Osman continued his victorious career against the Greeks, and by his valour and also through allying himself with Keusse Mikhal, lord of Harman Kaya, became master of Ainegeul, Bilejik and Yar Hissar.
His marriage with Mal Khatun, the daughter of the learned sheikh Edbali, has been surrounded by poetical legend; he married his son Orkhan to the beautiful Greek Nilofer, daughter of the lord of Yar Hissar, whom he carried off from her destined bridegroom on her marriage-day; the fruits of this union were Suleiman Pasha and Murad.
The administration of the whole of the states on the right bank of the Oxus, down to the Russian boundary line at Ichka Yar, is now in the hands of Bokhara, including Karateghin - which the Russians have transferred to it from Khokand - and Darwaz at the entrance to the Pamir highlands.
Herat remained thus till Kamran's death (1842), and after that was held by his able and wicked minister Yar Mahommed.
The government is divided into five districts, the chief towns of which are Astrakhan, Enotayevsk (pop. 2810 in 1897), Krasnyi-yar (4680), Chernyi-yar (5140), and Tsarev FIG.
The latter chief had reappeared in arms against his authority; he had gained possession of Meshed itself, driving the prince-governor, Hamza Mirza, into the citadel; and so firm was his attitude that Yar Mahommed of Herat, who had come to help the government officials, had retired after a fruitless co-operation, drawing away the prince-governor also.
As to Afghanistan, the vizier Yar Mahommed had in 1842, when the British troops were perishing in the passes, or otherwise in the midst of dangers, caused Kamran to be suffocated in his prison.
On this side the Medina estuary opens northward, and those of the Newtown and the Yar north-westward into the strait.