The archbishop was one of the "undertakers" who controlled the Irish House of Commons, and although he did not regain the almost dictatorial power he had exercised at an earlier period, which had suggested a comparison between him and Cardinal Wolsey, he continued to enjoy a prominent share in the administration of Ireland until his death, which occurred in London on the 19th of December 1764.
And Catherine of Aragon, but gradually withdrawing into the background he resigned the office of lord chancellor in 1515, and was succeeded by Wolsey, whom he had consecrated as bishop of Lincoln in the previous year.
He was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, and assisted Wolsey as assessor during the secret inquiry into the validity of Henry's marriage with Catherine in 1527.
Leo at once formed a new league with the emperor and the king of Spain, and to ensure English support made Wolsey a cardinal.
According to Strype, he was invited about this time to become a fellow of the college founded by Cardinal Wolsey at Oxford; but Dean Hook shows that there is some reason to doubt this.
Of the 16th of August 1527, 2 during the absence in France of Wolsey, who, not blinded by passion like Henry, naturally opposed the undesirable alliance, and was negotiating a marriage with Renee, daughter of Louis XII.
And "Der Sturz des Cardinals Wolsey," by W.
Wyat (1817); The Negotiations of Thomas Wolsey, by Sir W.
THOMAS WOLSEY (c. 1475-1530), English cardinal and statesman, born at Ipswich about 1475, was son of Robert Wolsey (or Wuley, as his name was always spelt) by his wife Joan.
At Limington he came into conflict with law and order as represented by the sheriff, Sir Amias Paulet, who is said by Cavendish to have placed Wolsey in the stocks; Wolsey retaliated long afterwards by confining Paulet to his chambers in the Temple for five or six years.
Dorset died in 1501, but Wolsey found other patrons in his pursuit of wealth and fame.
Deane, however, died in 1503, and Wolsey became chaplain to Sir Richard Nanfan, deputy of Calais, who apparently recommended him to Henry VII.
Nanfan died in 1507, but the king made Wolsey his chaplain and employed him in diplomatic work.
Made Wolsey his almoner immediately on his accession, and the receipt of some half-dozen further ecclesiastical preferments in the first two years of the reign marks his growth in royal favour.
But it was not till towards the end of 1511 that Wolsey became a privy councillor and secured a controlling voice in the government.
Hitherto pacific counsels had on the whole prevailed; but Wolsey, who was nothing if not turbulent, turned the balance in favour of war, and his marvellous administrative energy first found full scope in the preparations for the English expedition to Biscay in 1512, and for the campaign in northern France in 1513.
And won the battle of Marignano, Wolsey took the lead in assisting the emperor Maximilian to oppose him; and this revival of warlike designs was resented by Fox and Warham, who retired from the government, leaving Wolsey supreme.
Maximilian proved a broken reed, and in 2528 Wolsey brought about a general pacification, securing at the same time his appointment as legate a latere in England.
He thus superseded Warham, who was legatus flatus, in ecclesiastical authority; and though legates a latere were supposed to exercise only special and temporary powers, Wolsey secured the practical permanence of his office.
To a head, and Wolsey was mainly responsible for the attitude adopted by the English government.
Both monarchs were eager for England's alliance, and their suit enabled Wolsey to appear for the moment as the arbiter of Europe.
But, although a gorgeous show of friendship with France was kept up at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520, it had been determined before the conference of Calais in 1521, at which Wolsey pretended to adjudicate on the merits of the dispute, to side actively with Charles V.
Wolsey had vested interests in such a policy.
Parliament had in1513-1515showed signs of strong anti-clerical feeling; Wolsey had in the latter year urged its speedy dissolution, and had not called another; and he probably hoped to distract attention from the church by a spirited foreign policy, as Henry V.
In which Wolsey involved England in 1528.
The control of the papacy by Charles V., moreover, made it impossible for Wolsey to succeed in his efforts to obtain from Clement VII.
An inscription on a contemporary portrait of Wolsey at Arras calls him the author of the divorce, and Roman Catholic historians from Sanders downwards have generally adopted the view that Wolsey advocated this measure merely as a means to break England's alliance with Spain and confirm its alliance with France.
There is no evidence that Wolsey first suggested the divorce, though when he found that Henry was bent upon it, he pressed for two points: (i.) that an application should be made to Rome, instead of deciding the matter in England, and (ii.) that Henry, when divorced, should marry a French princess.
The appeal to Rome was a natural course to be advocated by Wolsey, whose despotism over the English church depended upon an authority derived from Rome; but it was probably a mistake.
Wolsey clearly foresaw his own fall, the consequent attack on the church and the triumph of the secular party.
Giustiniani explains that he had to make proposals to the cardinal before he broached them to Henry, lest Wolsey "should resent the precedence conceded to the king."
Wolsey must be judged by his deeds and not by doubtful intentions.
The concentration of civil and ecclesiastical power by Wolsey in the hands of a churchman provided a precedent for its concentration by Henry VIII.
Brewer, in his elaborate prefaces to the Letters and Papers (reissued as his History of the Reign of Henry VIII.), originated modern admiration for Wolsey; and his views are reflected in Creighton's Wolsey in the "Twelve English Statesmen" series, and in Dr Gairdner's careful articles in the Dict.
In 1528, and was one of the Cambridge scholars whom Wolsey wished to transplant to his newly founded Cardinal College at Oxford.
And Wolsey to watch the English ports.
Like Wolsey he identified himself with the military aspirations of his sovereign.
Of several interesting mansions in the vicinity one, the Great House, belonged to Cardinal Wolsey, and a former Pengelly House was the residence of Richard Cromwell the Protector after his resignation.
A man of strict and simple life, he did not hesitate at the legatine synod of 1517 to censure the clergy, in the presence of the brilliant Wolsey himself, for their greed of gain and love of display; and in the convocation of 1523 he freely opposed the cardinal's demand for a subsidy for the war in Flanders.
Thomas Wolsey, 1514-1530.
Of the mansion-house founded by William of Waynflete, bishop of Winchester (c. 1450), in which Cardinal Wolsey resided for three or four weeks after his sudden fall from power in 1529, only the gatehouse remains.
In 1515 Wolsey sent him to urge the Swiss to attack France, and in 1519 he went to Germany to discuss with the electors the impending election to the imperial throne.
He was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, and in 1521 he went to Venice with the object of winning the support of the republic for Wolsey, who was anxious at this time to become pope.
St Peter's church, a Perpendicular building, is said to have been the scene of the ordination of Cardinal Wolsey in 1498.
In May 1521 Wolsey attended a pompous burning of Lutheran tracts in St Paul's churchyard, where Bishop Fisher preached ardently against the new German heresy.
With the hope of obtaining a divorce from Catherine, the reluctance of the pope to impeach the dispensation of his predecessor Julius II., and at the same time to alienate the English queen's nephew Charles V., the futile policy of Wolsey and his final ruin in 1529 are described elsewhere (see English History; HENRY VIII.; Catherine Of Aragon).
Henry's next move was to bring a monstrous charge against the clergy, accusing them of having violated the ancient laws of praemunire in submitting to the authority of papal legates (although he himself had ratified the appoint m ent of Wolsey as legate a latere).
The first two volumes of his History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada appeared in 1856, and the work was completed in 1870.
His powerful friends, the pope, Wolsey, Henry VIII., the emperor, called upon him to declare against Luther.
In 1526, he was brought before the vice-chancellor for preaching a heterodox sermon, and was subsequently examined by Wolsey and four other bishops.