - have been established.
The fibre and nibs have to be cleaned off by means of a gassing machine so constructed that the end of silk (silk yarn) is frictioned to throw off the nibs, and at the same time is run very rapidly through a gas flame a sufficient number of times to burn off the hairy and fibrous matter without injuring the main thread.
The yarn is now ready for reeling into skeins or for warping, both of which operations are common to all the textile yarns.
The number of mills has decreased, but machinery now runs so much more quickly than formerly that more yarn is being spun on fewer spindles.
COTTON GOODS AND YARN The two great sections of the cotton industry are yarn and cloth, and in Great Britain the production of both of these is mainly in South Lancashire, though the area extends to parts of Cheshire, Yorkshire and Derbyshire, and there is a Scottish branch, besides certain isolated ventures in other parts of the country.
The centre of trade is the Manchester Royal Exchange, and though some companies or firms prefer to do business by means of their own salaried salesmen, managers or directors, most of the yarn is sold by agents.
Frequently a single agent has the consignment of the whole of a company's yarn, but many spinners, especially those whose business connexion is not perfectly assured, prefer to have more outlets than can be explored by an individual.
Yarn is sold upon various terms, but a regular custom in the home trade is for the spinner to allow 4% discount, for payment in 14 days, of which 21 goes to the buyer, who is commonly a manufacturer, and 12 to the agent for sale and guaranteeing the account.
It is nevertheless the experience of yarn salesmen that Lancashire produces an increasingly large amount of specialities that indicate a continued differentiation in trade.
The exigencies of competition prompted the discovery that if yarn were sold by weight fresh from the spindle its comparative dryness made such early sale less profitable than if it were allowed to "condition."
Between loss and delay the spinner found an obvious alternative in damping the yarn artificially.
- The yarn trade is mainly in the hands of limited companies, and a private firm is looked upon as something of a survival from the past.
If a 2-fold or 3-fold yarn is needed, then two or more ends of the spun thread are wound together and afterwards conveyed to the twisting frame for the purpose of putting the needed twist in the yarn necessary for weaving or other requirements.
The chief industries are the making of blankets, carpets, druggets and worsted yarn; and there are iron foundries and machinery works.
No spindle-whorls were found, but there were many varieties of cloth, platted and woven, bundles of yarn and balls of string.
Its industrial products are yarn, calico, woollen goods, thread.