It is built on the Witwatersrand at an elevation of 57 0 9 ft.
A group of highly inclined quartzites, altered conglomerates and jasperoid rocks which crop out on the Umhlatuzi river, between Melmoth and Nkandhla and on the White Umfolosi river above Ulundi Ph ins, is considered by Anderson to represent some portion of the Lover Witwatersrand series.
This edge is marked by ranges of hills such as the Witwatersrand, Witwatersberg and Magaliesberg; the Witwatersrand, which extends eastward to Johannesburg, forming the watershed between the rivers flowing to the Atlantic and Indian Ocean.
Ac cording to Molengraaff it includes the two following series: - An upper group including the auriferous conglomerates of the Rand: Witwatersrand Series.
Their chief occurrences are in the districts of Witwatersrand, Heidelberg, Klerksdorp and Venterskroon.
No fossils have been discovered, and except that they represent some portion or portions of rocks of the Pre-Cape formation the age of the upper Witwatersrand beds, as well as that of the lower division, remains an open question.
This system rests unconformably on the Witwatersrand series and is unconformably overlain by the Transvaal system.
In the Witwatersrand area to 5000 ft.
In the Marico district the shales become highly ferruginous and resemble the Hospital Hill slates of the Witwatersrand series.
The Dutch, as their usual designation, Boers, implies, are mainly farmers and stock-raisers and are still predominant elsewhere than in the Witwatersrand and Pretoria districts.
The total white population in the Witwatersrand and in Pretoria in 1904 was 135,135, and the strength of the British in these districts is shown by the fact that only 20% was Transvaal born.
Besides the tribes whose home is in the Transvaal considerable numbers of natives, chiefly members of east coast tribes, Cape Kaffirs and Zulus, go to the Witwatersrand to work in the gold and other mines.
They were nearly all domiciled in the Witwatersrand and in the towns of Pretoria and Barberton, where they are engaged mainly in trade.
The central regions are divided into the districts of Witwatersrand, 16J3 sq.
Other towns within the Witwatersrand district are Germiston (29,477), Boksburg (14757) and Roodepoort-Maraisburg (19,949), virtually suburbs of Johannesburg, and Krugersdorp (20,073) and Springs (5270), respectively at the western and east ends of the district.
Besides Pretoria and the towns in the Witwatersrand district, there are few urban centres of any size.
The principal gold-bearing reefs are found along the Witwatersrand (" The Rand ").
The chief method employed for their destruction is spraying the swarms with arsenic. The districts with the greatest area under cultivation are Heidelberg, Witwatersrand, Pretoria, Standerton and Krugersdorp. The chief crops grown for grain are wheat, maize (mealie) and kaffir corn, but the harvest is inadequate to meet local demands.
The Witwatersrand municipalities are for certain purposes combined into one authority, and representatives of these municipalities, together with representatives of the chamber of mines, compose the Rand water board.
A local division of the Supreme Court, formerly known as the Witwatersrand high court (consisting of one or more judges of the Supreme Court) sits permanently at Johannesburg and has civil and criminal jurisdiction throughout the Rand.
Rickard, The Sampling and Estimation of Ore in a Mine (New York, 1904); Truscott, The Witwatersrand Goldfields - Banket and Mining Practice (London, 1898; G.
It is built on the southern slopes of the Witwatersrand in 26° 11' S.
The offices of the Witwatersrand chamber of mines face the market buildings.
Johannesburg owes its existence to the discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand reefs.
By far the most important addition to the Australasian product has come fromWestAustralia,which began its production in 1887 - about the time of the inception of mining at Witwatersrand ("the Rand") in South Africa-and by continuous increase, which assumed large proportions towards the close of the 19th century, was £6,426,000 in 1899, £6,179,000 in 1900, and L8,212,000 in 1905.
Undoubtedly the greatest of the gold discoveries made in the latter half of the 19th century was that of the Witwatersrand district in the Transvaal.
On such a basis they arrived at more than £600,000,000 as the available gold contained in the Witwatersrand conglomerates.
Deposits similar to the Witwatersrand banket occur in Zululand, and also on the Gold Coast of Africa.
In the Witwatersrand the ore, which contains about 9 dwts.
Eissler, Cyanide Process for the Extraction of Gold, which pays particular attention to the Witwatersrand methods; Alfred James, Cyanide Practice; H.
In Ankole and Koki rocks consisting of granular quartzite, schistose sandstone, red and brown sandstone, and shales with cleaved killas rest on the Archean platform and possibly represent the Lower Witwatersrand beds of the Transvaal.
At Vredefort there is a granitic boss, belonging to the Swaziland series, regarded as being an intrusive in the overlying Witwatersrand series by G.
This boss is bounded, except on the south, by the Witwatersrand series, the lower portion of which consists of quartzites and slates and the upper portion of quartzites and conglomerates.
At Hoopstad and at Stinkhoutboom the Witwatersrand series is unconformably overlain by 500 ft.
Above the sea, in the heart of the Witwatersrand gold-mining district, and is an important railway junction.
In the neighbourhood are gold-mines, the reef appearing to form the western boundary of the Witwatersrand basin.
The Witwatersrand series of the Transvaal includes auriferous conglomerates which have been worked since 1886 and constitute the richest gold-mines in the world.
The opening up of the diamond mines at Kimberley (1870) followed (1886) by the discovery of the Witwatersrand goldfields completely revolutionized the economic situation and profoundly modified the history of the country.
By 1886, the year in which Johannesburg was founded, the wealth of the Witwatersrand fields was demonstrated.
Truscott, The Witwatersrand Goldfields (2nd ed., 1902); A.
It is the headquarters of the Witwatersrand coal mining industry.
The staple exports are diamonds, gold (from the Witwatersrand mines), wool, copper ore, ostrich feathers, mohair, hides and skins.
8 a figure until the development of the Witwatersrand gold mines.