RECKLINGHAUSEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 22 m.
(the "Winter King") was driven from his dominions, the electoral privilege was transferred to Bavaria, and in 1648, by the Peace of Westphalia, an eighth electorate was created for the Wittelsbachs of the Palatinate, and was exercised by the senior branch of the family.
In 1646 she accompanied her husband to Minster, where he was sent by Mazarin as chief envoy, and where she charmed the German diplomatists who were making the treaty of Westphalia, and was addressed as the "goddess of peace and concord."
After the peace of Westphalia Stralsund was ceded with the rest of Western Pomerania to Sweden; and for more than a century and a half it was exposed to attack and capture as the tete - de - pont of the Swedes in continental Europe.
BOCHOLT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, near the frontier of Holland, 12 m.
A variety occurring as thin red scales at Siegen in Westphalia is known as Rubinglimmer or pyrrhosiderite (from Gr.
Though expected to take part in the negotiations which led in 1648 to the peace of Westphalia, he refused to deliberate with heretics, and protested against the treaties when completed.
In 1807 it was joined to Westphalia, in 1816 to Hanover and in 1866 it was, along with Hanover, re-united to Prussia.
Similar brother-houses soon sprang up in different places throughout the Low Countries and Westphalia, and even Saxony.
At the peace of Westphalia they claimed the duchy, in opposition to the elector of Brandenburg, and the result was that the latter was obliged to content himself with eastern Pomerania (Hinterpommern), and to see the western part (Vorpommern) awarded to Sweden.
Even so, Prussia was bereft of half of her territories; those west of the river Elbe went to swell the domains of Napoleon's vassals or to form the new kingdom of Westphalia for Jerome Bonaparte; while the spoils which the House of Hohenzollern had won from Poland in the second and third partitions were now to form the duchy of Warsaw, ruled over by Napoleon's ally, the elector (now king) of Saxony.
His other works are mainly accounts of his travels: Sketches of the Natural, Political and Civil State of Switzerland (London, 1779), Account of the Russian Discoveries between Asia and America (London, 1780), Account of Prisons and Hospitals in Russia, Sweden and Denmark (London, 1781), Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark (London, 1784), Travels in Switzerland (London, 1789), Letter on Secret Tribunals of Westphalia (London, 1796), Historical Tour in Monmouthshire (London, 1801).
JOHANN CLAUBERG (1622-1665), German philosopher, was born at Solingen, in Westphalia, on the 24th of February 1622.
In 1803, having formally surrendered the part of Hesse on the left bank of the Rhine which had been taken from him in the early days of the Revolution, Louis received in return a much larger district which had formerly belonged to the duchy of Westphalia, the electorate of Mainz and the bishopric of Worms. In 1806, being a member of the confederation of the Rhine, he took the title of Louis I., grandduke of Hesse; he supported Napoleon with troops from 1805 to 1813, but after the battle of Leipzig he joined the allies.
Holland, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Westphalia, Brunswick, Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, (German) Silesia, Poland, Kutais, Uralsk, Turkestan, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Tunis, Egypt, West Africa, British Columbia, Alberta, Assiniboia, Athabasca, Manitoba, New Jersey, South Dakota, Washington, Montana, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, California, New Mexico, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mexico, Hayti, Trinidad, Colombia, Argentina [?], New Zealand.
Subsequent attempt,s of the princess to reinstate her son in his dominions were unsuccessful, and it was not till the peace of Westphalia in 1648 that he regained a portion of them,.
BOCHUM, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 11 m.
HATTINGEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the river Ruhr, 21 m.
After the peace of Amiens he had an interview with Napoleon at Paris, and received some territory adjoining the hereditary domains of the house of Nassau in Westphalia as a compensation for the abandonment of the stadtholderate and the domains of his house.
By the peace of Westphalia (1648) it was recognized as an independent ally of the Swiss League.
It came into the possession of Spain, although it remained formally a portion of the Empire until its cession at the peace of Westphalia in 1648.
Sweden, as one of the guarantors of the peace of Westphalia, and several north German states, protested against the injury thus done to their coreligionists.
It was replied that Hungary was outside the operation of the treaty of Westphalia, and that the Protestants had been condemned not ex odio religionis but crimine rebellions.
The lines of the treaty of Westphalia, six years later, were already laid down by Richelieu; and its epochal importance in European history is a measure of the genius who threw the balance of power from Habsburg to Bourbon.
JULIUS WELLHAUSEN (1844-), German biblical scholar and Orientalist, was born at Hameln on the Weser, Westphalia, on the 17th of May 1844.
By the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 an eighth electorate was created for the count palatine, to which was added the office of treasurer.
At the peace of Westphalia in 1648 the Palatinate was restored to Frederick's son, Charles Louis, but it was shorn of the upper Palatinate, which Bavaria retained as the prize of war.
The Thirty Years' War exercised a most prejudicial effect upon the district of the Rhine; and the peace of Westphalia gave France a footing on the left bank of the hitherto exclusively German river by the acquisition of Alsace.
This method originated in the Pennsylvania anthracite mines in 1887, but has been employed in recent years on a large scale in Silesia, Westphalia and other European coalfields.
ALTENA, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the river Lenne, 38 m.
At first the merchant Hansas had shared these privileges with almost any German merchant, and thus many little villages, notably those in Westphalia, ultimately claimed membership. Later, under the Hansa of the towns, the struggle for the maintenance of a coveted position abroad led to a more exclusive policy.
In 1807 it became the capital of the kingdom of Westphalia; in 1813 it was bombarded and captured by the Russian general Chernichev; in 1830, 1831 and 1848 it was the scene of violent commotions; from 1850 to 1851 it was occupied by the Prussians, the Bavarians and the Austrians; in 1866 it was occupied by the Prussians, and in 1867 was made the capital of the newly formed Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau.
In 1180, however, he was placed under the imperial ban and Saxony was broken up. Henry retained Brunswick and Luneburg; Westphalia, as the western portion of the duchy was called, was given to Philip, archbishop of Cologne, and a large part of the land was divided among nine bishops and a number of counts who thus became immediate vassals of the emperor.
When the war was ended by the peace of Westphalia in 1648, Saxony found that its influence had begun to decline in Germany.
The Weser gave name to a department in the short-lived kingdom of Westphalia: the chief town was Osnabruck.
In 1801 the bishopric was secularized and in 1803 was granted to Prussia; in 1807 it was incorporated with the kingdom of Westphalia and in 1813 was transferred to Hanover.
This treaty, which constituted the kingdom of Westphalia and the duchy of Warsaw, registers the nadir of Prussia's humiliation under Napoleon.
He was a director of many of the greatest industrial and mining companies of Westphalia, the Rhineland and Luxemburg.
When he threatened to transfer the kingdom of France to England; or the conduct of those later pontiffs who condemned the treaties of Westphalia, the Austrian constitution of 1867 and the establishment of the kingdom of Italy.
The county of Waldeck, embedded in Prussian territory between the provinces of Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau, and the principality of Pyrmont, farther to the north, between Lippe, Brunswick, Westphalia and Hanover.
One or two important treaties were signed in Hanover, which from 18ro to 1813 was part of the kingdom of Westphalia, and in 1866 was annexed by Prussia, after having been the capital of the kingdom of Hanover since its foundation in 1815.
One of the earliest examples was erected at Llanbradack in South Wales in 1894, and they have been somewhat extensively used in Westphalia and the north of France.