Among the schools may be mentioned the magnificently equipped Rhenish-Westphalian Polytechnic School (built 1865-1870) and the school of mining and electricity, founded in 1897.
Of the total importations of all kinds of coal to Hamburg, that of British coal, particularly from Northumberland and Durham, occupies the first place, and despite some falling off in late years, owing to the competition made by Westphalian coal, amounts to more than half the total import.
It is important as the centre of the flourishing cotton-spinning and weaving industries of the Twente district; while by the railway via Gronau and Koesfeld to Dortmund it is in direct communication with the Westphalian coalfields.
Cologne and the Westphalian towns, the most important of which were Dortmund, Soest and Munster, had long controlled this commerce but now began to feel the competition of the active traders of the Baltic, opening up that direct communication by sea from the Baltic to western Europe which became the essential feature in the history of the League.
In 1293 the Saxon and Wendish merchants at Rostock decided that all appeals from Novgorod be taken to Lubeck instead of to Wisby, and six years later the Wendish and Westphalian towns, meeting at Lubeck, ordered that the Gothland association should no longer use a common seal.
As a consequence of the close commercial relations early existing between England and the Rhenish-Westphalian towns, the merchants of Cologne were the first to possess a gildhall in London and to form a "hansa" with the right of admitting other German merchants on payment of a fee.
The importance and independence of the German trading settlements abroad was exemplified in the statutes of the "Company of German merchants at Bruges," drawn up in 1347, where for the first time appears the grouping of towns in three sections (the "Drittel"), the Wendish-Saxon, the Prussian-Westphalian, and those of Gothland and Livland.
Belgium 950 3117 The greatest depth attained in the Westphalian coal is at East Recklinghausen, where there are two shafts 841 metres (2759 ft.) deep.
The Rhenish-Westphalian coalfield was fully described in all details, geological, technical and economic, in a work called Die Entwickelung des niederrheinisch-westfcilischen Steinkohlen Bergbaues in der zweiten Hcilfte des 19 ten Jahrhunderts (also known by the short title of Sammelwerk) in twelve quarto volumes, issued under the auspices of the Westphalian Coal Trade Syndicate (Berlin, 1902-1905).
The Westphalian plain is broken by extensive outcrops of the underlying cretaceous beds, and is not very fertile, except in the Hellweg, a zone between the Haarstrang and the Lippe.
Swine, which are reared in great numbers in the plains, yield the famous Westphalian hams; and the rearing of cattle and goats is important.
The duchy received a constitution of its own, and was governed for the elector by a marshal (Landmarschall, after 1480 Landdrost) who was also stadtholder, and presided over the Westphalian chancellery.
The Westphalian circle which was formed at the same time comprised nearly all the rest of the modern province (including Mark) and the lands north of it between the Weser and the frontier of the Netherlands, also Verden, Schaumburg, Nassau, Wied, Lippe, Berg, Cleves, Julich, Liege, Bouillon and Cambrai.
The elector had signalized his restoration by abolishing with a stroke of the pen all the reforms introduced under the French regime, repudiating the Westphalian debt and declaring null and void the sale of the crown domains.
Bielefeld is the centre of the Westphalian linen industry.
Thus in the Westphalian pig and scrap practice, scrap usually forms 75 or even 80% of the charge, and pig only from 20 to 25%, indeed only enough to supply the carbon inevitably burnt out in melting the charge and heating it up to a proper casting temperature; and here the charge lasts only about 6 hours.
The most important works were the canal from Dortmun.d to the mouth of the Ems, and the Jahde canal from the Ems to the Elbe, which enables Westphalian coal to reach the sea, and so to compete better with English coal.
The Prussian government also planned a great scheme by which the Westphalian coal-fields should be directly connected with the Rhine in one direction and the Elbe in the other by a canal which would join together Minden, Hanover and Magdeburg.
On account of the one portion he became a peer of the Westphalian estates, and by the other a member of the upper house in Hanover.
But the real interest of Dortmund centres in its vast industries, which owe their development to the situation of the town in the centre of the great Westphalian coal basin.
The transit trade from the regions traversed by the Westphalian and Oldenburg railways is considerable.
The principal exports are cattle, horses, cheese, butter, honey, wax, flour, paper, hardware and Westphalian coal.
People of Slav origin being considered unfree, all intermarriage with them tainted the blood; hence nearly all surnames point to Saxon, especially Westphalian, and even Flemish descent.
As a young lieutenant in the Westphalian artillery he was wounded and taken prisoner at the battle of Leipzig (1813), subsequently entered the Hanoverian service, and in 1823 that of Prussia.
In Germany there are the Westphalian Aa, rising in the Teutoburger Wald, and joining the Werre at Herford, the Munster Aa, a tributary of the Ems, and others.
It was the exploits of Oxenstjerna and Baner which alone enabled Sweden to obtain even what she did obtain at the great Westphalian peace congress in 1648.
ERNST WILHELM HENGSTENBERG (1802-1869), German Lutheran divine and theologian, was born at Frondenberg, a Westphalian village, on the 20th of October 1802.
The Nesselrodes were of Westphalian origin, but had long been settled in Livonia.
Of Elberfeld, on the main line to Brunswick and Berlin, and at the junction of important lines of railway, connecting it with the principal towns of the Westphalian iron district.
At the same time, and as part of the same general plan, a canal, the Dortmund-Ems Canal, was dug to connect the river (from Munster) with Herne in the Westphalian coal-field.
It is a seat of silk and cotton industries, and has a large trade in Westphalian hams and sausages.
It is the principal banking centre of the Westphalian coal and iron trade, and the favourite residence of the leading merchants of the lower Rhine.
It lies at the centre of a network of railways giving it access to all the principal towns of the Westphalian iron and coal fields.
The Lower Coal Measures (Westphalian) have an enormously rich flora, embracing most of the types referred to in our systematic description.
Of Dusseldorf, on the main line of railway to Hanover and Berlin, and at the centre of an important network of lines radiating hence into the extensive Westphalian coal and iron fields.