Imported specimens of this ware were found by Flinders Petrie among XIIth Dynasty remains at Kahun.
It is, however, during the Middle Minoan age, the centre point of which corresponds with the XIIth Egyptian dynasty, according to the Sothic system of dating, c. 2000-1850 B.C., that a systematized pictographic or hieroglyphic script makes its appearance which is common both to signets and clay tablets.
In a deposit at Kahun, belonging to Early the XIIth Dynasty, c. 2000 B.C., were already found E relations imported polychrome vases of " Middle Minoan " with fabric. In the same way the important part played by Egypt.
The great palaces now excavated at Cnossus and Phaestus, as well as the royal villa of Hagia Triada, exhibit the successive phases of a brilliant primitive civilization which had already attained mature development by the date of the XIIth Egyptian dynasty.
Industrial relations with Egypt are also marked by the occurrence of a series of finds of pottery and other objects of Minoan fabric among the remains of the XVIIIth, XIIth and even earlier dynasties, while the same seafaring enterprise brought Egyptian fabrics to Crete from the times of the first Pharaohs.
Passing by certain fragments of stone vessels, found at Cnossus, and coincident with forms characteristic of the IVth Pharaonic Dynasty, we reach another fairly certain date in the synchronism of remains belonging to the XIIth Dynasty (c. 2500 B.C. according to Petrie, but later according to the Berlin School) with products of Minoan Period II.
Characteristic Cretan pottery of this period was found by Petrie in the Fayum in conjunction with XIIth Dynasty remains, and various Cretan products of the period show striking coincidences with XIIth Dynasty styles, especially in their adoption of spiraliform ornament.
Of the XIIth Dynasty at Heliopolis (68 ft.
The Semites of the XIIth Dynasty wore on their journeys sandals of black leather, those of the FIG.
Anubis was the principal god in the capitals of the XVIIth and XVIIIth nomes of Upper Egypt, and secondary god in the XIIIth and probably in the XIIth nome; but his cult was universal.
IX.-XI.); another, of the XIIth Dynasty, contains a remarkable inscription detailing the contracts made by the nomarch with the priests of the temples of Ophois and Anubis for perpetual services at his tomb (see Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Historical Documents, vol.
In the middle empire (VIIth to XIIth Dynasties) the lay element maintains its position in religious cultus despite its complexity.
We might cite the maxims of Ani in the Egyptian papyrus Prisse (XIIth dynasty).
Perhaps no sculpture earlier than the XIIth Dynasty has survived there, but Senwosri I.
4): and the period is well represented by an abundance of statues of the XIIth and XIIIth dynasties from the temple of Karnak.
The name Amenemhe, so common in the XIIth Dynasty, shows the importance of the Theban god at this time.
Amenemhe, the name of the founder of the XIIth dynasty, was compounded with that of Amun and was borne by three of his successors.
Of the XIIth dynasty.
Below sea-level on the north-west, at the margin of the Birket-el-Kerun, this province is wholly irrigated by a canalized channel, the Bahr Yusuf, which, leaving the Nile at Derut esh Sherif in Upper Egypt, follows the western margin of the cultivation in the Nile valley, and at length enters the Fayum through a gap in the desert hills by the XIIth Dynasty pyramids of Lahun and Hawara (see FAYUM).
A certain NitOcris of about the Vilith Dynasty and Scmiophris of the XIIth Dynasty are in the lists, but are quite obscure.
Often, especially in the XIIth Dynasty, the king associated his heir on the throne with him to ensure the succession.
The dog was of many varieties as early as the XIIth Dynasty, when the greyhound and turnspit and other well-marked forms are seen.
Two wills exist on papyrus of the XIIth Dynasty, but they are isolated, and such are not again found among native documents, though they occur in Greek in the Ptolemaic age.
The earliest are of the XIIth Dynasty from KahUn, one being veterinary, the other gynaecological.
Originally these texts had an application to the king alone, but before the beginning of the XIIth Dynasty private individuals had begun to employ them on their own behalf.
Thus Ammon, originally the obscure local god of Thebes, was raised by the Theban monarchs of the XIIth and of the XVIIIth to XXIst Dynasties to a predominant position never equalled by any other divinity; and, by similar means, Suchos of the Fayum, IJbasti of Bubastis, and Neith of Sais, each enjoyed for a short space of time a consideration that no other cause would have secured to them.
Short;portive inscriptions are found in tombs of the XIIth Dynasty; iome groups are so written cursively in early medical papyri, I nd certain religious inscriptions in the royal tombs of the~ ~(IXth and XXth Dynasties are in secret writing.
The wide and complex subject of Egyptian art will be treated here in six periods: Prehistoric, Early Kings, Pyramid Kings, XIIth Dynasty, XVIIIth-XXth Dynasties, XXVIth Dynasty and later.
The XIIth Dynasty.This age overlaps the previous in its style.
(A) The new style begins with the royal statues, which it seems we must attribute to the foreign kings from whom the XIIth Dynasty was descended.
From this type evidently descended the milder and more civilized kings of the XIIth Dynasty, the resemblance being so strong that the fierce figures have even been identified with that dynasty by some.
The style of the XIIth Dynasty may be summed up as clean, highly-finished work, strong in facial detail; but with neither the grandeur of the IVth nor the vivacity of the XVIIIth Dynasty.
By the time of the early XIIth Dynasty, this reached a perfection of refinement in the detail of facial curves, with an ostentatiously low relief (P.K.
There was a steady decline during the XIIth Dynasty and onward, but the same tone was followed.
Striking ToolsThe wooden mallet of club form (I) was used in the VIth and XIIth Dynasties; of the modern masons form (2) ~n.
The XIIth and XVIIIth.
Flint axes were made in imitation of metal in the XIIth Dynasty (9).
Battle-axes with rounded outline started as merely a sharp edge of metal (io) inserted along a stick (10, if); they become semicircular (12) by the VIth Dynasty, lengthen to double their width in the XIIth, and then thin out to a waist in the middle by the XVIIIth Dynasty.
Flint hoes (14) are common down to the XIIth Dynasty.
In the XIth-XIIth Dynasty they were quite straight in the back (21), and without any hanlle-notch.
Razors (30) are known of the XIIth Dynasty, and became common in the XVIIIth.
Small chisels set in wooden handles are found (35) of the XIIth and XVIIIth Dynasties.
The drill was worked by a stock with a loose cap (53), rotated by a drill bow, in the XIIth to Roman dynasties.
Many early arrows (XIIth) have only hard wood points of conical form.
The rake of wood (89) ~5 usual in the XIIth and XVIIIth Dynasties.
Thread-Work.Stone spindle whorls (103) are common in the prehistoric age; wooden ones were usual, of a cylindrical form (104) ~n the XIIth, and conical (105) in the XVIIIth Dynasty.
But in the XIIth Dynasty the granite sarcophagus of Senwosri II.
In later work we may note that copper scrapers were used for facing the limestone work in the VIth, the XIIth and the XVIIIth Dynasties.
A series of moulds for casting in the XIIth Dynasty show that the forms were carved out in thick pieces of pottery, and then lined with fine ashy clay.
By the time of the XIIth Dynasty, and perhaps earlier, cire perdue casting over an ash core became usual.