The German story makes its appearance in the last stanzas of Wolfram von Eschenbach's Paazival, where it is related how Parzival's son, Loherangrin,' was sent from the castle of the Grail to the help of the young duchess of Brabant.
Wolfram (tungstate of iron and manganese) occurs in some of the states, notably in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland.
This last-named legend introduces the incidental poem of " Loherangrin," and so led Wagner to the study of Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival and Titurel, with great results later on.
Wagner's next and last work was Parsifal, based upon the legend of the Holy Grail, as set forth, not in the legend of the Morte d'Arthur, but in the versions of Chrestien de Troyes and Wolfram von Eschenbach and other less-known works.
The minnesinger Wolfram von Eschenbach based his Willehalm on a French original which must have differed from the versions we have.
Wolfram von Eschenbach even mentions the tombs which studded the field of battle.
Throughout the world, primary deposits of tinstone are in or closely connected with granite or acid eruptive rocks of the same type, its mineral associates being tourmaline, fluorspar, topaz, wolfram and arsenical pyrites, and the invariable gangue being quartz: the only exception to this mode of occurrence is to be found in Bolivia, where the tin ore occurs intimately associated with silver ores, bismuth ores and various sulphides, whilst the gangue includes barytes and certain carbonates.
These singers, who, for the most part, belonged to the artisan and trading classes of the German towns, regarded as their masters and the founders of their gild twelve poets of the Middle High German period, among whom were Wolfram von Eschenbach, Konrad von Wurzburg, Reinmar von Zweter and Frauenlob.
Within these limits are to be found most of the minerals known - gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, wolfram, bismuth, thorium, vanadium; mica, coal, &c. On or near the coast are coal, salt, sulphur, borax, nitrates and petroleum.
The German poet, Wolfram von Eschenbach, whose Parzival in parts closely agrees with the Perceval and who was long held to be a mere translator of Chretien, differs widely in the setting of his story.
Finally, he reproaches Chretien with having told the story amiss, whereas Kiot, the Provençal, whose version Wolfram was following, had told it aright from beginning to end.
The immediate source of this version is the poem of Wolfram von Eschenbach, though the Grail, of course, is represented in the form of the Christian relic, not as the jewel talisman of the Parzival; but the psychological reading of the hero's character, the distinctive note of von Eschenbach's version, has been adapted by Wagner with marvellous skill, and his picture of the hero's mental and spiritual development, from extreme simplicity to the wisdom born of perfect charity, is most striking and impressive.
The Chastel Merveilleus adventure, related at length by Chretien and Wolfram is undoubtedly such an "other-world" story.
Gottfried is a far greater master of style than Wolfram von Eschenbach, and his treatment of some of the episodes, notably the sojourn in the woods, is most exquisite.
- The most elaborate table of hyperbolic logarithms that exists is due to Wolfram, a Dutch lieutenant of artillery.
Six logarithms omitted in Schulze's work, and which Wolfram had been prevented from computing by a serious illness, were published subsequently, and the table as given by Vega is complete.
TUNGSTEN [[[symbol]] W, atomic weight 184 o (0=16)], a metallic chemical element found in the minerals wolfram, an iron and manganese tungstate, scheelite, a calcium tungstate, stolzite, a lead tungstate, and in some rarer minerals.
Its presence in scheelite was detected by Scheele and Bergman in 1781, and in 1783 Juan, Jose and d'Elhuyar showed the same substance occurred in wolfram; they also obtained the metal.
Tungsten may be prepared from wolfram by heating the powdered ore with sodium carbonate, extracting the sodium carbonate with water, filtering and adding an acid to precipitate tungstic acid, H 2 W0 4.
This salt is obtained by roasting wolfram with sodium carbonate, lixiviating, neutralizing the boiling filtrate with hydrochloric acid and crystallizing at ordinary temperatures.
Many salts also occur in the mineral kingdom: for example, scheelite is CaWO 4, stolzite is PbWO 4, farberite is FeWO 4, wolfram is (Fe,Mn)WO 4, whilst hi bnerite is MnW04.
The figures for the more important minerals are as follows: Gold ore, manganese ore and uranium ore are produced in small quantities, and the list of minerals worked in the United Kingdom also includes chalk, lead, alum, phosphate of lime, chert and flint, gravel and sand, zinc ore, gypsum, arsenic, copper, barytes, wolfram and strontium sulphate.
Lead, wolfram, antimony and auriferous quartz exist in the districts of Coimbra, Evora, Beja and Faro.
In the Parzival of Wolfram von Eschenbach, the ultimate source of which is identical with that of Chretien, on the contrary, the Grail is represented as a precious stone, brought to earth by angels, and committed to the guardianship of the Grail king and his descendants.
Parzival, by Wolfram von Eschenbach, has been frequently and well edited; the edition by Bartsch (1875-1877), in Deutsche Classiker des Mittelalters, contains full notes and a glossary.
A website called Wolfram Alpha is amazing to me, especially in its aspirations.