SALEM, the capital of Oregon, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Marion county, on the east bank of the Willamette river, 52 m.
The city is in the centre of the Willamette Valley, a rich farming and fruit-growing country.
Salem is the seat of Willamette University (Methodist Episcopal, 1844), an outgrowth of the mission work of the Methodist Episcopal church begun in 1834 about 10 m.
Canal) from the Santiam, an affluent of the Willamette river.
The city is a market for the produce of the Willamette Valley.
Of its confluence with the Willamette, and 8 m.
By the Willamette Valley, a region about 200 m.
The Calapooya Mountains, forming the water-parting between the Willamette and the Umpqua rivers, are a lateral spur of the Cascades, and extend westward as far as the Coast Range.
The Willamette river, W.
From the coast to the eastern base of the Cascade Mountains the state is heavily timbered, except in small prairies and clearings in the Willamette and other valleys, and the most important tree is the great Douglas fir, pine or spruce (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), commonly called Oregon pine, which sometimes grows to a height of 300 ft., and which was formerly in great demand for masts and spars of sailing-vessels and for bridge timbers; the Douglas fir grows more commercial timber to the acre than any other American variety, and constitutes about five-sevenths of the total stand of the state.
In the Willamette Valley the soils are mostly clay loams, of a basaltic nature on the foothills and greatly enriched in the river bottom lands by washings from the hills and by deposits of rich black humus.
The dairy business is a promising industry in the farming regions, especially in the Willamette Valley.
The cultivation of hops was begun in Oregon about 1850; the soil and climate of the Willamette Valley were found to be exceedingly favourable to their growth, and the product increased to 20,500,000 lb in 1905, when the state ranked first in the Union in this industry.
Up the Willamette river, is a channel which in 1909 was navigable (20-22 ft.
From the mouth of the Willamette river vessels of light draft ascend the Columbia (passing the Cascade Falls through a lock canal, which was opened in 1896 and has a depth of 8 ft., a width of 92 ft.
The Willamette river is navigable to Harrisburg, 152 m.
The beginning of railway building in Oregon was delayed a few years by a contest between parties desiring a line on the east side of the Willamette river and parties desiring one on the west side.
The principal railways are: that of the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company (controlled by the Union Pacific), which crosses the north-eastern corner of the state and then runs along the bank of the Columbia river to Portland; three lines of the Southern Pacific in the Willamette Valley, the main line connecting Portland with San Francisco; the Astoria & Columbia River, connecting Portland and Astoria; the Coos Bay, Roseburg & Eastern Railroad & Navigation Company (owned by the Southern Pacific), connecting Coos Bay with one of the Southern Pacific lines; and the Corvallis & Eastern (owned by the Southern Pacific), connecting Yaquina Bay with all three lines of the Southern Pacific. Throughout the Cascade Mountain Region and the great semi-arid region east of those mountains, which together embrace more than two-thirds of the state's area, there is not a railway.
There are four customs districts: southern Oregon, with Coos Bay as the port of entry; Willamette, with Portland as the port of entry; Oregon, with Astoria as the port of_entry; and Yaquina, at the mouth of the Yaquina river.
Philomath College (United Brethren, 1866), at Philomath; and Willamette University (Methodist Episcopal, 1844), at Salem.
In 1811 the Pacific Fur Company, a kind of western division of the American Fur Company, founded a trading post at the mouth of the Columbia which they called Astoria, and set up a number of minor posts on the Willamette, Spokane and Okanogan rivers.
1845) and his nephew, Daniel Lee, went to Oregon as Methodist missionaries, and with McLoughlin's assistance they established missions in the Willamette valley.