1 50o), the Dominican inquisitor of Cologne, who with Heinrich Kramer (institor) published M alleus maleficarum or Hexenhammer, the standard textbook on witchcraft, especially in Germany.
The book gives (1) evidences of witchcraft; (2) rules for discovering it; (3) proceedings for punishment.
The great blot on his memory is his cruelty, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, soothsaying or magical practices.
Again imprisoned, this time on a charge of witchcraft, he escaped from captivity in 1 59 1, and was deprived by parliament of his lands and titles; as an outlaw his career was one of extraordinary lawlessness.
But these beliefs are far from being confined to the uncivilized; Greek philosophers like Porphyry, no less than the fathers of the Church, held that the world was pervaded with spirits; side by side with the belief in witchcraft, we can trace through the middle ages the survival of primitive animistic views; and in our own day even these beliefs subsist in unsuspected vigour among the peasantry of the more uneducated European countries.
The familiar, who is sometimes replaced by the devil, commonly figured in witchcraft trials; and a statute of James I.
Set forth the doctrine of lecherous demons as an indisputable fact; and in the history of the Inquisition and of trials for witchcraft may be found the confessions of many who bore witness to their reality.
The chief features of this epoch -the Antinomian dissensions, the Quaker and Baptist persecutions, the witchcraft delusion (four witches were executed in Boston, in 1648, 165r, 1656, 1688) &c.-are referred to in the article Massachusetts.
Under the general law against heresy their books were burnt by the hangman, they were searched for signs of witchcraft, they were imprisoned for five weeks and then sent away.
In native cases the chiefs have civil jurisdiction in disputes among their own tribesmen and criminal jurisdiction over natives except in capital cases, offences against the person or property of non-natives, pretended witchcraft, cases arising out of marriages by Christian rites, &c. An appeal lies to a magistrates' court from every judgment of a native chief, and from the magistrates' judgment on such appeal to a native high court.
With all his breadth and liberality of mind Bodin was a credulous believer in witchcraft, the virtues of numbers and the power of the stars, and in 1580 he published the Demonomanie des sorciers, a work which shows that he was not exempt from the prejudices of the age.
A fantastic and elaborate doctrine of symbolism existed which comprised all nature; witchcraft, alchemy and medicine were its practical expressions.
Under the influence of the touchstone of strict inquiry set on foot by the Royal Society, the marvels of witchcraft, sympathetic powders and other relics of medieval superstition disappeared like a mist before the sun, whilst accurate observations and demonstrations of a host of new wonders accumulated, amongst which were numerous contributions to the anatomy of animals, and none perhaps more noteworthy than the observations, made by the aid of microscopes constructed by himself, of Leeuwenhoek, the Dutch naturalist (1683), some of whose instruments were presented by him to the society.
Having been thrown into prison by her father, who was afraid of being injured by her witchcraft, she escaped by means of her art and fled to the temple of Helios the Sun-god, her reputed grandfather.
To the beginning of the 13th century the popular superstitions regarding sorcery, witchcraft and compacts with the devil were condemned by the ecclesiastical authorities as heathenish, sinful and heretical.
While the Franciscans rejected the belief in witchcraft, the Dominicans were most zealous in persecuting witches.
Not till 1736 were the statutes against witchcraft repealed; an act which the Associate Presbytery at Edinburgh in 1743 declared to be" contrary to the express law of God, for which a holy God may be provoked in a way of righteous judgment."The recognition and condemnation of errors in religious belief is by no means confined to the Christian Church.
Although punishment by whipping and by standing in the pillory was prohibited by an act of Congress in 1839, in so far as the Federal government had jurisdiction, both these forms of punishment were retained in Delaware, and standing in the pillory was prescribed by statute as a punishment for a number of offences, including various kinds of larceny and forgery, highway robbery, and even pretending " to exercise the art of witchcraft, fortune-telling or dealing with spirits," at least until 1893.
A witchcraft scare (at its worst in 1691-1697, though the earliest Connecticut case was in1646-1647and the earliest in Boston in 1648) led to another tragedy of ignorance.
Poole, about a thousandth part of those executed for witchcraft in the British Isles in the 16th and 17th centuries).
Upham, Witchcraft in Salem (2 vols., Boston, 1867); S.
He took refuge in St Andrews Castle, where " a wise woman," Alison Pearson, who was ultimately burned for witchcraft, cured him of a serious illness.
Island Magee had, besides antiquarian remains, a notoriety as a home of witchcraft, and was the scene of an act of reprisal for the muchdisputed massacre of Protestants about 1641, by the soldiery of Carrickfergus.
The mullahs or priests enjoy very great influence, but the people are very superstitious, believing in witchcraft, omens, spirits and the evil eye.
For such offences as witchcraft, fraud, removing landmarks, and adultery the criminal had his heart cut out on the altar, or his head crushed between two stones, while even lesser punishments were harsh, such as that of slanderers, whose hair was singed with a pine-torch to the scalp.
In May 1692 during the witchcraft delusion, on the accusation of some personal enemies in his former congregation who had sued him for debt, Burroughs was arrested and charged, among other offences, with "extraordinary Lifting and such feats of strength as could not be done without Diabolicall Assistance."
After the adoption of Christianity, and possibly to a certain extent even before, such persons came to be regarded with disfavour - whence the persecutions for witchcraft - but it is clear from Tacitus's works and other sources that their influence in early times must have been very great.
Concerning witchcraft (Dec. 5, 1484) has brought upon him many attacks.
Xvii.); though apparently now confined solely to purposes of witchcraft, it perhaps contains survivals of a former extensive system superseded by the alphabetic writing introduced from India.
The Bechuanas and all Kaffir tribes believe that death, even at an advanced age, if not from hunger or violence, is due to witchcraft, and blood is required to expiate or avenge it.
The history of witchcraft in Europe and its attendant horrors, so vividly painted in Lecky's Rise of Rationalism, are but echoes of this universal refusal of savage man to accept death as the natural end of life.
Andover was a prominent centre in the witchcraft trials of 1692.
The Corwin or "Witch" house, so called from a tradition that Jonathan Corwin, one of the judges in the witchcraft trials, held preliminary examinations of witches here, is said to have been the property of Roger Williams. The Pickering house, built before 1660, was the homestead of Timothy Pickering and of other members of that family.
On a bluff projecting into South river is the old "Burying Point," set apart in 1637, and the oldest cemetery in the city; its oldest stone is dated 1673; here are buried Governor Simon Bradstreet, Chief-Justice Benjamin Lynde (1666-1745) and Judge John Hathorne (1641-1717) of the witchcraft court.
The witchcraft delusion of 1692 centred about Salem Village, now in the township of Danvers, but then a part of Salem.
All these trials were conducted in accordance with the English law of the time; there had been an execution for witchcraft at Charlestown in 1648; there was a case in Boston in 1655; in 1680 a woman of Newbury was condemned to death for witchcraft but was reprieved by Governor Simon Bradstreet; in England and Scotland there were many executions long after the Salem delusion died out.
Sir Walter Scott mentions a belief in the banshee as existing in the highlands of Scotland (Demonology and Witchcraft, p. 351).
URBAN GRANDIER (1590-1634), priest of the church of Sainte Croix at Loudun in the department of Vienne, France, was accused of witchcraft in 1632 by some hysterical novices of the Carmelite Convent, where the trial, protracted for two years, was held.
But to these were quickly added subjects of allegory, of classical learning, of witchcraft and superstition and of daily life; scenes of the parlour and the cloister, of the shop, the field, the market and the camp; and lastly portraits of famous men, with scenes of court life and princely pageant and ceremony.
Mar was arrested on a charge of magic, and died, whether murdered or from natural causes is uncertain, while his accomplices are said to have been the protomartyrs of witchcraft, scarcely heard of in Scotland till the reformers began to burn old women.
The latinized form of the Greek word was corrupted into nigromantia, connecting the word with niger, black, and so was applied to the "black art," "black magic," in the sense of witchcraft, sorcery.
He had much to do with the witchcraft persecution of his day; in 1692 when the magistrates appealed to the Boston clergy for advice in regard to the witchcraft cases in Salem he drafted their reply, upon which the prosecutions were based; in 1689 he had written Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcraft and Possessions, and even his earlier diaries have many entries showing his belief in diabolical possession and his fear and hatred of it.
He attended the trials, investigated many of the cases himself, and wrote sermons on witchcraft, the Memorable Providences and The Wonders of the Invisible World (1693), which increased the excitement of the people.
Autos-da fe were rare events; their victims were not as a rule serious thinkers, but persons accused of sorcery or Judaizing, nor were they more numerous than the victims of the English laws relating to witchcraft and heresy.
Like the most learned men of his time he was superstitious and a firm believer in "praesagious impressions"; his Essay for the Recording of Illustrious Providences: Wherein an Account is Given of many Remarkable and very Memorable Events which have Hapned in this Last Age, Especially in New England (1684) shows that he believed only less thoroughly than his son in witchcraft, though in his Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits (1693) he considered some current proofs of witchcraft inadequate.
The revulsion of feeling after the witchcraft delusion undermined his authority greatly, and Robert's Calef's More Wonders of the Spiritual World (1700) was a personal blow to him as well as to his son.
As in India, after the expulsion of Buddhism, the degrading worship of Siva and his dusky bride had been incorporated into Hinduism from the savage devil worship of Aryan and of non-Aryan tribes, so, as pure Buddhism died away in the north, the Tantra system, a mixture of magic and witchcraft and sorcery, was incorporated into the corrupted Buddhism.
While hoping for a better fate in their next birth, the poor turned for succour and advice in this to the aid of astrology, witchcraft and animism - a belief in which seems to underlie all 1 Note on the Date of the Buddha.
He is chargeable, however, with the condemnation and execution of two poor women tried before him for witchcraft in 1664, a kind of judicial murder then falling under disuse.
He denounced the trial by ordeal of fire and water, the belief in witchcraft, and the ascription of tempests to magic,maintained the Carolingian opposition to image-worship, but carried his logic farther and opposed the adoration of the saints.