Willows are trees or shrubs, varying in stature from a few inches, like the small British S.
Approved varieties of willows cost from 5s.
Along the upper courses of the rivers are willows and wild olive trees; round the chief settlements the eucalyptus and the pine have been planted.
Alba, is used for paper pulp. As ornamental trees some willows also take a high rank.
The willows in the Arctic drainage basin shrink to shrubs scarcely knee-high.
Since 1731 it has been composed of the two towns of Clermont and Montferrand, now connected by a fine avenue of walnut trees and willows, 2 m.
The leaves are broader than in most willows, and are generally either deltoid or ovate in shape, often cordate at the base, and frequently with slender petioles vertically flattened.
The poplars are almost entirely confined to the north temperate zone, but a few approach or even pass its northern limit, and they are widely distributed within that area; they show, like the willows, a partiality for moist ground and often line the river-sides in otherwise treeless districts.
The moist soil encourages luxuriant thickets of willows (Salicineae), surrounded by dense chevaux-de-frise of wormwood and thornbearing Compositae, and interspersed with rich but not extensive prairies, harbouring a great variety of herbaceous plants; while in the deltas of the Black Sea rivers impenetrable beds of reeds (Arundo phragmites) shelter a forest fauna.
The Australian Eucalyptus and Casuarina in great variety, and many other imported trees, including syringas, wattles, acacias, willows, pines, cypress, cork and oak all thrive when properly planted and protected from grass fires.
Built in a hollow surrounded by hills, the aspect of the town with the river flowing through it and its broad streets lined with willows is picturesque.
A great mass of pale-green foliage is usually composed of the algarrobo trees, while the course of the river is marked by lines or groups of palms, by fine old willows (Salix humboldtiana), fruit-gardens, and fields of cotton, Indian corn, sugar-cane and alfalfa (lucerne).
Dr Buchanan White, who made a special study of the British willows, grouped them under 17 species with numerous varieties and hybrids.
The larvae of several nocturnal Lepidoptera feed upon the leaves of the willows, and the trunk of the sallow is often injured by the perforations of the lunar hornet sphinx (Trochilium crabroniforme).
The materials made use of are driftwood, green willows, birch and poplars; also mud and stones intermixed in such a manner as contributes to the strength of the dam; but there is no particular method observed, except that the work is carried on with a regular sweep, and that all the parts are made of equal strength.
Timber trees are almost confined to the river valleys, where willows, yellow wood, iron wood, red wood, mimosas and, in deep gorges, the wild fig are found.
Most of the bluffs along the principal river valleys, especially those in the south-east, are entirely bare of vegetation, but on the bottom lands along the rivers and streams considerable patches of cottonwood and willows are common.
It is commonly supposed that osiers or willows will prove remunerative and flourish with little attention on any poor, wet, marshy soil.
For the successful raising of the finer sorts of willows good, well-drained, loamy upland soil is desirable, which before planting should be deeply trenched and cleared of weeds.
Krabe of Prummern near Aachen, the most scientific and practical of German cultivators, the results of whose experiments have been published in his admirable Lehrbuch der rationellen Weidenkultur (Aix-la-Chapelle, 1886, et seq.) went so far as to assert that willows prefer a dry to a wet soil.
Soc. Arts, 1801, xix., 75) stated that all kinds of willows invariably throve best on the driest spots of some wet land planted by him.
Krabe found that in addition to loam, willows did well on dry ferrugineous, sandy ground with a good top soil of about 6 in.
The willows are cut at the first indication of the sap rising and "couched" in rotten peelings and soil at a slight angle, the butts being on the ground, which should be strewn with damp straw from a manure heap. The tops are covered lightly with rotted peelings and by periodical application of water, fermentation is induced at the bottom, heat is engendered, the leaves force their way through the covering and peeling may begin.
Osiers or willows when tied for market vary locally in girth.
The cost of planting an acre of fine willows varies greatly; it was estimated by R.
When a line of willows indicates the whereabouts of a brook, the horse should be well collected, a clear place selected, so far as circumstances allow, and the pace increased, though in short strides, up to the very brink.
Pines of three species, junipers, larches, oaks, maples, willows and the Thuja Orientalis have been identified.
Among trees, stunted pines, dwarf oaks, poplars, willows and the cypress are fairly plentiful.
Three species of rhododendron vie with each other in the brilliancy of their masses of red or pink flowers; the common juniper rises higher still, along with three species of bilberry; and several dwarf willows attain nearly to the utmost limit of vegetation.
The occurrence of hybrids in nature explains the difficulty experienced by botanists in deciding on what is a species, and the widely different limitations of the term adopted by different observers in the case of willows, roses, brambles, &c. The artificial process is practically the same in hybridization as in cross-fertilization, but usually requires more care.
The western division consists of low fen or clay soil and presents a monotonous expanse of rich meadow-land, carefully drained in regular lines of canals bordered by stunted willows, and dotted over with windmills, the sails of canal craft and the clumps of elm and poplar which surround each isolated farm-house.
In area, mainly consists of one large marsh covered with reeds, and intersected by channels, relieved in places by isolated elevations covered with oak, beech and willows, many of them marking the ancient coast-line.
Willows are also pretty general, the highest in growth being Salix phyllicifolia, 7 to to ft.
Two species of poplar (P. pruinosa and P. diversifolia), Elaeagnus angustifolia, the ash, and a few willows grow along the rivers.
Oaks, elms, hickory, honey-locusts, white ash, sycamore and willows, the rapid growing but miserable box-elder and cottonwood, are the most common trees.
East of the Cascades the valleys are usually treeless, save for a few willows and cottonwoods in the vicinity of streams. Over the greater part of this region the sage-brush is the most common plant, and by its ubiquity it imparts to the landscape the monotonous greyish tint so characteristic of the arid regions of the western United States.
Willows and cottonwoods grow along streams. The west slope of the Wasatch has been largely denuded of its forests to supply the demands of the towns at its base.
With the exception of some stunted willows the islands are practically destitute of trees, but are covered with a luxuriant growth of herbage, including grasses, sedges and many flowering plants.
Thickets of alders and willows in wet places and new-made land, aspens and large cottonwoods west of the characteristic spruce area (as on Seward Peninsula), are also common.
Forest patches are found in the kloofs and seaward sides of the mountains; willows often border the watercourses; heaths and bulbous plants are common in some areas.
The streams are fringed with willows; fruit trees and alfalfa fields fill the irrigated valleys, and the lower mountain slopes are better covered with a thorny arborescent growth.
On the plateau willows, poplars and chestnut trees grow near the streams, but nine-tenths of the country is treeless, except for scrub.