(c. 1200 B.C.) of the XXth Dynasty (see H.
HITTITES, an ancient people, alluded to frequently in the earlier records of Israel, and also, under slightly variant names, in Egyptian records of the XVIIIth, XIXth and XXth Dynasties, and in Assyrian from about 1100 to 700 B.C. They appear also in the Vannic cuneiform texts, and are believed to be the authors of a class of monuments bearing inscriptions in a peculiar pictographic character, and widely distributed over Asia Minor and N.
- The name is derived from the Purasati, one of a great confederation from north Syria, Asia Minor and the Levant, which threatened Egypt in the XXth Dynasty.
Xliv.).2 In fact the question arises whether the history of the Philistines is not that of a territorial designation, rather than that of the lineal descendants of the Purasati, who, if one of the peoples who took part in the events of the XXth Dynasty, may well have bequeathed their name.
Reconquered Phoenicia as far as Beira, and carved three tablets on the rock beside the Nahr el-Kelb to commemorate his victories; under the XIXth and XXth Dynasties this seems to have remained the northern limit of the Egyptian Empire.
Of the XXth Dynasty it was raised to greater architectural magnificence than ever.
(XXth Dynasty) at Medinet Habu, his tomb in the Biban el Moluk, the temple of Khons (Rameses III.
Far behind Medinet Habu are the Tombs of the Queens, where royal relatives of the XXth Dynasty are buried; and immediately behind the lofty cliffs of Deir el Bahri, but accessible only by a very circuitous route from Kurna, are the tombs of the kings (from Tethmosis I.
Onward to the end of the XXth Dynasty) in the Biban el Moluk and the Western Valley.
After the XXth dynasty the centre of power was removed from Thebes, and the authority of Ammon began to wane.
No siege engines are depicted, even in the time of the Empire,, and the absence of original representations after the XXth Dynasty renders it difficult to judge the advances made in the art of war during the first half of the last millennium Bc. The inscription of Pankhi, however, proves that in the 8th century approaches and towers were raised against the walls of besieged cities Priesthood.The priesthood was in a great degree hereditary, though perhaps not essentially so.
According to the papyrus of Unamun at the end of the weak XXth Dynastypaymentforcedarwasinsisted on by the king of Byblus from the Egyptian commissioner, and proofs were shown to him of payment having been made even in the more glorious times of Egypt.
(c) The texts of the Tombs of the Kings at Thebes (XVIIIth XXth Dyn.) consist of a series of theological books compiled at an uncertain date; they have been edited by Naville and Lefbure.
(XXth Dyn.) to the various temples of Egypt; the hymns to the gods preserved in Cairo and Leiden papyri; and the inscriptions of the Ptolemaic temples (Dendera, Edfu, &c.), which teem with good religious material.
Short;portive inscriptions are found in tombs of the XIIth Dynasty; iome groups are so written cursively in early medical papyri, I nd certain religious inscriptions in the royal tombs of the~ ~(IXth and XXth Dynasties are in secret writing.
The wide and complex subject of Egyptian art will be treated here in six periods: Prehistoric, Early Kings, Pyramid Kings, XIIth Dynasty, XVIIIth-XXth Dynasties, XXVIth Dynasty and later.
The XVIIItlz-XXth Dynasties.The obvious, not to say superficial, character of this age has rendered it one of the most popular in Egyptian art.
The comic papyri of the XXth Dynasty have also a very strong sense of character, even through coarse drawing and some childish combinations.
A cuttingout knife, for slicing through textiles, began double-edged (26) in the 1st Dynasty, and went through many single-edged forms (27-29) until it died out in the XXth Dynasty (Man, 1901, 123).
Copper daggers with parallel ribbing (61) down the middle are common in the XIth-XIVth Dynasties; and in the XVIIIth-XXth Dynasties they are often shown in scenes and on figures.
The falchion with a curved blade (62) belongs to the XVIIIth-XXth Dynasty.
The sling is rarely shown in the XIXth-XXth Dynasties; and the only known example is probably of the XXVIth.
60, and one was found of probably the XXth Dynasty.
Fishing nets were common in all historic times, and the lead sinkers (83) and stone sinkers (84) are often found under the XVIIIth-XXth Dyiiasties.
The XIXth and XXth Dynasties only show a degradation of the types of the XVIIIth; and even through to the XXVth Dynasty there is no new movement (P.K.; P.1; P.A.; P.S.T.).
In the XVIIIth to XXth Dynasties we reach the great period of monuments.
The XXth Dynasty opened with the great builder Rameses III.
These are: (I) The royal tombs, which in the Vth, VIth, XVIIIth, XIXth and XXth Dynasties are fully inscribed; but as the texts are always religious and not historical, they are less important than many other remains.
Nine kings of the name of Rameses now followed each other ingloriously in the space of about eighty years to the end of the XXth Dynasty, the power of the high priests of Ammon ever growing at their expense.
The authority of the last king of the XXth Dynasty, Rameses XII., was shadowy.
In the XVIIIth-XXth dynasties a large number of fine tombs were made, and later ages continued to bury here till Roman times.
He is presumably the Baal who is associated with thunder and lightning, and with the bull, and who was familiar to the Egyptians of the XIXth and XXth Dynasties in the adulations of their divine king.
The cuneiform script, which continued in Egypt during the XIXth and XXth Dynasties, was perhaps still used in Palestine; it was doubtless familiar at least during the Assyrian supremacy.
The decline of Egypt under the XXth Dynasty, and the contemporary fall of the Aegean sea-power, left Cyprus isolated and defenceless, and the Early Iron Age which succeeds is a period of obscurity and relapse.