I was less critical than my wife on the slow workings of the law.
It was Blackie Rowland's old workings, back during the war, Roger answered.
The Roman workings too, to judge from similar finds, seem to have been considerable.
The most extensive peat-workings are in the valleys of the Somme; asphalt comes from Seyssel (Am) and Puyde-Dme.
The theist believes that he can further trace many incomplete workings of the monothesitic instinct in the history of religion.
Chalk, from which blanc de Troyes is manufactured, and clay are abundant; and there are peat workings and quarries of building-stone and limestone.
Indeed, as one of the acutest and most sympathetic of his critics has remarked, the deep and settled grudge he has betrayed towards every form of Christian belief, in all the writings of his maturity, may be taken as evidence that he had at one time experienced in his own person at least some of the painful workings of a positive faith.
The workings of this Will are irrational primarily, but, as in its evolution it becomes more rationalized and understands the whole meaning of the Weltschmerz, it ultimately reaches the point at which the desire for existence is gone.
Henceforward it was to be the serious study of the workings of nature in producing the beings we see around us from beings more or less unlike them, that had existed in bygone ages and had been the parents of a varied and varying offspring - our fellow-creatures of to-day.
Mining is carried on only to a small extent for arsenic, although there are traces of former more extensive workings for other metals.
Evidences of ancient workings remain near Holguin and Gibara, and it is possible that some of these workings are still exploitable.
The most promising deposits and the most important workings are in Matanzas and Santa Clara provinces.
Here are kept very complete and curious documents of the Inquisition, showing all its workings from the 15th to the 19th century.
A tax of 10% is levied on the annual net produce of all gold workings (proclamation of 1902) and the government takes 60% of the profits on diamond mines.
Potgieter and some companions followed the trail of Trichard's party as far as the Zoutpansberg, where they were shown gold workings by the natives and saw rings of gold made by native workmen.
The term 1 is not limited to underground operations, but includes also surface excavations, as in placer mining and open-air workings of coal and ore deposits by methods similar to quarrying, and boring operations for oil, natural gas or brine.
Either may be used for drainage of the mine workings, in which case it becomes an adit.
Drifts and inclined shafts following the deposit may prove difficult of maintenance when the workings become large and settlement of the overlying strata begins.
While the width of the working-place is thus limited by the strength of the roof, its length is determined by other considerations - namely, the rapidity with which the mining work can be conducted and the length of time it is practicable to keep the working-place open, and also by the increased difficulty of handling the minerals sometimes experienced when the workings reach undue length.
The workings in the upper floor being kept in advance of those below, so as to allow the broken mass above to become consolidated before it is again disturbed by the working places of the next floor.
The shrinkage of the rock-filling and the settlement of the workings /, Yan be greatly lessened by the use of hard rock with a minimum of fine stuff; but even so the advantage lies with the American system of timbering.
For deep workings the milling method is usually employed, in which the ore is excavated in funnel-shaped pits, each of which connects with underground haulage roads by a shaft.
- A mine which has been opened by an adit tunnel or drift drains itself, so far as the workings above the adit level are concerned.
So far as possible, vitiated air is led directly to the shaft instead of passing through other workings; for example, mine stables when used are placed near the upcast shaft and ventilated by an independent split of the ventilating current.
When direct attack is no longer practicable, it is possible to extinguish the fire by sealing the mine workings, and exhausting the supply of oxygen.
Mine fires may sometimes be reached by bore-holes sunk for the purpose from the surface, and the burning workings below filled by flushing with culm and water.
The mine workings may also be flooded Flooding of by large bodies of underground water.
In Great Britain the law requires that the workings shall be protected by 120 ft.
The caving in of mine workings results from the excavation of large areas supported upon pillars of insufficient size.
While the mine workings are small the overlying rocks support themselves of and the full pressure does not come upon the mine Caving p i llars.
While abundant warning of the caving-in of the workings is thus given in advance it may happen that men are unexpectedly imprisoned by the closing of the main passage ways.
Traces of ancient workings were found in several places, but the ores did not contain gold in paying quantities.
These and the ancient copper workings were investigated by Burton in 1877.
It is not often remembered that William possessed an experience of the workings of representative government in Holland, which was remarkably similar to that in England.
From the district of Yukon (Klondike, &c.) £2,800,000 was obtained in 1899, wholly from alluvial workings, but the progress made since has been slower than was expected by sanguine people.
Alaska appeared in the list of gold-producing countries in 1886, and gradually increased its annual output until 1897, when the country attracted much attention with a production valued at over £500,000; the opening up of new workings has increased this figure immensely, from about £1,400,000 in 1901 to £3,006,500 in 1905.
The gold production of Russia has been remarkably constant, averaging £4,899,262 per annum; the gold is derived chiefly from placer workings in Siberia.
In workings on a larger scale, where the supply of water is abundant, as in California, sluices were generally employed.
The general conditions to be observed in such workings may be briefly stated as follows: (I) The whole of the auriferous gravel, down to the " bed rock," must be removed, - that is, no selection of rich or poor parts is possible; (2) this must be accomplished by the aid of water alone, or at times by water supplemented by blasting; (3) the conglomerate must be mechanically disintegrated without interrupting the whole system; (4) the gold must be saved without interrupting the continuous flow of water; and (5) arrangements must be made for disposing of the vast masses of impoverished gravel.
In a modified degree the same is true of the Indian fields; large supplies are unworked, but in several districts, especially about Raniganj and elsewhere in Bengal, workings are fully developed.
In South America coal is known in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, northern Chile, Brazil (chiefly in the south), and Argentina (Parana, the extreme south of Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego), but in no country are the workings extensive.
Africa is apparently the continent poorest in coal, though valuable workings have been developed at various points in British South Africa, e.g.
The actual coal measure strata, consisting mainly of shales and clays, are generally impervious to water, but when strata of a permeable character are sunk through, such as the magnesian limestone of the north of England, the Permian sandstones of the central counties, or the chalk and greensand in the north of France and Westphalia, special methods are required in order to pass the water-bearing beds, and to protect the shaft and workings from the influx of water subsequently.
The use of two independent connexions - whether separate pits or sections of the same pit, between the surface and the workings - is necessary for the service of the ventilation, fresh air from the surface being carried down one, known as the " downcast," while the foul or return air of the mine rises through the other or " upcast " pit back to the surface.
In the latter case, which represents the most approved practice, the sinking is usually placed about the centre of the ground, so that the workings may radiate in every direction from the pit bottom, with the view of employing the greatest number of hands to advantage.
Where properties are much divided, it is always necessary to maintain a thick barrier of unwrought coal between the boundary of the mine and the neighbouring workings, especially if the latter are to the dip. If a prominent line of fault crosses the area it may usually be a convenient division of the fields into sections or districts.
The first process in laying out the workings consists in driving a gallery on the level along the course of the coal seam, which is known as a " dip head level," and a lower parallel one, in which the water collects, known as a " lodgment level."
These pillars are left for the support of the roof as the workings advance, so as to keep the mine open and free from waste.
The character of such workings is very irregular in plan, and as the ventilation is attended with considerable difficulty, it is now becoming generally superseded by more improved methods.
In France and Germany the method of filling the space left by the removal of the coal with waste rock, quarried underground or sent down from the surface, which was originally used in connexion with the working of thick inclined seams by the method of horizontal slices, is now largely extended to long-wall workings on thin seams, and in Westphalia is made compulsory where workings extend below surface buildings, and safety pillars of unwrought coal are found to be insufficient.
The material for filling may be the waste from earlier workings stored in the spoil banks at the surface; where there are blast furnaces in the neighbourhood, granulated slag mixed with earth affords excellent packing.
In some anthracite collieries in America the small coal or culm and other waste are washed into the exhausted workings by water which gives a compact mass filling the excavation when the water has drained away.
In securing the roof and sides of coal workings, malleable iron and steel are now used to some extent instead of timber, although the consumption of the latter material is extremely large.
The capacity of the trams varies with the size of the workings and the shaft.
In a large colliery where the shafts are situated near the centre of the field, and the workings extend on all sides, both to the dip and rise, the drawing roads for the coal may be of three different kinds - (r) levels driven at right angles to the dip, suitable for horse roads, (2) rise ways, known as jinny roads, jig-brows, or up-brows, which, when of sufficient slope, may be used as self-acting planes, i.e.
In dip workings the tail rope is often made to work a pump connected with the bottom pulley, which forces the water back to the cistern of the main pumping engine in the pit.
This is effected by carrying through the workings a large volume of air which is kept continually moving in the same direction, descending from the surface by one or more pits known as intake or downcast pits, and leaving the mine by a return or upcast pit.
Such a circulation of air can only be effected by mechanical means when the workings are of any extent, the methods actually adopted being - (i) The rarefaction of the air in the upcast pit by a furnace placed at the bottom; and (2) Exhaustion by machinery at the surface.
The return air from fiery workings is never allowed to approach the furnace, but is carried into the upcast by a special channel, called a dumb drift, some distance above the furnace drift, so as not to come in contact with the products of combustion until they have been cooled below the igniting point of fire-damp. Where the upcast pit is used for drawing coal, it is usual to discharge the smoke and gases through a short lateral drift near the surface into a tall chimney, so as to keep the pit-top as clear as possible for working.
It is natural for a man who does not understand the workings of a machine to imagine that a shaving that has fallen into it by chance and is interfering with its action and tossing about in it is its most important part.