During the next years the Persian army under Harpagus suppressed a rebellion of the Lydians under Pactyas, and subjugated the Ionian cities, the Carians and the Lycians (when the town Xanthus resisted to the utmost).
Hermodorus and Hermippus of Smyrna place him 5000 years before the Trojan war, Xanthus 6000 years before Xerxes, Eudoxus and Aristotle 6000 years before the death of Plato.
He entered Lycia and explored the Xanthus from the mouth at Patara upwards.
Nine miles from Patara he discovered the ruins of Xanthus, the ancient capital of Lycia, finely situated on hills, and abounding in magnificent remains.
His chief discoveries were at Xanthus, Pinara, Patara, Tlos, Myra and Olympus.
The honour paid to her in Delphi and Delos might be explained as part of the cult of her son Apollo; but temples to her existed in Argos; in Mantineia and in Xanthus in Lycia; her sacred grove was on the coast of Crete.
197); by the harpy Podarge he was also the father of Xanthus and Balius, the horses of Achilles.
She does not appear in Homer, although according to Xanthus (regarded by some as a fictitious personage), to whom Stesichorus was indebted for much in his Oresteia, she was identical with the Homeric Laodice, and was called Electra because she remained so long unmarried ('A-MKTpa).
Of the mouth of the Xanthus river (mod.
It was noted from early times for its temple and oracle of Apollo, and, as the port of Xanthus and other towns of the same valley, had a large trade, and was regarded as the metropolis of Lycia.
The principal extant monuments are a triple triumphal arch, with inscription, through which ran the road to Xanthus, and the walls, discernible on either hand of it; the theatre, 265 ft.
Such were Daedala in the west, adjoining the Gulf of Macri, Cragus on the sea-coast, west of the valley of the Xanthus, Massicytus (io,000 ft.) nearly in the centre of the region, and Solyma in the extreme east above Phaselis (7800 ft.).
The only two considerable rivers are: (r) the Xanthus, which descends from the central mass of Mt Taurus, and flows through a narrow valley till it reaches the city of the same name, below which it forms a plain of some extent before reaching the sea, and (2) the Limyrus, which enters the sea near Limyra.
At the entrance of the valley of the Xanthus were Patara, Xanthus itself, and, a little higher up, Pinara on the west and Tlos on the east side of the valley, while Araxa stood at the head of the valley, at the foot of the pass leading into the interior.
Myra, one of the most important cities of Lycia, occupied the entrance of the valley of the Andriacus; on the coast between this and the mouth of the Xanthus stood Antiphellus, while in the interior at a short distance were found Phellus, Cyaneae and Candyba.
The Lydians failed to subdue Lycia, but after the fall of the Lydian empire it was conquered by Harpagus the general of Cyrus, Xanthus or Arnna, the capital, being completely destroyed.
"The son of Harpagus" on the obelisk of Xanthus boasts of having sacked numerous cities in alliance with the Athenian goddess.
According to Strabo the principal towns in the league were Xanthus, Patara, Pinara, Olympus, Myra and Tlos; each of these had three votes in the general assembly, while the other towns had only two or one.
Most of the inscriptions are sepulchral; by far the longest and most important is that on an obelisk found at Xanthus, which is a historical document, the concluding part of it being in a peculiar dialect, supposed to be an older and poetical form of the language.
(1901); see also articles XANTHUS, MYRA, PATARA.
Under the later Mermnad kings the Lydian empire was penetrated with Greek influence, and Xanthus, the early Lydian historian, wrote his history in Greek.
In Lycia are the Indus (Gereniz Chai), and the Xanthus (Eshen Chai).
Mention may also be made of the following: Hecataeus of Miletus (550-476); Acusilaus of Argos, 2 who paraphrased in prose (correcting the tradition where it seemed necessary) the genealogical works of Hesiod in the Ionic dialect; he confined his attention to the prehistoric period, and made no attempt at a real history; Charon of Lampsacus (c. 450), author of histories of Persia, Libya, and Ethiopia, of annals (a)pot) of his native town with lists of the prytaneis and archons, and of the chronicles of Lacedaemonian kings; Xanthus of Sardis in Lydia (c. 450), author of a history of Lydia, one of the chief authorities used by Nicolaus of Damascus (II.