In classical literature: Initia doctrinae Solidioris (1736), many subsequent editions; Initia rhetorica (1730); editions, mostly annotated, of Xenophon's Memorabilia (1737), Cicero (1737-1739), Suetonius (1748), Tacitus (1752), the Clouds of Aristophanes (1754), Homer (1759-1764), Callimachus (1761), Polybius (1764), as well as of the Quaestura of Corradus, the Greek lexicon of Hedericus, and the Bibliotheca Latina of Fabricius (unfinished); Archaeologia litteraria (1768), new and improved edition by Martini (1790); HoratiusTursellinus De particulis (1769).
From Socrates, in Xenophon's Memorabilia, downwards, the argument is tolerably common; it is notable in Cicero; in the modern discussion it dominates the 18th-century mode of thought, is confidently appealed to though not worked out by Butler, and is fully stated by Paley.
- Last year and this I read St John's Gospel, with part of Xenophon's Cyropaedia, the Iliad, and Herodotus; but, upon the whole, I rather neglected my Greek."
His translation of Xenophon's Cyropaedia into Latin cannot be praised for accuracy.
In the book as we have it there is no orderly exposition of a theory; it rather has the appearance of a collection of remarks jotted down by a pupil (somewhat after the manner of Xenophon's Memorabilia), or of extracts from a sage's notebook.
Other extant works of Arrian are: Indica, a description of India in the Ionic dialect, including the voyage of Nearchus, intended as a supplement to the Anabasis; Acies Contra Alanos, a fragment of importance for the knowledge of Roman military affairs; Periplus of the Euxine, an official account written (iii) for the emperor Hadrian; Tactica, attributed by some to Aelianus, who wrote in the reign of Trajan; Cynegeticus, a treatise on the chase, supplementing Xenophon's work on the same subject; the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, attributed to him, is by a later compiler.
The sea-coast, like the rest of the south shore of the Euxine, was studded with Greek colonies founded from the 6th century onwards: Amisus, a colony of Miletus, which in the 5th century received a body of Athenian settlers, now the port of Samsun; Cotyora, now Ordu; Cerasus, the later Pharnacia, now Kerasund; and Trapezus (Trebizond), a famous city from Xenophon's time till the end of the middle ages.
From Xenophon's Memorabilia he learned when a boy the Socratic method of argument.
Gryllus, celebrated in the dialogue on rhetoric, was Xenophon's son who fell at Mantineia in 362; and Eudemus of Cyprus, lamented in the dialogue on soul, died in Sicily in 352.
In Xenophon's Anabasis it is mentioned as in the kingdom of the Thracian prince Seuthes.
Thucydides, Sophocles and Herodotus followed in 1502; Xenophon's Hellenics and Euripides in 1503; Demosthenes in 1504.
The immense vivaria or theriotropheia, in which various wild animals, such as boars, stags and roe-deer, were kept in a state of semidomestication, were developments which arose at a comparatively late period; as also were the venationes in the circus, although these are mentioned as having been known as early as 186 B.C. The bald and meagre poem of Grattius Faliscus on hunting (Cynegetica) is modelled upon Xenophon's prose work; a still extant fragment (315 lines) of a similar poem with the same title, of much later date, by Nemesianus, seems to have at one See Layard (Nineveh, ii.
We hear of an early poem named Pontius Glaucus the subject of which is uncertain, and of translations of Xenophon's Oeconomica and the Phenomena of Aratus.
Xenophon's notice of its abundance in Assyria (Anabasis, i.
Cornelius Nepos and Plutarch; Xenophon's Hellenica and Diodorus xiv., xv.
From the sublimity of Thucydides, and Xenophon's straightforward story, history passed with Theopompus and Ephorus into the field of rhetoric. A revival of the scientific instinct of investigation is discernable in Timaeus the Sicilian, at the end of the 4th century, but his attack upon his predecessors was the text of a more crushing attack upon himself by Polybius, who declares him lacking in critical insight and biased by passion.
Besides his translations of Aristotle's Metaphysics and Xenophon's Memorabilia, his most important work is a treatise directed against George of Trebizond, a violent Aristotelian, entitled In Calumniatorem Platonis.
The same distinction is found in Xenophon's Symposium (viii.
Unsuccessful attempts have been made to identify this mythical Darius with the Cyaxares, son of Astyages, of Xenophon's Cyropaedia, and also with the Darius of Eusebius, who was in all probability Darius Hystaspis.
His earliest work, entitled Reloj de principes, published at Valladolid in 1529, and, according to its author, the fruit of eleven years' labour, is a didactic novel, designed, after the manner of Xenophon's Cyropaedia, to delineate, in a somewhat ideal way for the benefit of modern sovereigns, the life and character of an ancient prince, Marcus Aurelius, distinguished for wisdom and virtue.