I was less critical than my wife on the slow workings of the law.
It was Blackie Rowland's old workings, back during the war, Roger answered.
The Roman workings too, to judge from similar finds, seem to have been considerable.
The most extensive peat-workings are in the valleys of the Somme; asphalt comes from Seyssel (Am) and Puyde-Dme.
The theist believes that he can further trace many incomplete workings of the monothesitic instinct in the history of religion.
Chalk, from which blanc de Troyes is manufactured, and clay are abundant; and there are peat workings and quarries of building-stone and limestone.
Indeed, as one of the acutest and most sympathetic of his critics has remarked, the deep and settled grudge he has betrayed towards every form of Christian belief, in all the writings of his maturity, may be taken as evidence that he had at one time experienced in his own person at least some of the painful workings of a positive faith.
The workings of this Will are irrational primarily, but, as in its evolution it becomes more rationalized and understands the whole meaning of the Weltschmerz, it ultimately reaches the point at which the desire for existence is gone.
Henceforward it was to be the serious study of the workings of nature in producing the beings we see around us from beings more or less unlike them, that had existed in bygone ages and had been the parents of a varied and varying offspring - our fellow-creatures of to-day.
Mining is carried on only to a small extent for arsenic, although there are traces of former more extensive workings for other metals.
Evidences of ancient workings remain near Holguin and Gibara, and it is possible that some of these workings are still exploitable.
The most promising deposits and the most important workings are in Matanzas and Santa Clara provinces.
Here are kept very complete and curious documents of the Inquisition, showing all its workings from the 15th to the 19th century.
A tax of 10% is levied on the annual net produce of all gold workings (proclamation of 1902) and the government takes 60% of the profits on diamond mines.
Potgieter and some companions followed the trail of Trichard's party as far as the Zoutpansberg, where they were shown gold workings by the natives and saw rings of gold made by native workmen.
The term 1 is not limited to underground operations, but includes also surface excavations, as in placer mining and open-air workings of coal and ore deposits by methods similar to quarrying, and boring operations for oil, natural gas or brine.
Either may be used for drainage of the mine workings, in which case it becomes an adit.
Drifts and inclined shafts following the deposit may prove difficult of maintenance when the workings become large and settlement of the overlying strata begins.
While the width of the working-place is thus limited by the strength of the roof, its length is determined by other considerations - namely, the rapidity with which the mining work can be conducted and the length of time it is practicable to keep the working-place open, and also by the increased difficulty of handling the minerals sometimes experienced when the workings reach undue length.
The workings in the upper floor being kept in advance of those below, so as to allow the broken mass above to become consolidated before it is again disturbed by the working places of the next floor.
The shrinkage of the rock-filling and the settlement of the workings /, Yan be greatly lessened by the use of hard rock with a minimum of fine stuff; but even so the advantage lies with the American system of timbering.
For deep workings the milling method is usually employed, in which the ore is excavated in funnel-shaped pits, each of which connects with underground haulage roads by a shaft.
- A mine which has been opened by an adit tunnel or drift drains itself, so far as the workings above the adit level are concerned.
So far as possible, vitiated air is led directly to the shaft instead of passing through other workings; for example, mine stables when used are placed near the upcast shaft and ventilated by an independent split of the ventilating current.
When direct attack is no longer practicable, it is possible to extinguish the fire by sealing the mine workings, and exhausting the supply of oxygen.
Mine fires may sometimes be reached by bore-holes sunk for the purpose from the surface, and the burning workings below filled by flushing with culm and water.
The mine workings may also be flooded Flooding of by large bodies of underground water.
In Great Britain the law requires that the workings shall be protected by 120 ft.
The caving in of mine workings results from the excavation of large areas supported upon pillars of insufficient size.
While the mine workings are small the overlying rocks support themselves of and the full pressure does not come upon the mine Caving p i llars.
While abundant warning of the caving-in of the workings is thus given in advance it may happen that men are unexpectedly imprisoned by the closing of the main passage ways.
In a modified degree the same is true of the Indian fields; large supplies are unworked, but in several districts, especially about Raniganj and elsewhere in Bengal, workings are fully developed.
In South America coal is known in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, northern Chile, Brazil (chiefly in the south), and Argentina (Parana, the extreme south of Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego), but in no country are the workings extensive.
Africa is apparently the continent poorest in coal, though valuable workings have been developed at various points in British South Africa, e.g.
The actual coal measure strata, consisting mainly of shales and clays, are generally impervious to water, but when strata of a permeable character are sunk through, such as the magnesian limestone of the north of England, the Permian sandstones of the central counties, or the chalk and greensand in the north of France and Westphalia, special methods are required in order to pass the water-bearing beds, and to protect the shaft and workings from the influx of water subsequently.
The use of two independent connexions - whether separate pits or sections of the same pit, between the surface and the workings - is necessary for the service of the ventilation, fresh air from the surface being carried down one, known as the " downcast," while the foul or return air of the mine rises through the other or " upcast " pit back to the surface.
In the latter case, which represents the most approved practice, the sinking is usually placed about the centre of the ground, so that the workings may radiate in every direction from the pit bottom, with the view of employing the greatest number of hands to advantage.
Where properties are much divided, it is always necessary to maintain a thick barrier of unwrought coal between the boundary of the mine and the neighbouring workings, especially if the latter are to the dip. If a prominent line of fault crosses the area it may usually be a convenient division of the fields into sections or districts.
The first process in laying out the workings consists in driving a gallery on the level along the course of the coal seam, which is known as a " dip head level," and a lower parallel one, in which the water collects, known as a " lodgment level."
These pillars are left for the support of the roof as the workings advance, so as to keep the mine open and free from waste.
The character of such workings is very irregular in plan, and as the ventilation is attended with considerable difficulty, it is now becoming generally superseded by more improved methods.
In France and Germany the method of filling the space left by the removal of the coal with waste rock, quarried underground or sent down from the surface, which was originally used in connexion with the working of thick inclined seams by the method of horizontal slices, is now largely extended to long-wall workings on thin seams, and in Westphalia is made compulsory where workings extend below surface buildings, and safety pillars of unwrought coal are found to be insufficient.