Honolulu's safe harbour, discovered in 1794, made it a place of resort for vessels (especially whalers) and traders from the beginning of the 19th century.
This was added to by later explorers and by whalers and sealers.
It was visited by whalers, chiefly Dutch, but nothing in the form of permanent European settlements was established until the year 1721, when the first missionary, the Norwegian clergyman Hans Egede, landed, and established a settlement near Godthaab.
Here and there in the Arctic province remains of old village sites have been examined, and collections brought away by whalers and exploring expeditions.
After him came other navigators, French, Spanish, Russian and American; and, as the 8th century neared its end, came sealers, whalers and trading-schooners in quest of flax and timber.
Her father, William Mitchell (1791-1869), .was a school teacher and self-taught astronomer, who rated chronometers for Nantucket whalers, was an overseer of Harvard University (1857-1865), and for a time was employed by the United States Coast Survey.
The island is not permanently inhabited, but has been frequently visited by explorers, sealers and whalers; and an Austrian station for scientific observations was maintained here for a year in 1882-1883.
The "Shenandoah" was burning Union whalers in the Bering Sea when the war came to an end.
Whalers, sealers and traders followed in the wake of explorers, the traders dealing chiefly in copra, trepang, pearls, tortoiseshell, &c. The first actual settlers in the islands were largely men of bad character - deserting sailors, escapers from the penal settlements in Australia and others.
Cattle and sheep are bred, and a trade is carried on in them with the whalers which visit these seas.
In 1783 several Edgartown families joined the association made up of Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Providence and Newport whalers, who founded Hudson, on the Hudson river, in Columbia county, New York.
Wide, with its outlet Hudson Strait, has long been navigated by trading ships and whalers, and may become a great outlet for the wheat of western Canada, though closed by ice except for four months in the summer.
It is richly wooded, and has a well-sheltered anchorage much frequented by whalers in search of water and fresh provisions.
This industry is carried on in a fleet of more than to,000 small vessels, including the whalers of the Azores and the cod-boats which operate outside Portuguese waters.
The whalers are Norwegians and Americans and their headquarters are at Lobito Bay.
At this time American whalers frequented the neighbouring waters and, in the same year, an American named Lambert " late of Salem, mariner and citizen thereof " and a man named Williams made Tristan their home.
The island was still frequented by American whalers, and in 1856 out of a total population of about loo twenty-five emigrated to the United States.
During Green's " reign " the economic condition of Tristan was considerably affected by the desertion of the neighbouring seas by the whalers; this was largely due to the depredations of the Confederate cruisers " Alabama " and " Shenandoah " during the American Civil War, many whaling boats being captured and burnt by them.
Thus, in 1611 or the following year whalers from Hull named it Trinity Island; in 1612 Jean Vrolicq, a French whaler, called it Ile de Richelieu; and in 1614 Joris Carolus named one of its promontories Jan Meys Hoek after the captain of one of his ships.