He, like Jeremiah, was friendly to Nebuchadrezzar, regarding him as Yahweh's instrument for the chastisement of the nation.
3 al.), Yahweh's love for his people would not suffer them to perish utterly - a remnant would be saved, and this remnant he naturally found in the exiles in Babylonia, a little band plucked from the burning and kept safe in a foreign land till the wrath should have passed (xi.
The bitter invectives against Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Sidon and Egypt, put into Yahweh's mouth, are based wholly on the fact that these peoples are regarded as hostile and hurtful to Israel; Babylonia, though nowise superior to Egypt morally, is favoured and applauded because it is believed to be the instrument for securing ultimately the prosperity of Yahweh's people.
Xl.-1v., that Israel's mission is to give the knowledge of religious truth to the other nations of the world; he goes so far as to say that Yahweh's object in restoring the fortunes of Israel is to establish his reputation among the nations as a powerful deity (xxxvi.
The prophet regards Yahweh's administrative control as immediate:' he introduces no angels or other subordinate supernatural agents - the cherubs and the " men " of ix.
According to ' Yahweh's spirit, thought of as Yahweh's vital principle, as man's spirit is man's vital principle, is to be breathed into them, as, in Gen.
The prevalent famine and distress are due to Yahweh's indignation at such remissness.
4) gives another view of events in which both Elijah and Elisha were concerned, and the change is more vividly realized when it is found that even to Moses and Aaron, the traditional founders of Israelite religion and ritual, is ascribed an offence whereby they incurred Yahweh's wrath (Num.
The precepts of the law were valuable in the eyes of the Scribes because they were the seal of Jewish particularism, the barrier erected between the world at large and the exclusive community of Yahweh's grace.
8) and here, finally, for some cause, now obscured, Moses and his brother Aaron incurred Yahweh's displeasure (Num.
It is probable that Moses held the larger rather than the narrower conception of Yahweh's sphere of influence.
Xxi.- xxiii.) bear the distinct impress of the high ethical character of Yahweh's requirements originally set forth by Moses.
But the symbol carried with it the numen of the goddess symbolized, and there can be little doubt that Asherah came to be regarded as Yahweh's consort.
In the days of Manasseh syncretism went on unchecked even in the Jerusalem temple and its precincts, and it was not till the year of Jcsiah's reformation (621 B.C.) that the Kedeshim and Kedeshoth as well as the Asherah were banished for ever from Yahweh's sanctuary (2 Kings xxi.
Even as early as the time of David it would seem that Nathan assumed this more developed function as interpreter of Yahweh's righteous will to David.
If Naaman was to be healed, it could only be in a Palestinian river, and :two mules' load of earth would be the only permanent guarantee of Yahweh's effective blessing on the Syrian general in his Syrian home.
The existence of the purer and larger conception of Yahweh's character and power before the advent of Amos indicates that the transition from the past was not so sudden as Wellhausen's graphic portrayal in the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia (art.
If Assyria finally overthrew Israel and carried off Yahweh's shrine, Assur (Asur), the tutelary deity of Assyria, was mightier than Yahweh.
And so Yahweh's honour was compromised.
While these aspects of Israel's relation to Yahweh are emphasized by the Ephraimite prophet, the larger conceptions of Yahweh's character as universal Lord and the God of righteousness, whose government of the world is ethical, emphasized by the prophet of Tekoah, are scarcely presented.
Yahweh's relation of love to Israel is exhibited under the purer symbol of fatherhood (Isa.
The "fullness of the earth " is Yahweh's glory (vi.
Though Yahweh's chastisements on Ephraim and Judah would continue to fall till scarcely a remnant was left (Isa.
The onward progress of the Persian Cyrus and his anticipated conquest of Babylonia marked him out as Yahweh's anointed instrument for effecting the deliverance of exiled Israel and their restoration to their old home and city (Isa.
These views of Duhm, in which a severe distinction is thus drawn between the representation of Yahweh's servant in the servant-passages, and that which meets us in the rest of the Deutero-Isaiah, have been challenged by a succession of critics.'
Finally the Deutero-Isaiah conveyed to captive Israel the message of Yahweh's unceasing love and care, and the certainty of their return to Judaea and the restoration of the national prosperity which Ezekiel had already announced in the earlier period of the exile.
Nowhere in the Old Testament does the doctrine taught by Amos of Yahweh's universal power and sovereignty 1 Viz.
Yahweh's care for other peoples does not appear.
Yahweh's servant David, whereas in the ideal scheme detailed in chap. xl.
It is only after a great war of destruction, a day of Yahweh's great judgment, that the dominion of God will begin " (Bousset).
2 seq.), and this conception of a new era in Yahweh's relations with the people is associated with the family of Moses and with small groups.
The course of the dynasty of Jehu - the reforms, the disastrous Aramaean wars, and, at length, Yahweh's " arrow of victory " - constituted an epoch in the Israelite history, and it is regarded as such.3 The problem of the history of Yahwism depends essentially upon the view adopted as to the date and origin of the biblical details and their validity for the various historical and religious conditions they presuppose.
10), and those who claim to possess Yahweh's law are denounced (viii.
So far from drawing any lesson from the brilliant event in the reign of Cyrus, the prophets imply that Yahweh's wrath is still upon the unfortunate city and that Persia is still the oppressor.
OLD] ideal kingdom, the trusted and highly favoured minister who was the signet-ring upon Yahweh's hand (contrast Hag.
The same sentiment recurs in Yahweh's command to Saul to destroy Amalek utterly for its hostility to Israel (1 Sam.
Thus it is the permanent pledge of Yahweh's gracious presence; it guides the people on their journey and leads them to victory.
Once at Jerusalem, it seems to have lost its unique value as the token of Yahweh's presence; its importance was apparently merged with that of the Temple which Solomon built.
Thus, it has been held that it contained stone fetishes (meteoric stones and the like) from Yahweh's original abode on Sinai or Horeb.
11), and there are means whereby the follower of Yahweh may continue his worship even when outside Yahweh's land (2 Kings v.
12 the prophet, speaking now for the first time in Yahweh's name, calls the people to a solemn fast at the sanctuary, and invites the intercession of the priests.
The second part of the book is Yahweh's answer to the people's prayer.
Egypt and Edom, on the other hand, shall be desolate, because they have shed the blood of Yahweh's innocents.
It was indeed by no means impossible that Jerusalem might have been altogether undone by the famine caused by the locusts; and so the conception of these visitants as the destroying army, executing Yahweh's final judgment, is really much more natural than appears to us at first sight, and does not need to be explained away by allegory.
9, io) of the heathen Cyrus as the instrument of Yahweh's purposes, as in fact his Messiah or Anointed One (xlv.
The divine chariots and horses that make the round of the world by Yahweh's orders return to the heavenly palace and report that there is still no movement among the nations, no sign of the Messianic crisis.
The high priest Joshua is accused before Yahweh by Satan, but is acquitted and given rule in Yahweh's house and courts, with the right of access to Yahweh in priestly intercession.
The divine teams, four in number, again traverse the world toward the four winds, to execute Yahweh's commands.
Jews from Babylon have brought gold and silver to Jerusalem; of these the prophet mist make a crown designed for the " branch " who is to build Yahweh's house and sit king on the throne, but retain a good understanding with the high priest.
Noteworthy is the affinity between some notions evidently not first framed by the prophet himself and the prologue to Job - the heavenly hosts that wander through the earth and bring back their report to Yahweh's throne, the figure of Satan, the idea that suffering and calamity are evidences of guilt and of accusations presented before God.