For this reason some of the strong Canadian wheats have commanded in the home market 5s.
Spring wheats procured from northern latitudes mature more rapidly than those from temperate or hot climates, whilst the reverse is the case with autumn wheats from the same source.
Autumn wheats, on the other hand, are subjected to an enforced rest for a period of several months, and even when grown in milder climates remain quiescent for a longer period, and start into growth later in spring - much later than varieties of southern origin.
Wheats of dry countries and of those exposed to severe winds have, says De Vilmorin, narrow leaves, pliant straw, bearded ears, and velvety chaff - characteristics which enable them to resist wind and drought.
Wheats of moist climates, on the other hand, have broader leaves, to admit of more rapid transpiration.
At any rate, it is certain that, as a general rule, the hard wheats are almost exclusively cultivated in hot, dry countries, the spelt wheats in mountainous districts and on poor soil, turgid (durum forms) and common wheats in plains or in valleys - the best races of wheat being found on rich alluvial plains and in fertile valleys.
Classit9ca The classification adopted by Henry de Vilmorin in his - Les Bles meilleurs (Paris, 1881) is based, in the first instance, on the nature of the ear: when mature its axis or stem remains unbroken, as in the true wheats, or it breaks into a number of joints, as in the spelt wheats.
The true wheats are further subdivided into?;?
L i: common wheats (T.
4,41 421 f gare), turgid wheats (T.
Y ?` turgidum), hard wheats (T.
?yhJ durum) and Polish wheats (T.
In the common wheats the chaffscales are boat-shaped, ovoid, of the consistence of parchment, and shorter than the spikelet; the seed is usually floury, opaque, white, and easily broken.
In the turgid wheats the glumes have long awns, and the seed is turgid and floury, as in the common wheats.
In the hard wheats the outer glumes are keeled, sharply pointed, awned, and the seed is elongated and of hard glassy texture, somewhat translucent, and difficult to FIG.
In nitrogen than the com B, Cells containing aleuron or gluten mon and turgid wheats, so grains.
Further subdivisions are made, according to the presence or absence of awns (bearded and beardless wheats), the colour of the ears (white, fawncoloured or red), the texture of the ears (glabrous - i.e.
In the jointed or spelt wheats the distinctions lie in the presence of awns, the direction of the points of the glumes (straight, bent outwards, or turned inwards), the form of the ear as revealed on a cross-section, and the entire or cleft palea.
In the summer wheats it may often be observed that the median florets do not fill out so fully as in the autumn wheats.
Among the turgid wheats there is a frequent tendency in the spike to branch or become compound - a tendency which is manifested to a less degree in other forms. The Egyptian, or so-called "mummy" wheat is of this character, the lower part of the spike branching out into several subdivisions.
Porion and Deherain have shown 1 the "infinite superiority" in yield over the ordinary wheats of a particular square-headed variety grown on rich soil in the north of France.
The requirements of the consumer have also to be considered: for some purposes the soft floury wheats, with their large relative proportion of starch, are the best, for others the harder wheats, with their larger quantity of gluten.
With the modern processes of milling, the harder wheats are preferred, for they make the best flour for bakers' use; and in North America the spring wheats are, as a rule, harder than the winter wheats.
The durum (wheats are specially employed in Italy for the fabrication of macaroni.
Spelt wheats are grown in the colder mountainous districts of Europe; their flour is very fine, and is used especially for pastrymaking.
By continuously and systematically selecting the best grains from the best ears, Major Hallett succeeded in introducing "pedigree wheats" of fine quality.
In the progeny of these crossed wheats, especially in the second generation, much variation and difference of character is observable - a phenomenon commonly noticed in the descendants from crosses and hybrids, and styled by Naudin "irregular variation."
Sometimes characteristics appear in the crossed wheats which are not found in the parent varieties, although they occur in other wheats.
Thus, De Vilmorin records the presence of turgid wheats among seedlings raised from a common wheat fertilized with the pollen of a hard variety, and spelt wheats among the descendants of a common crossed with a turgid wheat.